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Behavior change techniques implemented in electronic lifestyle activity monitors: a systematic content analysis.

Elizabeth Lyons, Zakkoyya Lewis, Brian Mayrsohn, Jennifer Rowland

Journal of medical Internet research [16:e192] (2014)

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Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which these interventions could be translated for widespread use. This technology has broad applications for use in clinical, public health, and rehabilitation settings.


Evaluating a community-based walking intervention for hypertensive older people in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

LL Lee, A Arthur, M Avis

Preventive medicine [44:160-6] (2007)

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To study the effect of a community-based walking intervention on blood pressure among older people. The study design was a randomized controlled trial conducted in a rural area of Taiwan between October 2002 and June 2003. A total of 202 participants aged 60 years and over with mild to moderate hypertension was recruited. Participants randomized to the intervention group (n=102) received a six-month community-based walking intervention based on self-efficacy theory. A public health nurse provided both face-to-face and telephone support designed to assist participants to increase their walking. Control group participants (n=100) received usual primary health care. Primary outcome was change in systolic blood pressure and secondary outcomes were exercise self-efficacy, self-reported walking and diastolic blood pressure. At six-month follow-up the mean change in systolic blood pressure was a decrease of 15.4 mmHg and 8.4 mmHg in the intervention and control group, respectively. The difference in mean change between the two groups was -7.0 mmHg (95% CI, -11.5 to -2.5 mmHg, p=0.002). Improvement in exercise self-efficacy scores was greater among intervention group participants (mean difference 1.23, 95% CI, 0.5 to 2.0, p=0.001). Intervention group participants were more likely to report walking more (p<0.0005) but no differences were observed in diastolic blood pressure (p=0.19). Among hypertensive older people, a six-month community-based walking intervention was effective in increasing their exercise self-efficacy and reducing systolic blood pressure.


Vitalum study design: RCT evaluating the efficacy of tailored print communication and telephone motivational interviewing on multiple health behaviors.

Hilde M van Keulen, Ilse Mesters, Johannes Brug, Marlein Ausems, Marci Campbell, Ken Resnicow, Paul Zwietering, Gerard van Breukelen, Willem van Mechelen, Johan Severens, Hein De Vries

BMC public health [8:216] (2008)

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A large proportion of adults fail to meet public health guidelines for physical activity as well as fruit, vegetable and fat intake. Interventions are needed to improve these health behaviors. Both computer tailoring and motivational interviewing have shown themselves to be promising techniques for health behavior change. The Vitalum project aims to compare the efficacy of these techniques in improving the health behaviors of adults aged 45-70. This paper describes the design of the Vitalum study. Dutch general medical practices (N = 23) were recruited via a registration network or by personal invitation. The participants were then enrolled through these general practices using an invitational letter. They (n = 2,881) received a written baseline questionnaire to assess health behaviors, and potential psychosocial and socio-demographic behavioral determinants. A power analysis indicated that 1,600 participants who were failing to meet the guidelines for physical activity and either fruit or vegetable consumption were needed. Eligible participants were stratified based on hypertension status and randomized into one of four intervention groups: tailored print communication, telephone motivational interviewing, combined, and control. The first two groups either received four letters or took part in four interviews, whereas the combined group received two letters and took part in two interviews in turns at 5, 13, 30 and 43 weeks after returning the baseline questionnaire. Each letter and interview focused on physical activity or nutrition behavior. The participants also took part in a telephone survey 25 weeks after baseline to gather new information for tailoring. There were two follow-up questionnaires, at 47 and 73 weeks after baseline, to measure short- and long-term effects. The control group received a tailored letter after the last posttest. The process, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the interventions will be examined by means of multilevel mixed regression, cost-effectiveness analyses and process evaluation. The Vitalum study simultaneously evaluates the efficacy of tailored print communication and telephone motivational interviewing, and their combined use for multiple behaviors and people with different motivational stages and education levels. The results can be used by policymakers to contribute to evidence-based prevention of chronic diseases. Dutch Trial Register NTR1068.


Remotely Delivered Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation: Design and Content Development of a Novel mHealth Platform.

Jonathan Rawstorn, Nicholas Gant, Andrew Meads, Ian Warren, Ralph Maddison

JMIR mHealth and uHealth [4:e57] (2016)

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Participation in traditional center-based cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs (exCR) is limited by accessibility barriers. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies can overcome these barriers while preserving critical attributes of center-based exCR monitoring and coaching, but these opportunities have not yet been capitalized on. We aimed to design and develop an evidence- and theory-based mHealth platform for remote delivery of exCR to any geographical location. An iterative process was used to design and develop an evidence- and theory-based mHealth platform (REMOTE-CR) that provides real-time remote exercise monitoring and coaching, behavior change education, and social support. The REMOTE-CR platform comprises a commercially available smartphone and wearable sensor, custom smartphone and Web-based applications (apps), and a custom middleware. The platform allows exCR specialists to monitor patients' exercise and provide individualized coaching in real-time, from almost any location, and provide behavior change education and social support. Intervention content incorporates Social Cognitive Theory, Self-determination Theory, and a taxonomy of behavior change techniques. Exercise components are based on guidelines for clinical exercise prescription. The REMOTE-CR platform extends the capabilities of previous telehealth exCR platforms and narrows the gap between existing center- and home-based exCR services. REMOTE-CR can complement center-based exCR by providing an alternative option for patients whose needs are not being met. Remotely monitored exCR may be more cost-effective than establishing additional center-based programs. The effectiveness and acceptability of REMOTE-CR are now being evaluated in a noninferiority randomized controlled trial.


Psychosocial mediators of a theory-based resistance training maintenance intervention for prediabetic adults.

David Williams, Shira Dunsiger, Brenda Davy, Sarah Kelleher, Elaina Marinik, Richard Winett

Psychology & health [31:1108-24] (2016)

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Examine psychosocial mediators of the effects of high vs. low-dose resistance training (RT) maintenance interventions among older (ages 50-69), overweight and pre-diabetic adults. Participants (N = 123) completed a three-month supervised RT initiation phase and were subsequently randomised (time 1) to high or low-dose six-month unsupervised RT maintenance interventions (time 2), followed by a six-month no-contact phase (time 3). Online measures of putative mediators and RT behaviour. RT intervention condition (high vs. low dose) had significant effects on change from time 1 to time 2 in behavioural expectation, self-regulation and perceived satisfaction (f(2) = .04-.08), but not outcome expectancies, RT strategies or behavioural intentions (f(2) ≤ .02). Change in each of the putative mediators, except for outcome expectancies (f(2) ≤ .02), had significant effects on RT behaviour at times 2 (f(2) = .12-.27) and 3 (f(2) = .23-.40). In a multiple mediation model, behavioural expectation (f(2) = .11) and self-regulation (f(2) = .06) mediated the effects of RT intervention condition on time 2 RT behaviour, whereas perceived satisfaction did not (f(2) = .01). Self-regulation was a significant mediator of intervention effects on time 3 RT behaviour (f(2) = .11), but behavioural expectation and perceived satisfaction were not (f(2) = .04). Findings suggest that behavioural expectation and self-regulation are appropriate targets for RT maintenance interventions among at-risk older adults.


Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women through a lifestyle change intervention.

Robert Carels, Lynn Darby, Holly Cacciapaglia, Olivia Douglass

Journal of women's health (2002) [13:412-26] (2004)

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The impact of a 6-month lifestyle change intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in obese, sedentary, postmenopausal women was examined. A secondary aim of this investigation was to determine whether the addition of self-control skills training to an empirically supported lifestyle change intervention would result in greater cardiovascular risk reduction. Forty-four women were randomly assigned to receive either a lifestyle change or a lifestyle change with self-control skills intervention. Pretreatment and posttreatment weight loss, body composition, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, diet, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and psychosocial functioning were assessed. Also, at 1-year posttreatment, weight loss, body composition, self-reported physical activity, and psychosocial functioning were assessed. The women significantly increased their physical activity (+39.6%) and cardiorespiratory fitness (+13.5%) and reduced their body weight (-6.5%), fat mass (-7.4%), body fat (-2.4%), BP (SBP -6.2%, DBP -9.2%), total cholesterol (-7.4%), triglycerides (-16.5%), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (9.1%) and improved their diet (p < 0.05). At the 1-year follow-up, women had regained approximately 63% of their posttreatment weight loss (p < 0.05), but had maintained their previous increases in physical activity. Additionally, there were no significant changes in fat free mass, body fat, anxiety, or depression between the end of treatment and 1-year posttreatment. The addition of self-control skills training did not significantly improve cardiovascular risk reduction. Lifestyle change interventions may be an effective means for reducing cardiovascular risk in obese, sedentary, postmenopausal women. However, greater attention should be devoted to the maintenance of these positive lifestyle changes.


Moms in motion: a group-mediated cognitive-behavioral physical activity intervention.

Anita Cramp, Lawrence Brawley

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [3:23] (2006)

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When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and psychological outcomes, however few physical activity interventions have been theory-driven and tailored to post natal exercise initiates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention based upon social-cognitive theory and group dynamics (GMCB) to a standard care postnatal exercise program (SE). A randomized, two-arm intervention design was used. Fifty-seven post natal women were randomized to one of two conditions: (1) a standard exercise treatment (SE) and (2) a standard exercise treatment plus group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention (GMCB). Participants in both conditions participated in a four-week intensive phase where participants received standard exercise training. In addition, GMCB participants received self-regulatory behavioral skills training via six group-mediated counseling sessions. Following the intensive phase, participants engaged in a four-week home-based phase of self-structured exercise. Measures of physical activity, barrier efficacy, and proximal outcome expectations were administered and data were analyzed using ANCOVA procedures. ANCOVA of change scores for frequency, minutes, and volume of physical activity revealed significant treatment effects over the intensive and home-based phases (p's < 0.01). In addition, ANCOVA of change in mean barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations at the conclusion of the intensive phase demonstrated that GMCB participants increased their initial level of barrier efficacy and outcome expectations while SE participants decreased (p < 0.05). While both exercise programs resulted in improvements to exercise participation, the GMCB intervention produced greater improvement in overall physical activity, barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations.


What do targeting positive views on ageing add to a physical activity intervention in older adults? Results from a randomised controlled trial.

Julia Wolff, Lisa Warner, Jochen Ziegelmann, Susanne Wurm

Psychology & health [29:915-32] (2014)

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Physical activity is a key factor for healthy ageing, yet many older people lead a sedentary lifestyle. Traditional physical activity interventions do not consider the specific needs and views of older adults. As views on ageing are known to be related to health behaviours, the current study evaluates the effectiveness of prompting positive views on ageing within a physical activity intervention. Randomised controlled trial with three groups aged 65+: Intervention for physical activity with 'views-on-ageing'-component (n = 101; IGVoA), and without 'views-on-ageing'-component (n = 30; IG), and active control intervention for volunteering (n = 103; CG). Attitudes towards older adults and physical activity were assessed five weeks before intervention, two weeks, six weeks and 8.5 months after the intervention. Compared to the IG and CG, positive attitudes towards older adults increased in the IGVoA after the intervention. For IGVoA, the indirect intervention effect on change in activity via change in attitudes towards older adults was reliable. A 'views-on-ageing'-component within a physical activity intervention affects change in physical activity via change in views on ageing. Views on ageing are a promising intervention technique to be incorporated into future physical activity interventions for older adults.


A web-based program improves physical activity outcomes in a primary care angina population: randomized controlled trial.

R Devi, J Powell, S Singh

Journal of medical Internet research [16:e186] (2014)

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Angina affects more than 50 million people worldwide. Secondary prevention interventions such as cardiac rehabilitation are not widely available for this population. An Internet-based version could offer a feasible alternative. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of a Web-based cardiac rehabilitation program for those with angina. We conducted a randomized controlled trial, recruiting those diagnosed with angina from general practitioners (GPs) in primary care to an intervention or control group. Intervention group participants were offered a 6-week Web-based rehabilitation program ("ActivateYourHeart"). The program was introduced during a face-to-face appointment and then delivered via the Internet (no further face-to-face contact). The program contained information about the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) and set each user goals around physical activity, diet, managing emotions, and smoking. Performance against goals was reviewed throughout the program and goals were then reset/modified. Participants completed an online exercise diary and communicated with rehabilitation specialists through an email link/synchronized chat room. Participants in the control group continued with GP treatment as usual, which consisted of being placed on a CHD register and attending an annual review. Outcomes were measured at 6-week and 6-month follow-ups during face-to-face assessments. The primary outcome measure was change in daily steps at 6 weeks, measured using an accelerometer. Secondary outcome measures were energy expenditure (EE), duration of sedentary activity (DSA), duration of moderate activity (DMA), weight, diastolic/systolic blood pressure, and body fat percentage. Self-assessed questionnaire outcomes included fat/fiber intake, anxiety/depression, self-efficacy, and quality of life (QOL). A total of 94 participants were recruited and randomized to the intervention (n=48) or the usual care (n=46) group; 84 and 73 participants completed the 6-week and 6-month follow-ups, respectively. The mean number of log-ins to the program was 18.68 (SD 13.13, range 1-51), an average of 3 log-ins per week per participant. Change in daily steps walked at the 6-week follow-up was +497 (SD 2171) in the intervention group and -861 (SD 2534) in the control group (95% CI 263-2451, P=.02). Significant intervention effects were observed at the 6-week follow-up in EE (+43.94 kcal, 95% CI 43.93-309.98, P=.01), DSA (-7.79 minutes, 95% CI -55.01 to -7.01, P=.01), DMA (+6.31 minutes, 95% CI 6.01-51.20, P=.01), weight (-0.56 kg, 95% CI -1.78 to -0.15, P=.02), self-efficacy (95% CI 0.30-4.79, P=.03), emotional QOL score (95% CI 0.01-0.54, P=.04), and angina frequency (95% CI 8.57-35.05, P=.002). Significant benefits in angina frequency (95% CI 1.89-29.41, P=.02) and social QOL score (95% CI 0.05-0.54, P=.02) were also observed at the 6-month follow-up. An Internet-based secondary prevention intervention could be offered to those with angina. A larger pragmatic trial is required to provide definitive evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.


A web-based intervention for health professionals and patients to decrease cardiovascular risk attributable to physical inactivity: development process.

Barbara Sassen, Gerjo Kok, Ilse Mesters, Rik Crutzen, Anita Cremers, Luc Vanhees

JMIR research protocols [1:e21] (2012)

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Patients with cardiovascular risk factors can reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing their physical activity and their physical fitness. According to the guidelines for cardiovascular risk management, health professionals should encourage their patients to engage in physical activity. In this paper, we provide insight regarding the systematic development of a Web-based intervention for both health professionals and patients with cardiovascular risk factors using the development method Intervention Mapping. The different steps of Intervention Mapping are described to open up the "black box" of Web-based intervention development and to support future Web-based intervention development. The development of the Professional and Patient Intention and Behavior Intervention (PIB2 intervention) was initiated with a needs assessment for both health professionals (ie, physiotherapy and nursing) and their patients. We formulated performance and change objectives and, subsequently, theory- and evidence-based intervention methods and strategies were selected that were thought to affect the intention and behavior of health professionals and patients. The rationale of the intervention was based on different behavioral change methods that allowed us to describe the scope and sequence of the intervention and produced the Web-based intervention components. The Web-based intervention consisted of 5 modules, including individualized messages and self-completion forms, and charts and tables. The systematic and planned development of the PIB2 intervention resulted in an Internet-delivered behavior change intervention. The intervention was not developed as a substitute for face-to-face contact between professionals and patients, but as an application to complement and optimize health services. The focus of the Web-based intervention was to extend professional behavior of health care professionals, as well as to improve the risk-reduction behavior of patients with cardiovascular risk factors. The Intervention Mapping protocol provided a systematic method for developing the intervention and each intervention design choice was carefully thought-out and justified. Although it was not a rapid or an easy method for developing an intervention, the protocol guided and directed the development process. The application of evidence-based behavior change methods used in our intervention offers insight regarding how an intervention may change intention and health behavior. The Web-based intervention appeared feasible and was implemented. Further research will test the effectiveness of the PIB2 intervention. Dutch Trial Register, Trial ID: ECP-92.


Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

Louise Larkin, Stephen Gallagher, Fiona Cramp, Charles Brand, Alexander Fraser, Norelee Kennedy

Rheumatology international [35:1631-40] (2015)

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Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.


Testing the Senior Exercise Self-efficacy Project (SESEP) for use with urban dwelling minority older adults.

Barbara Resnick, Daria Luisi, Amanda Vogel

Public health nursing (Boston, Mass.) [25:221-34] ()

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To test the feasibility and effectiveness of the Senior Exercise Self-efficacy Project (SESEP). A feasibility study using a randomized control trial. The total sample included 166 persons, with a mean age of 73 years (SD=8.2 years), the majority of whom were female (81%), African American (72%), unmarried (86%), had at least a high school education (64%), and were retired (77%). There were 100 participants in the intervention group and 66 in the comparison group. The SESEP was a combined physical activity and efficacy-enhancing intervention for community-dwelling minority older adults. The primary outcomes included self-efficacy, outcome expectations, exercise, and overall physical activity, and the secondary outcomes were mental and physical health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms, pain, fear of falling, mobility, and chair rise time. Data were collected at baseline and following the 12-week intervention. There were statistically significant improvements in outcome expectations (p=.02), time spent in exercise (p=.04), and depressive symptoms (p=.02). Overall, there was a 77% rate of participation in classes. Although there was good participation in the SESEP among minority older adults, the primary outcomes were only minimally supported and there was even less support for the secondary outcomes.


A pilot study evaluating a peer led and professional led physical activity intervention with blue-collar employees.

Russ Elbel, Steve Aldana, Don Bloswick, Joseph Lyon

Work (Reading, Mass.) [21:199-210] (2003)

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To measure the effect of a physical activity intervention, based on social cognitive theory, delivered by a peer and a professional leader. Quasi-experimental. Three locations at a large Mid-Western railroad. One hundred and forty-eight skilled labor employees participated: one hundred and twenty completed the study. Self-reported energy expenditure, self-efficacy and stages of change. ANOVA and categorical analysis using rates and proportions were used for evaluation. The peer group had a non-significant short-term increase in energy expenditure of 3%, which returned to baseline post intervention. The professional and control groups showed a non-significant decrease in energy expenditure of 5% and 9%, respectively. The peer (p < 0.002) and professional groups (p < 0.004) showed significant increases in average stages scores. The peer group maintained increases over time (p < 0.001). The peer and professional led groups showed a 54% and 24% increase in the number of employees reporting regular physical activity over time, respectively. The peer group also showed positive trends in self-efficacy. The peer intervention enhanced self-efficacy and self-reported physical activity. A job layoff at the professional led site confounded comparisons between locations. Employees reported high energy expenditure and high BMI values, suggesting that a weight management intervention may be more appropriate and appealing in this population.


A Smartphone App to Promote an Active Lifestyle in Lower-Educated Working Young Adults: Development, Usability, Acceptability, and Feasibility Study.

Dorien Simons, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Peter Clarys, Katrien De Cocker, Corneel Vandelanotte, Benedicte Deforche

JMIR mHealth and uHealth [6:e44] (2018)

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Physical activity (PA) levels are problematic in lower-educated working young adults (18-26 years). To promote PA, smartphone apps have great potential, but there is no evidence for their effectiveness in this population. To increase the likelihood that a newly developed app will be effective, formative research and user testing are required. The aim of this study was to describe the development, usability, acceptability, and feasibility of a new theory- and evidence-based smartphone app to promote an active lifestyle in lower-educated working young adults. The new app was developed by applying 4 steps. First, determinants important to promote an active lifestyle in this population were selected. Second, evidence-based behavior change techniques were selected to convert the determinants into practical applications. Third, a new smartphone app was developed. Fourth, volunteers (n=11, both lower and higher educated) tested the app on usability, and lower-educated working young adults (n=16) tested its acceptability and feasibility via (think aloud) interviews, a questionnaire, and Google Analytics. The app was accordingly adapted for the final version. A new Android app, Active Coach, was developed that focused on knowledge, attitude, social support, and self-efficacy (based on outcomes from step 1), and that applied self-regulation techniques (based on outcomes from step 2). The app consists of a 9-week program with personal goals, practical tips, and scientific facts to encourage an active lifestyle. To ensure all-day and automatic self-monitoring of the activity behavior, the Active Coach app works in combination with a wearable activity tracker, the Fitbit Charge. Issues detected by the usability test (eg, text errors, wrong messages) were all fixed. The acceptability and feasibility test showed that participants found the app clear, understandable, and motivating, although some aspects needed to be more personal. By applying a stepwise, user-centered approach that regularly consulted the target group, the new app is adapted to their specific needs and preferences. The Active Coach app was overall positively evaluated by the lower-educated working young adults at the end of the development process.


The effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with persistent musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Joanne Marley, Mark Tully, Alison Porter-Armstrong, Brendan Bunting, John O'Hanlon, Lou Atkins, Sarah Howes, Suzanne McDonough

BMC musculoskeletal disorders [18:482] (2017)

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Individuals with persistent musculoskeletal pain (PMP) have an increased risk of developing co-morbid health conditions and for early-mortality compared to those without pain. Despite irrefutable evidence supporting the role of physical activity in reducing these risks; there has been limited synthesis of the evidence, potentially impacting the optimisation of these forms of interventions. This review examines the effectiveness of interventions in improving levels of physical activity and the components of these interventions. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials were included in this review. The following databases were searched from inception to March 2016: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED. Two reviewers independently screened citations, assessed eligibility, extracted data, assessed risk of bias and coded intervention content using the behaviour change taxonomy (BCTTv1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques. GRADE was used to rate the quality of the evidence. The full text of 276 articles were assessed for eligibility, twenty studies involving 3441 participants were included in the review. Across the studies the mean number of BCTs coded was eight (range 0-16); with 'goal setting' and 'instruction on how to perform the behaviour' most frequently coded. For measures of subjective physical activity: interventions were ineffective in the short term, based on very low quality evidence; had a small effect in the medium term based on low quality evidence (SMD 0.25, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.48) and had a small effect in the longer term (SMD 0.21 95% CI 0.08 to 0.33) based on moderate quality evidence. For measures of objective physical activity: interventions were ineffective - based on very low to low quality evidence. There is some evidence supporting the effectiveness of interventions in improving subjectively measured physical activity however, the evidence is mostly based on low quality studies and the effects are small. Given the quality of the evidence, further research is likely/very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in effect estimates and is likely to change the estimates. Future studies should provide details on intervention components and incorporate objective measures of physical activity.


How effective is community physical activity promotion in areas of deprivation for inactive adults with cardiovascular disease risk and/or mental health concerns? Study protocol for a pragmatic observational evaluation of the 'Active Herts' physical activity programme.

Neil Howlett, Andy Jones, Lucy Bain, Angel Chater

BMJ open [7:e017783] (2017)

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There is a high prevalence of inactive adults in the UK, and many suffer from conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) or poor mental health. These coexist more frequently in areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation. There is a need to test the effectiveness, acceptability and sustainability of physical activity programmes. Active Herts uses novel evidence-based behaviour change techniques to target physical inactivity. Active Herts is a community physical activity programme for inactive adults aged 16+ with one or more risk factors for CVD and/or a mild to moderate mental health condition. This evaluation will follow a mixed-methods longitudinal (baseline, and 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow-ups) design. Pragmatic considerations mean delivery of the programme differs by locality. In two areas programme users will receive a behaviour change technique booklet, regular consultations, a booster phone call, motivational text messages and signposting to 12 weeks of exercise classes. In another two areas programme users will also receive 12 weeks of free tailored exercise classes, with optional exercise 'buddies' available. An outcome evaluation will assess changes in physical activity as the primary outcome, and sporting participation, sitting, well-being, psychological capability and reflective motivation as secondary outcomes. A process evaluation will explore the views of stakeholders, delivery staff and programme leads. Economic evaluation will examine the programme costs against the benefits gained in terms of reduced risk of morbidity. This study was been approved by the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee at the University of East Anglia. Informed written consent will be obtained from programme users in the evaluation. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at conferences, and shared through the study website and local community outlets. ClinicalTrials.gov ID number: NCT03153098.


Sensing interstitial glucose to nudge active lifestyles (SIGNAL): feasibility of combining novel self-monitoring technologies for persuasive behaviour change.

Maxine Whelan, Andrew Kingsnorth, Mark Orme, Lauren Sherar, Dale Esliger

BMJ open [7:e018282] (2017)

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Increasing physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of developing diabetes, highlighting the role of preventive medicine approaches. Changing lifestyle behaviours is difficult and is often predicated on the assumption that individuals are willing to change their lifestyles today to reduce the risk of developing disease years or even decades later. The self-monitoring technologies tested in this study will present PA feedback in real time, parallel with acute physiological data. Presenting the immediate health benefits of being more physically active may help enact change by observing the immediate consequences of that behaviour. The present study aims to assess user engagement with the self-monitoring technologies in individuals at moderate-to-high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 45 individuals with a moderate-to-high risk, aged ≥40 years old and using a compatible smartphone, will be invited to take part in a 7-week protocol. Following 1 week of baseline measurements, participants will be randomised into one of three groups: group 1- glucose feedback followed by biobehavioural feedback (glucose plus PA); group 2-PA feedback followed by biobehavioural feedback; group 3-biobehavioural feedback. A PA monitor and a flash glucose monitor will be deployed during the intervention. Participants will wear both devices throughout the intervention but blinded to feedback depending on group allocation. The primary outcome is the level of participant engagement and will be assessed by device use and smartphone usage. Feasibility will be assessed by the practicality of the technology and screening for diabetes risk. Semistructured interviews will be conducted to explore participant experiences using the technologies. ISRCTN17545949. Registered on 15/05/2017.


Targeting motivation and self-regulation to increase physical activity among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised controlled trial.

Keegan Knittle, Veronique De Gucht, Emalie Hurkmans, Andre Peeters, Karel Ronday, Stan Maes, Thea Vliet Vlieland

Clinical rheumatology [34:231-8] (2015)

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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of targeting both the motivation and action phases of behaviour change in a 5-week intervention to increase physical activity (PA) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) not meeting current PA recommendations. In a randomised controlled trial, a control group—which received a group-based patient education session led by a physical therapist—was compared to a treatment group which received the education session plus a motivational interview from a physical therapist and two self-regulation coaching sessions from a rheumatology nurse. Outcomes included leisure-time PA, days per week with at least 30 min of moderate-intensity PA, self-efficacy and autonomous motivation (cognitions which predict PA initiation and maintenance), disease activity, functional status, depressive symptoms and fatigue. Effects were assessed using mixed models repeated measures. Of the 78 patients randomised, 76 and 67 completed the post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Significant treatment effects were found for leisure-time PA (p = 0.022), active days/week (p = 0.016), self-efficacy (p = 0.008) and autonomous motivation (p = 0.001). At post-treatment and 6-months follow-up, significantly more treated patients than controls met current PA recommendations. No significant effects were found for disease activity, functional status, depressive symptoms or fatigue. Combining motivation- and action-focused intervention approaches improved PA-related cognitions and led to improved uptake and maintenance of leisure-time PA. However, further research is necessary to identify ways of helping patients with RA transition to—and maintain—more intensive forms of PA which are more likely to improve disease activity and functional status.


Healthy habits: efficacy of simple advice on weight control based on a habit-formation model.

P Lally, A Chipperfield, J Wardle

International journal of obesity (2005) [32:700-7] (2008)

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To evaluate the efficacy of a simple weight loss intervention, based on principles of habit formation. An exploratory trial in which overweight and obese adults were randomized either to a habit-based intervention condition (with two subgroups given weekly vs monthly weighing; n=33, n=36) or to a waiting-list control condition (n=35) over 8 weeks. Intervention participants were followed up for 8 months. A total of 104 adults (35 men, 69 women) with an average BMI of 30.9 kg m(-2). Intervention participants were given a leaflet containing advice on habit formation and simple recommendations for eating and activity behaviours promoting negative energy balance, together with a self-monitoring checklist. Weight change over 8 weeks in the intervention condition compared with the control condition and weight loss maintenance over 32 weeks in the intervention condition. At 8 weeks, people in the intervention condition had lost significantly more weight (mean=2.0 kg) than those in the control condition (0.4 kg), with no difference between weekly and monthly weighing subgroups. At 32 weeks, those who remained in the study had lost an average of 3.8 kg, with 54% losing 5% or more of their body weight. An intention-to-treat analysis (based on last-observation-carried-forward) reduced this to 2.6 kg, with 26% achieving a 5% weight loss. This easily disseminable, low-cost, simple intervention produced clinically significant weight loss. In limited resource settings it has potential as a tool for obesity management.


Development of a fully automated, web-based, tailored intervention promoting regular physical activity among insufficiently active adults with type 2 diabetes: integrating the I-change model, self-determination theory, and motivational interviewing components.

Michel Moreau, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, François Boudreau

JMIR research protocols [4:e25] (2015)

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Type 2 diabetes is a major challenge for Canadian public health authorities, and regular physical activity is a key factor in the management of this disease. Given that fewer than half of people with type 2 diabetes in Canada are sufficiently active to meet the recommendations, effective programs targeting the adoption of regular physical activity (PA) are in demand for this population. Many researchers argue that Web-based, tailored interventions targeting PA are a promising and effective avenue for sedentary populations like Canadians with type 2 diabetes, but few have described the detailed development of this kind of intervention. This paper aims to describe the systematic development of the Web-based, tailored intervention, Diabète en Forme, promoting regular aerobic PA among adult Canadian francophones with type 2 diabetes. This paper can be used as a reference for health professionals interested in developing similar interventions. We also explored the integration of theoretical components derived from the I-Change Model, Self-Determination Theory, and Motivational Interviewing, which is a potential path for enhancing the effectiveness of tailored interventions on PA adoption and maintenance. The intervention development was based on the program-planning model for tailored interventions of Kreuter et al. An additional step was added to the model to evaluate the intervention's usability prior to the implementation phase. An 8-week intervention was developed. The key components of the intervention include a self-monitoring tool for PA behavior, a weekly action planning tool, and eight tailored motivational sessions based on attitude, self-efficacy, intention, type of motivation, PA behavior, and other constructs and techniques. Usability evaluation, a step added to the program-planning model, helped to make several improvements to the intervention prior to the implementation phase. The intervention development cost was about CDN $59,700 and took approximately 54 full-time weeks. The intervention officially started on September 29, 2014. Out of 2300 potential participants targeted for the tailored intervention, approximately 530 people visited the website, 170 people completed the registration process, and 83 corresponded to the selection criteria and were enrolled in the intervention. Usability evaluation is an essential step in the development of a Web-based tailored intervention in order to make pre-implementation improvements. The effectiveness and relevance of the theoretical framework used for the intervention will be analyzed following the process and impact evaluation. Implications for future research are discussed.


The systematic development of a brief intervention to increase walking in the general public using an "extended theory of planned behavior.

David French, Catherine Darker, Frank Eves, Falko Sniehotta

Journal of physical activity & health [10:940-8] (2013)

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The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been extensively used in predictive studies, but there have been considerably fewer experimental tests of the theory. One reason for this is that the guidance on developing concrete intervention strategies from the abstract theory is vague, and there are few exemplars of how to do this. The aim of this article is to provide such an exemplar. The development of an intervention to increase walking in the general public is described, based on the TPB, extended to include postvolitional processes. Identification of target constructs, elicitation of key salient beliefs underpinning these constructs, selection of appropriate behavior change techniques, and technique refinement. Each step is based on available evidence and consistent with theory. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) was identified as the key determinant of walking intentions, with an "intention-behavior gap" noted. A brief intervention was developed, using techniques to increase PBC by rehearsal of previous successful performance of behavior, along with planning techniques to translate motivation into behavior. This systematic approach taken should provide a model for others. The intervention has demonstrated efficacy in producing large changes in objectively measured walking behavior, in 2 separate evaluations reported elsewhere.


An mHealth Intervention Using a Smartphone App to Increase Walking Behavior in Young Adults: A Pilot Study.

Jane Walsh, Teresa Corbett, Michael Hogan, Jim Duggan, Abra McNamara

JMIR mHealth and uHealth [4:e109] (2016)

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Physical inactivity is a growing concern for society and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, obesity, and other chronic diseases. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of the Accupedo-Pro Pedometer mobile phone app intervention, with the goal of increasing daily step counts in young adults. Mobile phone users (n=58) between 17-26 years of age were randomized to one of two conditions (experimental and control). Both groups downloaded an app that recorded their daily step counts. Baseline data were recorded and followed-up at 5 weeks. Both groups were given a daily walking goal of 30 minutes, but the experimental group participants were told the equivalent goal in steps taken, via feedback from the app. The primary outcome was daily step count between baseline and follow-up. A significant time x group interaction effect was observed for daily step counts (P=.04). Both the experimental (P<.001) and control group (P=.03) demonstrated a significant increase in daily step counts, with the experimental group walking an additional 2000 steps per day. The results of this study demonstrate that a mobile phone app can significantly increase physical activity in a young adult sample by setting specific goals, using self-monitoring, and feedback.


Testing Activity Monitors' Effect on Health: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Among Older Primary Care Patients.

Zakkoyya Lewis, Kenneth Ottenbacher, Steve Fisher, Kristofer Jennings, Arleen Brown, Maria Swartz, Elizabeth Lyons

JMIR research protocols [5:e59] (2016)

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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Maintaining healthy levels of physical activity is critical to cardiovascular health, but many older adults are inactive. There is a growing body of evidence linking low motivation and inactivity. Standard behavioral counseling techniques used within the primary care setting strive to increase motivation, but often do not emphasize the key component of self-control. The addition of electronic activity monitors (EAMs) to counseling protocols may provide more effective behavior change and increase overall motivation for exercise through interactive self-monitoring, feedback, and social support from other users. The objective of the study is to conduct a three month intervention trial that will test the feasibility of adding an EAM system to brief counseling within a primary care setting. Participants (n=40) will be randomized to receive evidence-based brief counseling plus either an EAM or a pedometer. Throughout the intervention, we will test its feasibility and acceptability, the change in primary outcomes (cardiovascular risk and physical activity), and the change in secondary outcomes (adherence, weight and body composition, health status, motivation, physical function, psychological feelings, and self-regulation). Upon completion of the intervention, we will also conduct focus groups with the participants and with primary care stakeholders. The study started recruitment in October 2015 and is scheduled to be completed by October 2016. This project will lay the groundwork and establish the infrastructure for intervention refinement and ultimately translation within the primary care setting in order to prevent cardiovascular disease on a population level. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02554435; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02554435 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation/6fUlW5tdT).


Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or 'minor' stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes.

Neil Heron, Frank Kee, Christopher Cardwell, Mark Tully, Michael Donnelly, Margaret Cupples

The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners [67:e57-e66] (2017)

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Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or 'minor' stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed.


Evaluation of CHAMPS, a physical activity promotion program for older adults.

A Stewart, K Mills, P Sepsis, A King, B McLellan, K Roitz, P Ritter

Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine [19:353-61] (1997)

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We evaluated physical activity changes resulting from a six-month public health model intervention that encouraged seniors (N = 89) 62-91 years of age (mean = 76) living in two low-income congregate housing facilities to increase their physical activity by participating in existing community-based physical activity classes and programs of their choice. The program was offered to everyone regardless of their health problems. Enrollees were encouraged to adopt activities tailored to their preferences, physical abilities, health status, income, and transportation resources. Using a comparison-group design, the intervention group was more active for all comparison months of the intervention period (p values < .05). The intervention also was associated with improvements in self-esteem (p < .05), though not with an array of other measures of health-related quality-of-life. Those who adopted and maintained a new physical activity over the six-month intervention period experienced improvements in anxiety, depression, and overall psychological well-being relative to those who did not. The intervention was subsequently replicated through a senior center (N = 22). A much larger proportion of the senior center sample adopted and maintained a new activity for six months (68%) compared to the congregate facilities sample (35%), which may have been due to differences in recruitment methods and sample characteristics in the two settings. An intervention promoting increased physical activity through the use of existing community resources may help increase physical activity in older adults.


Colon cancer information as a source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer.

Erin McGowan, Harry Prapavessis

Psychology, health & medicine [15:729-41] (2010)

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Using a Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) framework, this study examined whether factual colon cancer information is a meaningful source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer. One hundred sixty-six inactive relatives were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: PMT group (intervention); and non-PMT group (attention control). At baseline (T1) participants completed demographic information, a questionnaire designed to assess their beliefs toward exercise and colon cancer as well as their exercise intentions. At T2 (one week following T1) participants watched one of two DVD videos that were created for the study. The intervention DVD contained exercise and colon cancer information that was yoked within the four major components of PMT: perceived vulnerability (PV); perceived severity (PS); response efficacy (RE); and self-efficacy (SE), while the attention control DVD contained general diet and cancer information. Immediately following watching the DVD, participants completed the same measures as in T1. Participants assigned to the PMT intervention group showed significant improvement in PV, RE, SE and exercise intentions, whereas participants assigned to the attention control group showed significant improvement only in RE. RE, SE, and PS made significant and unique contributions to prediction of exercise intention. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrate that a single exposure media intervention grounded in a PMT framework can change individuals' exercise and colon cancer beliefs, as well as change their exercise intentions. Implications of these findings and direction for future research are discussed.


Wearable Activity Tracker Use Among Australian Adolescents: Usability and Acceptability Study.

Nicola Ridgers, Anna Timperio, Helen Brown, Kylie Ball, Susie Macfarlane, Samuel Lai, Kara Richards, Kelly Mackintosh, Melitta McNarry, Megan Foster, Jo Salmon

JMIR mHealth and uHealth [6:e86] (2018)

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Wearable activity trackers have the potential to be integrated into physical activity interventions, yet little is known about how adolescents use these devices or perceive their acceptability. The aim of this study was to examine the usability and acceptability of a wearable activity tracker among adolescents. A secondary aim was to determine adolescents' awareness and use of the different functions and features in the wearable activity tracker and accompanying app. Sixty adolescents (aged 13-14 years) in year 8 from 3 secondary schools in Melbourne, Australia, were provided with a wrist-worn Fitbit Flex and accompanying app, and were asked to use it for 6 weeks. Demographic data (age, sex) were collected via a Web-based survey completed during week 1 of the study. At the conclusion of the 6-week period, all adolescents participated in focus groups that explored their perceptions of the usability and acceptability of the Fitbit Flex, accompanying app, and Web-based Fitbit profile. Qualitative data were analyzed using pen profiles, which were constructed from verbatim transcripts. Adolescents typically found the Fitbit Flex easy to use for activity tracking, though greater difficulties were reported for monitoring sleep. The Fitbit Flex was perceived to be useful for tracking daily activities, and adolescents used a range of features and functions available through the device and the app. Barriers to use included the comfort and design of the Fitbit Flex, a lack of specific feedback about activity levels, and the inability to wear the wearable activity tracker for water-based sports. Adolescents reported that the Fitbit Flex was easy to use and that it was a useful tool for tracking daily activities. A number of functions and features were used, including the device's visual display to track and self-monitor activity, goal-setting in the accompanying app, and undertaking challenges against friends. However, several barriers to use were identified, which may impact on sustained use over time. Overall, wearable activity trackers have the potential to be integrated into physical activity interventions targeted at adolescents, but both the functionality and wearability of the monitor should be considered.


Protocol for the 'Virtual Traveller' cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons.

E Norris, S Dunsmuir, O Duke-Williams, E Stamatakis, N Shelton

BMJ open [6:e011982] (2016)

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Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. 'Virtual Traveller' is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8-9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (reference number: 3500-004).


The Effect of the Move More Pack on the Physical Activity of Cancer Survivors: Protocol for a Randomized Waiting List Control Trial with Process Evaluation.

Justin Webb, Chris Fife-Schaw, Jane Ogden, Jo Foster

JMIR research protocols [6:e220] (2017)

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Physical activity can improve many common side effects of cancer treatment as well as improve physical function and quality of life (QOL). In addition, physical activity can improve survival rate and reduce cancer recurrence. Despite these benefits, only 23% of cancer survivors in England are active to recommended levels. Cancer survivors are interested in lifestyle behavior change. Home-based interventions offer a promising means for changing physical activity behavior. Prediagnosis levels of physical activity and self-efficacy have been reported to be predictors of physical activity behavior change. The Move More Pack, which has undergone revision, is a printed resource with supporting Internet-based tools that aims to increase the physical activity of cancer survivors in the United Kingdom. The revised Move More Pack is underpinned by the theory of planned behavior and the social cognitive theory. The aim of this proposed study was to investigate the effect of the revised Move More Pack, supported by Internet-based tools, on physical activity, self-efficacy, and health-related QOL (HRQOL) of cancer survivors in the United Kingdom. This study is a two-arm waiting list randomized control trial with embedded process evaluation. A sample of 99 participants per arm will be recruited by invitation through an email database of cancer survivors held by UK charity Macmillan Cancer Support and an advert placed on the Macmillan Cancer Support Facebook page. Each participant is randomized to receive brief physical activity information and the UK guidelines for physical activity, or brief physical activity information and the revised Move More Pack with supporting Internet-based tools. The intervention and control arm will be followed up at 12 weeks to identify changes in self-reported physical activity, self-efficacy, and HRQOL based on Web-based questionnaires. The control arm will receive the revised Move More Pack at 12 weeks with follow-up at 24 weeks. The intervention arm is followed up at 24 weeks to determine maintenance of reported changes. Subgroup analyses will be completed based on participants' prediagnosis level of physical activity and baseline self-efficacy as possible predictors of positive changes. Use of each component of the revised Move More Pack will be assessed using a 4-point Likert scale. Semistructured phone interviews will evaluate the use and perceived usefulness of the revised Move More Pack. Participant recruitment started in March 2017. Projected completion of this study is October 2018. This study's findings will identify if the proposed low-cost broad reach intervention improves physical activity, self-efficacy, and the HRQOL of cancer survivors. The process evaluation is designed to contextualize the use and perceived usefulness of the revised Move More Pack, help augment its efficient distribution, and identify potential improvements to its design.


Effects of the Start For Life treatment on physical activity in primarily African American preschool children of ages 3-5 years.

James Annesi, Alice Smith, Gisèle Tennant

Psychology, health & medicine [18:300-9] (2013)

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In U.S. children of ages 2-5 years, combined overweight and obesity has increased to 21%, with African American children of this age range highest at 26%. Lack of physical activity is highly predictive of overweight and obesity in children. Preschools may be a useful point for intervention. An innovative preschool physical activity treatment (Start For Life) was developed based on principles of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory. It incorporated 30 minutes daily of highly structured physical activity with behavioral and self-regulatory skills training (e.g. goal setting, self-monitoring, productive self-talk) interspersed. Data obtained from accelerometry was used to contrast physical activity outputs during the preschool day in the Start For Life condition (n = 202) with a usual-care control condition (n = 136). After controlling for age and sex of the primarily African American participants (M age = 4.7 years), changes over eight weeks in moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous physical activity were significant, and significantly more favorable in the Start For Life group; F(1, 344) = 4.98, p = .026 and F(1, 344) = 3.60, p = .058, respectively. Start For Life was associated with a weekly increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity of approximately 40 minutes. After sufficient replications that better account for different sample types, parental effects and physical activity outside of the school day, and long-term effects, widespread dissemination may be considered.


A cluster randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a brief walking intervention delivered in primary care: study protocol.

David French, Stefanie Williams, Susan Michie, Claire Taylor, Ala Szczepura, Nigel Stallard, Jeremy Dale

BMC family practice [12:56] (2011)

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The aim of the present research is to conduct a fully powered explanatory trial to evaluate the efficacy of a brief self-regulation intervention to increase walking. The intervention will be delivered in primary care by practice nurses (PNs) and Healthcare Assistants (HCAs) to patients for whom increasing physical activity is a particular priority. The intervention has previously demonstrated efficacy with a volunteer population, and subsequently went through an iterative process of refinement in primary care, to maximise acceptability to both providers and recipients. This two arm cluster randomised controlled trial set in UK general practices will compare two strategies for increasing walking, assessed by pedometer, over six months. Patients attending practices randomised to the self-regulation intervention arm will receive an intervention consisting of behaviour change techniques designed to increase walking self-efficacy (confidence in ability to perform the behaviour), and to help people translate their "good" intentions into behaviour change by making plans. Patients attending practices randomised to the information provision arm will receive written materials promoting walking, and a short unstructured discussion about increasing their walking.The trial will recruit 20 PN/HCAs (10 per arm), who will be trained by the research team to deliver the self-regulation intervention or information provision control intervention, to 400 patients registered at their practices (20 patients per PN/HCA). This will provide 85% power to detect a mean difference of five minutes/day walking between the self-regulation intervention group and the information provision control group. Secondary outcomes include health services costs, and intervention effects in sub-groups defined by age, ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, and clinical condition. A mediation analysis will investigate the extent to which changes in constructs specified by the Theory of Planned Behaviour lead to changes in objectively assessed walking behaviour. This trial addresses the current lack of evidence for interventions that are effective at increasing walking and that can be offered to patients in primary care. The intervention being evaluated has demonstrated efficacy, and has been through an extensive process of adaptation to ensure acceptability to both provider and recipient, thus optimising fidelity of intervention delivery and treatment receipt. It therefore provides a strong test of the hypothesis that a self-regulation intervention can help primary care patients increase their walking. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN95932902.


Weight and behavioral and psychosocial factors among ethnically diverse, low-income women after childbirth: II. Trends and correlates.

Lorraine Walker, Jeanne Freeland-Graves, Tracey Milani, Goldy George, Henry Hanss-Nuss, Minseong Kim, Bobbie Sue Sterling, Gayle Timmerman, Susan Wilkinson, Kristopher Arheart, Alexa Stuifbergen

Women & health [40:19-34] (2004)

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This paper presents a longitudinal analysis of behavioral and psychosocial correlates of weight trends during the first postpartum year. Data are derived from the Austin New Mothers Study (ANMS), a longitudinal study of a low-income, tri-ethnic sample of postpartum women that incorporated serial assessment of weight and behavioral and psychosocial variables. Postpartum body mass index (BMI) was measured prospectively (post-delivery, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum). The analytic sample consisted of 382 White, African American, and Hispanic women receiving maternity care funded by Medicaid who had at least three measured postpartum weights. Behavioral and psychosocial variables included energy intakes, fat intakes, physical activity, health related lifestyle, smoking, breastfeeding, contraception, depressive symptoms, emotional eating, body image, and weight-related distress. Using hierarchical linear modeling to incorporate baseline only and time-varying effects, significant associations with postpartum BMI were found for the following variables: ethnicity (p = .001), time of weight measurement (p < .001), the interaction of ethnicity and time (p = .005), pre-pregnant BMI (p < .001), gestational weight gain (p < .001), weight-related distress (p < .001), and energy intakes (p = .005). After adjusting for covariates, ethnic groups displayed differing trends in postpartum BMI resulting in White women having significantly lower BMIs at 12 months postpartum compared to ethnic minority women (p's < .01). Behavioral and psychosocial variables contribute to a fuller understanding of BMI status of low-income women during the first postpartum year.


The effects of a multimodal intervention trial to promote lifestyle factors associated with the prevention of cardiovascular disease in menopausal and postmenopausal Australian women.

Debra Anderson, Khadegh Mizzari, Victoria Kain, Joan Webster

Health care for women international [27:238-53] (2006)

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The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a multimodal intervention (Women's Wellness Program) to improve women's cardiovascular risk factors. This 12-week randomized experiment with a control group targeted women 50-65 years living in the general population. Women in the intervention group were provided with a consultation with a registered nurse at which time biophysical cardiovascular risk measures were taken and health education was provided in both verbal and written form. Women were encouraged to review their smoking, nutrition, and water intakes and to commence an exercise program that included aerobic fitness exercises. Women in the control group continued their normal activities. The sample consisted of 90 women aged 50-65 years. Pre- and post-intervention assessment utilized seven measures of cardiovascular risk factors: waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, heart rate, weight, exercise levels, and smoking. Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention was effective in improving women's aerobic exercise activity and decreasing smoking. The data from all five biophysical outcome measures supported the efficacy of the intervention, with significant decreases seen in the women's WHR, BMI, blood pressure, and measured weight. Study implications suggest that this type of intervention may provide an effective, clinically manageable therapy for women who prefer a self-directed approach to preventing and decreasing cardiovascular risk factors.


Self-monitoring of physical activity: effects on self-efficacy and behavior in people with type 2 diabetes.

JM Gleeson-Kreig

The Diabetes educator [32:69-77] ()

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The purpose of this study was to test the effect of keeping daily activity records on physical activity levels and self-efficacy for physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes, and to examine the feasibility and acceptability of this intervention from the perspective of the participants. This intervention study included 58 individuals with type 2 diabetes aged 40 to 65 years. Participants were randomly assigned: individuals in the intervention group kept daily activity records for 6 weeks, mailed to the researcher every 2 weeks. Data collection was completed at the beginning of the study and 6 weeks later, using the habitual physical activity index and the self-efficacy for exercise scale. Participants in the intervention group also completed the perceived feasibility checklist. The intervention resulted in enhanced self-efficacy. Physical activity improved in both the intervention and control groups. Activity recording was judged to be acceptable and feasible. Daily activity recording can be used as part of a program to increase physical activity self-efficacy levels. Focused interactions between health care providers and patients may be enough to motivate people to higher levels of physical activity. The relationship between self-efficacy and behavior is complex and should be the subject of further research.


Leading the Way in Exercise and Diet (Project LEAD): intervening to improve function among older breast and prostate cancer survivors.

Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Miriam Morey, Elizabeth Clipp, Carl Pieper, Denise Snyder, Richard Sloane, Harvey Cohen

Controlled clinical trials [24:206-23] (2003)

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The U.S. population is aging, bringing with it an increased prevalence of chronic disease and concomitant declines in physical function. The risk of developing cancer increases significantly with age, and functional decline is much more likely once a cancer diagnosis is rendered. Thus, functional status in later life is a key concern, one that is heightened among elders who have been diagnosed with cancer. To date, however, there have been few trials that have exclusively addressed issues related to cancer survivorship among older cancer patients, and to our knowledge, none has focused on preserving or enhancing physical functioning. This paper describes the study design and methodological considerations of a randomized controlled trial to determine if a personally tailored workbook and telephone counseling program can positively affect physical activity and dietary behaviors and ultimately the physical functioning of up to 420 older men and women newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. This trial is unique because the cancer diagnosis is used not only as a marker of risk for functional decline, but also as a "teachable moment" - an opportune time when elders may be more receptive to making beneficial lifestyle changes. Undoubtedly, as cure rates for cancer increase and intersect with ever-growing numbers of elderly, there will be numerous opportunities to provide and test interventions within this vulnerable population and to target functional status as a primary outcome. In reporting our methods, we hope to give others "a leg up," so that they can hurdle with greater ease the barriers we experienced, and thus advance the field more rapidly.


Continuous glucose monitoring counseling improves physical activity behaviors of individuals with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial.

Nancy Allen, James Fain, Barry Braun, Stuart Chipkin

Diabetes research and clinical practice [80:371-9] (2008)

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Despite the known benefits, 60% of individuals with diabetes do not engage in regular physical activity (PA). This pilot study tested the effects of a counseling intervention using continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) feedback on PA self-efficacy, PA levels, and physiological variables. Adults (N=52) with type 2 diabetes (non-insulin requiring, inactive) were randomized to intervention (n=27) or control (n=25) groups. Both groups received 90min of diabetes education with a follow-up phone call 4 weeks later. The intervention group also received counseling derived from self-efficacy theory. This intervention included feedback on each participant's CGMS graph and used role model CGMS graphs to clearly depict glucose reductions in response to PA. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Participants receiving the intervention had higher self-efficacy scores than the control group for sticking to activity/resisting relapse at 8 weeks (p<0.05), indicating more confidence in maintaining a PA program. Intervention group participants light/sedentary activity minutes decreased significantly (p<0.05), moderate activity minutes increased significantly (p<0.05), and, HbA1c and BMI decreased significantly (p<0.05). These data suggest that PA counseling interventions using CGMS feedback for individuals with type 2 diabetes may improve PA levels and reduce risk factors for diabetes-related complications.


Testing social-cognitive mediators for objective estimates of physical activity from the Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes in Primary Care Networks (HEALD-PCN) study.

Steven Johnson, David Lubans, Ana Mladenovic, Ronald Plotnikoff, Nandini Karunamuni, Jeffrey Johnson

Psychology, health & medicine [21:945-53] (2016)

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More evidence from prospective studies is needed to determine 'if' and 'how' social cognitive constructs mediate behaviour change. In a longitudinal study, we aimed to examine potential social cognitive mediators of objectively measured physical activity (PA) behaviour among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who participated in a six-month PA intervention. All participants from the proven effective Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes in Primary Care Networks trial were included for this secondary analysis. Change in pedometer-derived daily step counts (baseline to six months) was the outcome of interest. Primary constructs of interest were from Social Cognitive Theory, however constructs from and Theory of Planned Behaviour were also tested in a mediating variable framework using a product-of-coefficients test. The sample (N = 198) had a mean age of 59.5 (SD 8.3) years, haemoglobin A1c 6.8% (SD 1.1), 50% women, BMI 33.6 kg/m(2) (SD 6.5), systolic pressure 125.6 mmHg (SD 16.2) and average daily steps were 5879 (SD 3130). Daily pedometer-determined steps increased for the intervention group compared to usual care control at six-months (1481 [SD 2631] vs. 336 [SD 2712]; adjusted p = .002). There was a significant action theory test effect for 'planning' (A = .21, SE = .10, p = .037), and significant conceptual theory test results for 'subjective norms' (B = 657, SE = 312, p = .037) and 'cons' (B = -664, SE = 270, p = .015). None of the constructs satisfied the criteria for mediation. We were unable to account for the effect of a pedometer-based PA intervention for people with T2D through our examination of mediators. Our findings are inconsistent with some literature concerning PA interventions in diabetes; this may be due to variability in measures used or in study populations.


Development and evaluation of a structured programme for promoting physical activity among seniors with intellectual disabilities: a study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

Marieke van Schijndel-Speet, Heleen Evenhuis, Pepijn van Empelen, Ruud van Wijck, Michael Echteld

BMC public health [13:746] (2013)

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Older people with intellectual disabilities have very low physical activity levels. Well designed, theory-driven and evidence-based health promotion programmes for the target population are lacking. This paper describes the design of a cluster-randomised trial for a systematically developed health promotion programme aimed at improving physical activity and increasing fitness among seniors with intellectual disabilities. The Intervention Mapping protocol was used for programme development. After defining the programme's objectives, the following behavioural techniques were selected to achieve them: Tailoring, Education, Modelling, Mirroring, Feedback, Reinforcement and Grading. With professionals and managers of provider services for people with intellectual disabilities, we translated these strategies into a structured day-activity programme, that consisted of a physical activity and an education programme. The programme will be executed in five day-activity centres in groups of eight to ten seniors during eight months, whereas seniors in five other centres receive care as usual. The physical activity level, as measured in number of steps a day, will be used as primary outcome measurement. Secondary outcome measurements include motor fitness, cardio respiratory fitness, morphological and metabolic fitness, ADL, functional deterioration and depressive symptoms. Differences in the primary and secondary outcome measures between participants and controls will be analysed using generalized estimation equations, correcting for day-activity center as cluster. This paper provides insight into the development and content of a theory-driven intervention aimed at behavioural change in a population with a low intellectual level. Its evaluation design is described. The programme's applicability to other populations is discussed.


Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes: protocol for an open pilot study and external pilot clustered randomised controlled trial to assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of a multifaceted behavioural intervention targeting physical activity in primary care.

Leah Avery, Falko Sniehotta, Sarah Denton, Nick Steen, Elaine McColl, Roy Taylor, Michael Trenell

Trials [15:46] (2014)

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Physical activity (PA) and nutrition are the cornerstones of diabetes management. Several reviews and meta-analyses report that PA independently produces clinically important improvements in glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear what the optimal strategies are to increase PA behaviour in people with Type 2 diabetes in routine primary care. This study will determine whether an evidence-informed multifaceted behaviour change intervention (Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes) targeting both consultation behaviour of primary healthcare professionals and PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes is both acceptable and feasible in the primary care setting. An open pilot study conducted in two primary care practices (phase one) will assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. Ongoing feedback from participating primary healthcare professionals and patients will provide opportunities for systematic adaptation and refinement of the intervention and study procedures. A two-arm parallel group clustered pilot randomised controlled trial with patients from participating primary care practices in North East England will assess acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of the intervention (versus usual clinical care) and trial processes over a 12-month period. Consultation behaviour involving fidelity of intervention delivery, diabetes and PA related knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, intentions and self-efficacy for delivering a behaviour change intervention targeting PA behaviour will be assessed in primary healthcare professionals. We will rehearse the collection of outcome data (with the focus on data yield and quality) for a future definitive trial, through outcome assessment at baseline, one, six and twelve months. An embedded qualitative process evaluation and treatment fidelity assessment will explore issues around intervention implementation and assess whether intervention components can be reliably and faithfully delivered in routine primary care. Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes will address an important gap in the evidence-base, that is, the need for interventions to increase free-living PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes. The multifaceted intervention incorporates an online accredited training programme for primary healthcare professionals and represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. This study will establish whether the multifaceted behavioural intervention is acceptable and feasible in routine primary care. Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes (MaMT2D) was registered with Current Controlled Trials on the 14th January 2012: ISRCTN67997502. The first primary care practice was randomised on the 5th October 2012.


Evidence, theory and context: using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention.

Rosemary McEachan, Rebecca Lawton, Cath Jackson, Mark Conner, Jennifer Lunt

BMC public health [8:326] (2008)

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The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information), motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support) and environment (e.g. management support) and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work) and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active). The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009.


Impact of school-based vegetable garden and physical activity coordinated health interventions on weight status and weight-related behaviors of ethnically diverse, low-income students: Study design and baseline data of the Texas, Grow! Eat! Go! (TGEG) cluster-randomized controlled trial.

A Evans, N Ranjit, D Hoelscher, C Jovanovic, M Lopez, A McIntosh, M Ory, L Whittlesey, L McKyer, A Kirk, C Smith, C Walton, N Heredia, J Warren

BMC public health [16:973] (2016)

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Coordinated, multi-component school-based interventions can improve health behaviors in children, as well as parents, and impact the weight status of students. By leveraging a unique collaboration between Texas AgriLife Extension (a federal, state and county funded educational outreach organization) and the University of Texas School of Public Health, the Texas Grow! Eat! Go! Study (TGEG) modeled the effectiveness of utilizing existing programs and volunteer infrastructure to disseminate an enhanced Coordinated School Health program. The five-year TGEG study was developed to assess the independent and combined impact of gardening, nutrition and physical activity intervention(s) on the prevalence of healthy eating, physical activity and weight status among low-income elementary students. The purpose of this paper is to report on study design, baseline characteristics, intervention approaches, data collection and baseline data. The study design for the TGEG study consisted of a factorial group randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which 28 schools were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: (1) Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) only (Comparison), (2) CATCH plus school garden intervention [Learn, Grow, Eat & Go! (LGEG)], (3) CATCH plus physical activity intervention [Walk Across Texas (WAT)], and (4) CATCH plus LGEG plus WAT (Combined). The outcome variables include student's weight status, vegetable and sugar sweetened beverage consumption, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Parents were assessed for home environmental variables including availability of certain foods, social support of student health behaviors, parent engagement and behavior modeling. Descriptive data are presented for students (n = 1369) and parents (n = 1206) at baseline. The sample consisted primarily of Hispanic and African American (53 % and 18 %, respectively) and low-income (i.e., 78 % eligible for Free and Reduced Price School Meals program and 43 % food insecure) students. On average, students did not meet national guidelines for vegetable consumption or physical activity. At baseline, no statistical differences for demographic or key outcome variables among the 4 treatment groups were observed. The TGEG study targets a population of students and parents at high risk of obesity and related chronic conditions, utilizing a novel and collaborative approach to program formulation and delivery, and a rigorous, randomized study design.


Effectiveness of physical activity interventions in achieving behaviour change maintenance in young and middle aged adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Jennifer Murray, Sarah Brennan, David French, Christopher Patterson, Frank Kee, Ruth Hunter

Social science & medicine (1982) [192:125-133] (2017)

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Physical activity (PA) interventions are generally effective in supporting short-term behaviour change, but increases are not always maintained. This review examined the effectiveness of PA interventions for behaviour change maintenance in young and middle-aged adults, and investigated which Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) and other intervention features were associated with maintenance. Six databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Web of Science) were systematically searched. Eligibility criteria were controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of PA interventions with adult (mean age 18-64 years) non-clinical populations using validated measures of PA behaviour at baseline and ≥six months' post-baseline. Results were pooled in meta-analyses using standardised mean differences (SMD) at five time intervals (6-9, 9-15, 15-21, 21-24, >24 months). Moderator analyses investigated the influence of sample and intervention characteristics on PA maintenance at 6-9 months. Sixty-two studies were included. PA interventions had a significant effect on behaviour maintenance 6-15 months post-baseline relative to controls. Interventions had a larger effect on maintenance at 6-9 months (SMD = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.35; I2 = 73%) compared to 9-15 months (SMD = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.26; I2 = 70%). Beyond 15 months, PA measurements were infrequent with little evidence supporting maintenance. Moderator analyses showed some BCTs and intervention settings moderated PA outcomes at 6-9 months. A multivariable meta-regression model showed interventions using the BCTs 'Prompt self-monitoring of behavioural outcome' (b = 1.46, p < 0.01) and 'Use of follow-up prompts' (b = 0.38, p < 0.01) demonstrated greater effectiveness at promoting PA maintenance at 6-9 months. Interventions implemented in primary care (versus community or workplace/university) settings (b = -0.13, p = 0.10) tended to demonstrate less effectiveness. This review provides evidence of some effective BCTs for maintaining behaviour to 15 months. Greater consideration must be given to how future interventions encourage and measure maintenance of changes, and investigate broader psychological, social and environmental influences of PA behaviour. PROSPERO 2015:CRD42015025462.


Can implementation intentions and text messages promote brisk walking? A randomized trial.

Andrew Prestwich, Marco Perugini, Robert Hurling

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association [29:40-9] (2010)

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To test the efficacy in promoting brisk walking of two theory-based interventions that incorporate implementation intentions and text message (Short Message Service; SMS) reminders directed at one's walking-related plans or goals. Participants (N = 149) were randomized to one of three conditions (implementation intention + SMS plan reminder, implementation intention + SMS goal reminder, control) before completing measures at baseline and follow-up 4 weeks later. At follow-up, the experimental groups were given a surprise recall task concerning their plans. All participants completed an equivalent goal recall task. Validated self-report measures of physical activity and measures of implementation intention and goal recall, weight, and waist-to-hip ratio. Both intervention groups increased their brisk walking relative to the control group, without reducing other physical activity. The goal reminder group lost the most weight. The SMS plan reminder group recalled more of their plans than the SMS goal reminder group, but the latter were more successful in goal recall. Both interventions can promote brisk walking in sedentary populations. Text messages aid the recall of, and could enhance interventions that target, implementation intentions and goals.


Development of a behaviour change intervention to increase upper limb exercise in stroke rehabilitation.

Louise Connell, Naoimh McMahon, Judith Redfern, Caroline Watkins, Janice Eng

Implementation science : IS [10:34] (2015)

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Two thirds of survivors will achieve independent ambulation after a stroke, but less than half will recover upper limb function. There is strong evidence to support intensive repetitive task-oriented training for recovery after stroke. The number of repetitions needed is suggested to be in the order of hundreds, but this is not currently being achieved in clinical practice. In an effort to bridge this evidence-practice gap, we have developed a behaviour change intervention that aims to increase provision of upper limb repetitive task-oriented training in stroke rehabilitation. This paper aims to describe the systematic processes that took place in collaboratively developing the behaviour change intervention. The methods used in this study were not defined a priori but were guided by the Behaviour Change Wheel. The process was collaborative and iterative with four stages of development emerging (i) establishing an intervention development group; (ii) structured discussions to understand the problem, prioritise target behaviours and analyse target behaviours; (iii) collaborative design of theoretically underpinned intervention components and (iv) piloting and refining of intervention components. The intervention development group consisted of the research team and stroke therapy team at a local stroke rehabilitation unit. The group prioritised four target behaviours at the therapist level: (i) identifying suitable patients for exercises, (ii) provision of exercises, (iii) communicating exercises to family/visitors and (iv) monitoring and reviewing exercises. It also provides a method for self-monitoring performance in order to measure fidelity. The developed intervention, PRACTISE (Promoting Recovery of the Arm: Clinical Tools for Intensive Stroke Exercise), consists of team meetings and the PRACTISE Toolkit (screening tool and upper limb exercise plan, PRACTISE exercise pack and an audit tool). This paper provides an example of how the Behaviour Change Wheel may be applied in the collaborative development of a behaviour change intervention for health professionals. The process involved was resource-intensive, and the iterative process was difficult to capture. The use of a published behaviour change framework and taxonomy will assist replication in future research and clinical use. The feasibility and acceptability of PRACTISE is currently being explored in two other stroke rehabilitation units.


Comparing motivational, self-regulatory and habitual processes in a computer-tailored physical activity intervention in hospital employees - protocol for the PATHS randomised controlled trial.

Dominika Kwasnicka, Corneel Vandelanotte, Amanda Rebar, Benjamin Gardner, Camille Short, Mitch Duncan, Dawn Crook, Martin Hagger

BMC public health [17:518] (2017)

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Most people do not engage in sufficient physical activity to confer health benefits and to reduce risk of chronic disease. Healthcare professionals frequently provide guidance on physical activity, but often do not meet guideline levels of physical activity themselves. The main objective of this study is to develop and test the efficacy of a tailored intervention to increase healthcare professionals' physical activity participation and quality of life, and to reduce work-related stress and absenteeism. This is the first study to compare the additive effects of three forms of a tailored intervention using different techniques from behavioural theory, which differ according to their focus on motivational, self-regulatory and/or habitual processes. Healthcare professionals (N = 192) will be recruited from four hospitals in Perth, Western Australia, via email lists, leaflets, and posters to participate in the four group randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to one of four conditions: (1) education only (non-tailored information only), (2) education plus intervention components to enhance motivation, (3) education plus components to enhance motivation and self-regulation, and (4) education plus components to enhance motivation, self-regulation and habit formation. All intervention groups will receive a computer-tailored intervention administered via a web-based platform and will receive supporting text-messages containing tailored information, prompts and feedback relevant to each condition. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome assessed in this study is physical activity measured using activity monitors. Secondary outcomes include: quality of life, stress, anxiety, sleep, and absenteeism. Website engagement, retention, preferences and intervention fidelity will also be evaluated as well as potential mediators and moderators of intervention effect. This is the first study to examine a tailored, technology-supported intervention aiming to increase physical activity in healthcare professionals. The study will evaluate whether including additional theory-based behaviour change techniques aimed at promoting motivation, self-regulation and habit will lead to increased physical activity participation relative to information alone. The online platform developed in this study has potential to deliver efficient, scalable and personally-relevant intervention that can be translated to other occupational settings. Australian New-Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12616000462482, submitted 29/03/2016, prospectively registered 8/04/2016.


Behaviour change intervention increases physical activity, spinal mobility and quality of life in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomised trial.

Tom O'Dwyer, Ann Monaghan, Jonathan Moran, Finbar O'Shea, Fiona Wilson

Journal of physiotherapy (2016)

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Does a 3-month behaviour change intervention targeting physical activity (PA) increase habitual physical activity in adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS)? Does the intervention improve health-related physical fitness, AS-related features, and attitude to exercise? Are any gains maintained over a 3-month follow-up? Parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. Forty adults with a diagnosis of AS, on stable medication, and without PA-limiting comorbidities. Over a 3-month period, the experimental group engaged in individually-tailored, semi-structured consultations aiming to motivate and support individuals in participating in PA. The control group continued with usual care. The primary outcome was PA measured by accelerometry over 1 week. Secondary outcomes included clinical questionnaires and measures of health-related physical fitness. Measures were taken at baseline, post-intervention, and after a 3-month follow-up period. Baseline characteristics were similar across groups, except age and body composition. There were statistically significant, moderate-to-large time-by-group effects in health-enhancing PA (mixed-design ANOVA for overall effect F(2, 76)=14.826, p<0.001), spinal mobility (F(2, 76)=5.691, p<0.005) and quality of life (χ(2)(2)=8.400, p<0.015) favouring the intervention group; post-intervention improvements were sustained 3 months later. No significant effects were seen in other physical fitness outcomes or on clinical questionnaires. No adverse effects were reported during the study. Health-enhancing PA, spinal mobility and quality of life were significantly improved after the intervention, and improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up. NCT02374502. [O'Dwyer T, Monaghan A, Moran J, O'Shea F, Wilson F (2016) Behaviour change intervention increases physical activity, spinal mobility and quality of life in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomised trial.Journal of PhysiotherapyXX: XX-XX].


How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

Benjamin Gardner, Lee Smith, Fabiana Lorencatto, Mark Hamer, Stuart Biddle

Health psychology review [10:89-112] (2016)

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Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed.


Social cognitive theory mediators of physical activity in a lifestyle program for cancer survivors and carers: findings from the ENRICH randomized controlled trial.

F Stacey, E James, K Chapman, D Lubans

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [13:49] (2016)

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Despite increasing numbers of cancer survivors and evidence that diet and physical activity improves the health of cancer survivors, most do not meet guidelines. Some social cognitive theory (SCT)-based interventions have increased physical activity behavior, however few have used objective physical activity measures. The Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health (ENRICH) randomized controlled trial reported a significant intervention effect for the primary outcome of pedometer-assessed step counts at post-test (8-weeks) and follow-up (20-weeks). The aim of this study was to test whether the SCT constructs operationalized in the ENRICH intervention were mediators of physical activity behavior change. Randomized controlled trial with 174 cancer survivors and carers assessed at baseline, post-test (8-weeks), and follow-up (20-weeks). Participants were randomized to the ENRICH six session face-to-face healthy lifestyle program, or to a wait-list control. Hypothesized SCT mediators of physical activity behavior change (self-efficacy, behavioral goal, outcome expectations, impediments, and social expectations) were assessed using valid and reliable scales. Mediation was assessed using the Preacher and Hayes SPSS INDIRECT macro. At eight weeks, there was a significant intervention effect on behavioral goal (A = 9.12, p = 0.031) and outcome expectations (A = 0.25, p = 0.042). At 20 weeks, the intervention had a significant effect on self-efficacy (A = 0.31, p = 0.049) and behavioral goal (A = 13.15, p = 0.011). Only changes in social support were significantly associated with changes in step counts at eight weeks (B = 633.81, p = 0.023). Behavioral goal was the only SCT construct that had a significant mediating effect on step counts, and explained 22 % of the intervention effect at 20 weeks (AB = 397.9, 95 % CI 81.5-1025.5). SCT constructs had limited impact on objectively-assessed step counts in a multiple health behavior change intervention for cancer survivors and their carers. Behavioral goal measured post-intervention was a significant mediator of pedometer-assessed step counts at 3-months after intervention completion, and explained 22 % of the intervention effect. Future research should examine the separate impact of goals and planning, as well as examining mediators of behavior maintenance in physical activity interventions targeting cancer survivors. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials registry ANZCTRN1260901086257 .


Development and exploratory cluster-randomised opportunistic trial of a theory-based intervention to enhance physical activity among adolescents.

Vera Araújo-Soares, Teresa McIntyre, Graeme MacLennan, Falko Sniehotta

Psychology & health [24:805-22] (2009)

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This article reports the development and exploratory testing of a school-based intervention programme designed to enhance levels of physical activity in adolescents. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory (SCT), self-regulation theory (SRT) and planning as evidence-based mediators of physical activity changes. Two classes, paired on socio-economic variables, were selected from each of eight Portuguese schools and randomly assigned to an intervention or control group (N = 291). Primary outcome was 'moderate to vigorous physical activity' (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) measured pre and post intervention and at three and nine months follow-up. SCT, SRT and planning variables were secondary outcomes measured pre and post intervention. At post test, participants in the intervention group reported 18 min per week more physical activity (PA), adjusted for pre-intervention, age and sex, than those in the control group (95% confidence interval -10 to 46; p = 0.249). This difference increased to 33 min (95% CI-4 to 71; p = 0.082) at three months and to 57 min (95% CI 13 to 101, p = 0.008) at nine month follow-up. Moreover, the intervention resulted in changes of some of the theoretical target variables, including outcome expectancies and coping planning. However, no evidence was found for the changes in theoretical moderators to mediate the intervention effects on behaviour. Implications for theory and for future research are discussed.


Heart-to-Heart: promoting walking in rural women through motivational interviewing and group support.

Cindy Perry, Anne Rosenfeld, Jill Bennett, Kathleen Potempa

The Journal of cardiovascular nursing [22:304-12] ()

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Walking can significantly increase cardiorespiratory fitness and thereby reduce the incidence of heart disease in women. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at increasing walking in rural women, a high-risk group for heart disease and one for which exercise strategies may pose particular challenges. This study tested Heart-to-Heart (HTH), a 12-week walking program, designed to increase fitness through walking in rural women. Heart-to-Heart integrated individual-oriented strategies, including motivational interviewing, and group-based strategies, including team building. Forty-six rural women were randomized to either HTH or a comparison group. The primary outcome of cardiorespiratory fitness and secondary outcomes of self-efficacy and social support were measured preintervention and post-intervention. Group differences were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Women in HTH group had a greater improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness (P =.057) and in social support (P =.004) compared with women in the comparison group. Neither group of women experienced a change in exercise self-efficacy (P =.814). HTH was effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of rural women. Further research is needed to refine HTH and determine the optimal approach in rural women to increase their walking.


Acceptability of a theory-based sedentary behaviour reduction intervention for older adults ('On Your Feet to Earn Your Seat').

Raluca Matei, Ingela Thuné-Boyle, Mark Hamer, Steve Iliffe, Kenneth Fox, Barbara Jefferis, Benjamin Gardner

BMC public health [15:606] (2015)

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Adults aged 60 years and over spend most time sedentary and are the least physically active of all age groups. This early-phase study explored acceptability of a theory-based intervention to reduce sitting time and increase activity in older adults, as part of the intervention development process. An 8-week uncontrolled trial was run among two independent samples of UK adults aged 60-75 years. Sample 1, recruited from sheltered housing on the assumption that they were sedentary and insufficiently active, participated between December 2013 and March 2014. Sample 2, recruited through community and faith centres and a newsletter, on the basis of self-reported inactivity (<150 weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity) and sedentary behaviour (≥ 6 h mean daily sitting), participated between March and August 2014. Participants received a booklet offering 16 tips for displacing sitting with light-intensity activity and forming activity habits, and self-monitoring 'tick-sheets'. At baseline, 4-week, and 8-week follow-ups, quantitative measures were taken of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and habit. At 8 weeks, tick-sheets were collected and a semi-structured interview conducted. Acceptability was assessed for each sample separately, through attrition and adherence to tips, ANOVAs for behaviour and habit changes, and, for both samples combined, thematic analysis of interviews. In Sample 1, 12 of 16 intervention recipients completed the study (25% attrition), mean adherence was 40% (per-tip range: 15-61%), and there were no clear patterns of changes in sedentary or physical activity behaviour or habit. In Sample 2, 23 of 27 intervention recipients completed (15% attrition), and mean adherence was 58% (per-tip range: 39-82%). Sample 2 decreased mean sitting time and sitting habit, and increased walking, moderate activity, and activity habit. Qualitative data indicated that both samples viewed the intervention positively, found the tips easy to follow, and reported health and wellbeing gains. Low attrition, moderate adherence, and favourability in both samples, and positive changes in Sample 2, indicate the intervention was acceptable. Higher attrition, lower adherence, and no apparent behavioural impact among Sample 1 could perhaps be attributable to seasonal influences. The intervention has been refined to address emergent acceptability problems. An exploratory controlled trial is underway.


Increasing the frequency of physical activity very brief advice for cancer patients. Development of an intervention using the behaviour change wheel.

J Webb, J Foster, E Poulter

Public health (2016)

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Being physically active has multiple benefits for cancer patients. Despite this only 23% are active to the national recommendations and 31% are completely inactive. A cancer diagnosis offers a teachable moment in which patients might be more receptive to lifestyle changes. Nurses are well placed to offer physical activity advice, however, only 9% of UK nurses involved in cancer care talk to all cancer patients about physical activity. A change in the behaviour of nurses is needed to routinely deliver physical activity advice to cancer patients. As recommended by the Medical Research Council, behavioural change interventions should be evidenced-based and use a relevant and coherent theoretical framework to stand the best chance of success. This paper presents a case study on the development of an intervention to improve the frequency of delivery of very brief advice (VBA) on physical activity by nurses to cancer patients, using the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW). The eight composite steps outlined by the BCW guided the intervention development process. An iterative approach was taken involving key stakeholders (n = 45), with four iterations completed in total. This was not defined a priori but emerged during the development process. A 60 min training intervention, delivered in either a face-to-face or online setting, with follow-up at eight weeks, was designed to improve the capability, opportunity and motivation of nurses to deliver VBA on physical activity to people living with cancer. This intervention incorporates seven behaviour change techniques of goal setting coupled with commitment; instructions on how to perform the behaviour; salience of the consequences of delivering VBA; a demonstration on how to give VBA, all delivered via a credible source with objects added to the environment to support behavioural change. The BCW is a time consuming process, however, it provides a useful and comprehensive framework for intervention development and greater control over intervention replication and evaluation.


The effectiveness of motivational interviewing for health behaviour change in primary care settings: a systematic review.

Katie Morton, Mark Beauchamp, Anna Prothero, Lauren Joyce, Laura Saunders, Sarah Spencer-Bowdage, Bernadette Dancy, Charles Pedlar

Health psychology review [9:205-23] (2015)

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Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centred approach to behaviour change that was originally developed in the addiction field but has increasingly been applied to public health settings with a focus on health promotion. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence base for MI interventions in primary care settings with non-clinical populations to achieve behaviour change for physical activity, dietary behaviours and/or alcohol intake. We also sought to explore the specific behaviour change techniques included in MI interventions within primary care. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles and 33 papers met inclusion criteria and were included. Approximately 50% of the included studies (n = 18) demonstrated positive effects in relation to health behaviour change. The efficacy of MI approaches is unclear given the inconsistency of MI descriptions and intervention components. Furthermore, research designs that do not isolate the effects of MI make it difficult to determine the effectiveness of such approaches. We offer a number of recommendations for researchers and practitioners seeking to include MI within behaviour change interventions to help improve the quality of the research and the effectiveness of MI-based interventions within primary care settings.


Digital health behaviour change interventions targeting physical activity and diet in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Anna Roberts, Abigail Fisher, Lee Smith, Malgorzata Heinrich, Henry Potts

Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice (2017)

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The number of cancer survivors has risen substantially due to improvements in early diagnosis and treatment. Health behaviours such as physical activity (PA) and diet can reduce recurrence and mortality, and alleviate negative consequences of cancer and treatments. Digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) have the potential to reach large numbers of cancer survivors. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of relevant studies identified by a search of Medline, EMBASE, PubMed and CINAHL. Studies which assessed a DBCI with measures of PA, diet and/or sedentary behaviour were included. Fifteen studies were identified. Random effects meta-analyses showed significant improvements in moderate-vigorous PA (seven studies; mean difference (MD) = 41 min per week; 95% CI 12, 71) and body mass index (BMI)/weight (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.23; 95% CI -0.41, -0.05). There was a trend towards significance for reduced fatigue and no significant change in cancer-specific measures of quality of life (QoL). Narrative synthesis revealed mixed evidence for effects on diet, generic QoL measures and self-efficacy and no evidence of an effect on mental health. Two studies suggested improved sleep quality. DBCIs may improve PA and BMI among cancer survivors, and there is mixed evidence for diet. The number of included studies is small, and risk of bias and heterogeneity was high. Future research should address these limitations with large, high-quality RCTs, with objective measures of PA and sedentary time. Digital technologies offer a promising approach to encourage health behaviour change among cancer survivors.


Motivational interviewing as a way to promote physical activity in obese adolescents: a randomised-controlled trial using self-determination theory as an explanatory framework.

Mathieu Gourlan, Philippe Sarrazin, David Trouilloud

Psychology & health [28:1265-86] (2013)

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Using self-determination theory (SDT) as an explanatory framework, this randomised-controlled study evaluates the effect of a motivational interviewing (MI)-based intervention as an addition to a standard weight loss programme (SWLP) on physical activity (PA) practice in obese adolescents over a six-month period. Fifty-four obese adolescents (mean age = 13 years, mean BMI = 29.57 kg/m²) were randomly assigned to an SWLP group (n = 28) or SWLP + MI group (n = 26). Both groups received two SWLP sessions, supplemented for the SWLP + MI group, by six MI sessions. Perceived autonomy support, perceived competence, motivational regulations, PA and BMI were assessed at baseline, three and six months (i.e. the end of the programme). MLM analyses revealed that compared to SWLP, the SWLP + MI group had a greater BMI decrease and a greater PA practice increase over time. Moreover, the SWLP + MI group reported greater autonomy support from medical staff at the end of the programme, greater increase in integrated and identified regulations and a stronger decrease in amotivation. MI appears as an efficient counselling method as an addition to an SWLP to promote PA in the context of pediatric obesity.


Systematic review of behaviour change techniques to promote participation in physical activity among people with dementia.

Samuel Nyman, Natalia Adamczewska, Neil Howlett

British journal of health psychology [23:148-170] (2018)

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The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the potential promise of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to increase physical activity among people with dementia (PWD). PsychINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched 01/01/2000-01/12/2016. Randomized controlled/quasi-randomized trials were included if they recruited people diagnosed/suspected to have dementia, used at least one BCT in the intervention arm, and had at least one follow-up measure of physical activity/adherence. Studies were appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool, and BCTs were coded using Michie et al., 2013, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81. taxonomy. Intervention findings were narratively synthesized as either 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising', and BCTs were judged as having potential promise if they featured in at least twice as many very/quite promising than non-promising interventions (as per Gardner et al., 2016, Health Psychology Review, 10, 89). Nineteen articles from nine trials reported physical activity findings on behavioural outcomes (two very promising, one quite promising, and two non-promising) or intervention adherence (one quite promising and four non-promising). Thirteen BCTs were used across the interventions. While no BCT had potential promise to increase intervention adherence, three BCTs had potential promise for improving physical activity behaviour outcomes: goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source. Three BCTs have potential promise for use in future interventions to increase physical activity among PWD. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While physical activity is a key lifestyle factor to enhance and maintain health and wellbeing amongst the general population, adults rarely participate in sufficient levels to obtain these benefits. Systematic reviews suggest that specific behaviour change techniques can increase physical activity, although one review suggested that self-regulatory techniques may be counterproductive when promoting physical activity among older people. Until now, no systematic review has been conducted to assess which behaviour change techniques may be associated with greater participation in physical activity among people with dementia. What does this study add? Interventions showed mixed promise for increasing physical activity and little effect on participant adherence. Goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source are promising approaches. No technique showed promise for increasing adherence to physical activity interventions among people with dementia.


A randomised controlled trial of the effects of implementation intentions on women's walking behaviour.

KP Arbour, Ginis Martin

Psychology & health [24:49-65] (2009)

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The combination of low physical activity rates and increased cardiovascular deaths indicate the overwhelming need for behaviour change interventions that can effectively promote physical activity among sedentary women. This 11-week randomised controlled trial examined the effects of an implementation intentions intervention on sedentary women's walking behaviour. Seventy-five women (M age = 48.17) were randomly assigned to either a control group where they were required to self-monitor their daily pedometer-determined step count or to an experimental group where they were asked to form specific walking plans (i.e. implementation intentions) every 6 weeks and to self-monitor their daily pedometer-determined step count. Measures of exercise intentions, perceived behavioural control, scheduling and barrier self-efficacy were administered at baseline, week 6 and week 11. Analyses indicated higher step counts over the first 6 weeks for women in the experimental condition (p < 0.02). Furthermore, higher self-efficacy to schedule (p < 0.01) and overcome walking barriers (p < 0.03), as well as higher perceptions of behavioural control (p < 0.02) were found at week 11 for women in the experimental versus control condition. However, none of the control beliefs were found to mediate the effects of the intervention on the women's walking behaviour. Furthermore, the intervention did not have any effect on the strength of the goal intention-behaviour relationship. The findings suggest implementation intentions are an effective strategy for initiating leisure-time walking within sedentary women.


An intervention to promote walking amongst the general population based on an "extended" theory of planned behaviour: a waiting list randomised controlled trial.

C Darker, D French, F Eves, F Sniehotta

Psychology & health [25:71-88] (2010)

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Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) studies have identified perceived behavioural control (PBC) as the key determinant of walking intentions. The present study investigated whether an intervention designed to alter PBC and create walking plans increased TPB measures concerning walking more, planning and objectively measured walking. One hundred and thirty UK adults participated in a waiting-list randomised controlled trial. The intervention consisted of strategies to boost PBC, plus volitional strategies to enact walking intentions. All TPB constructs were measured, along with self-reported measures of action planning and walking, and an objective pedometer measure of time spent walking. The intervention increased PBC, attitudes, intentions and objectively measured walking from 20 to 32 min a day. The effects of the intervention on intentions and behaviour were mediated by PBC, although the effects on PBC were not mediated by control beliefs. At 6 weeks follow-up, participants maintained their increases in walking. The findings of this study partially support the proposed causal nature of the extended TPB as a framework for developing and evaluating health behaviour change interventions. This is the first study using the TPB to develop, design and evaluate the components of an intervention which increased objectively measured behaviour, with effects mediated by TPB variables.


A multifactorial intervention for frail older people is more than twice as effective among those who are compliant: complier average causal effect analysis of a randomised trial.

Nicola Fairhall, Catherine Sherrington, Ian Cameron, Susan Kurrle, Stephen Lord, Keri Lockwood, Robert Herbert

Journal of physiotherapy [63:40-44] (2017)

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What is the effect of a multifactorial intervention on frailty and mobility in frail older people who comply with their allocated treatment? Secondary analysis of a randomised, controlled trial to derive an estimate of complier average causal effect (CACE) of treatment. A total of 241 frail community-dwelling people aged ≥ 70 years. Intervention participants received a 12-month multidisciplinary intervention targeting frailty, with home exercise as an important component. Control participants received usual care. Primary outcomes were frailty, assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria (range 0 to 5 criteria), and mobility measured using the 12-point Short Physical Performance Battery. Outcomes were assessed 12 months after randomisation. The treating physiotherapist evaluated the amount of treatment received on a 5-point scale. 216 participants (90%) completed the study. The median amount of treatment received was 25 to 50% (range 0 to 100). The CACE (ie, the effect of treatment in participants compliant with allocation) was to reduce frailty by 1.0 frailty criterion (95% CI 0.4 to 1.5) and increase mobility by 3.2 points (95% CI 1.8 to 4.6) at 12 months. The mean CACE was substantially larger than the intention-to-treat effect, which was to reduce frailty by 0.4 frailty criteria (95% CI 0.1 to 0.7) and increase mobility by 1.4 points (95% CI 0.8 to 2.1) at 12 months. Overall, compliance was low in this group of frail people. The effect of the treatment on participants who comply with allocated treatment was substantially greater than the effect of allocation on all trial participants. Australian and New Zealand Trial Registry ANZCTRN12608000250336. [Fairhall N, Sherrington C, Cameron ID, Kurrle SE, Lord SR, Lockwood K, Herbert RD (2016) A multifactorial intervention for frail older people is more than twice as effective among those who are compliant: complier average causal effect analysis of a randomised trial.Journal of Physiotherapy63: 40-44].


Randomized controlled trial testing an internet physical activity intervention for sedentary adults.

Lucas Carr, Shira Dunsiger, Beth Lewis, Joseph Ciccolo, Sheri Hartman, Beth Bock, Gregory Dominick, Bess Marcus

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association [32:328-36] (2013)

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Internet-based physical activity (PA) interventions have shown promise, although findings remain equivocal. We used formative research to enhance a previously demonstrated program (Step into Motion) with the goal of developing an Internet program poised for dissemination. We conducted focus groups to identify Internet features targeted to theoretical constructs (social cognitive theory) predictive of PA behavior and rated as "useful for increasing PA." We identified 5 theory-targeted Internet features as useful for increasing PA: (1) a PA tracking/logging calendar targeting self-monitoring and goal setting; (2) geographic mapping tools targeting perceived environment; (3) a discussion forum targeting social support; (4) exercise videos targeting observational learning; and (5) regular updates of peer PA progress targeting situation. We then tested the efficacy of the enhanced program (enhanced Internet, EI; N = 25) in relation to publicly available PA Websites (standard Internet, SI; N = 28) among 53 participants in a randomized controlled trial. The EI arm increased PA in relation to the SI arm at 3 months (18.4 to 186.0 min/wk vs. 20.9 to 57.3 min/wk; p = .03) but between-groups differences were not observed at 6 months (176.8 vs. 133.5 min/wk; p = .44). EI participants maintained PA from 3 to 6 months (186.0 to 176.8 min/wk), and the SI group increased PA (57.3 to 133.5 min/wk). The EI program was efficacious at improving PA levels in relation to publicly available Websites initially, but differences in PA levels were not maintained at 6 months. Future research should identify Internet features that promote long-term maintenance.


MAP-IT: A Practical Tool for Planning Complex Behavior Modification Interventions.

Sylvia Hansen, Martina Kanning, Romy Lauer, Jürgen Steinacker, Wolfgang Schlicht

Health promotion practice (2017)

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Health research often aims to prevent noncommunicable diseases and to improve individual and public health by discovering intervention strategies that are effective in changing behavior and/or environments that are detrimental to one's health. Ideally, findings from original research support practitioners in planning and implementing effective interventions. Unfortunately, interventions often fail to overcome the translational block between science and practice. They often ignore theoretical knowledge, overlook empirical evidence, and underrate the impact of the environment. Accordingly, sustainable changes in individual behavior and/or the environment are difficult to achieve. Developing theory-driven and evidence-based interventions in the real world is a complex task. Existing implementation frameworks and theories often do not meet the needs of health practitioners. The purpose of this article is to synthesize existing frameworks and to provide a tool, the Matrix Assisting Practitioner's Intervention Planning Tool (MAP-IT), that links research to practice and helps practitioners to design multicomponent interventions. In this article, we use physical activity of older adults as an example to explain the rationale of MAP-IT. In MAP-IT, individual as well as environmental mechanisms are listed and behavior change techniques are linked to these mechanisms and to intervention components. MAP-IT is theory-driven and evidence-based. It is time-saving and helpful for practitioners when planning complex interventions.


Physical activity with spiritual strategies intervention: a cluster randomized trial with older African American women.

Karen Joy Anderson, Carol Pullen

Research in gerontological nursing [6:11-21] (2013)

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A cluster randomized study was conducted using a convenience sample of four Christian faith communities from which 27 African American women 60 and older were recruited. The purpose was to determine whether African American women receiving a physical activity intervention with spiritual strategies compared to a control group would demonstrate differences over time in physical activity behaviors and biomarkers, in self-efficacy for physical activity, and in barriers to physical activity. Results with baseline and 12-week measurements included significant between-group findings at 12 weeks on muscle strength activity (minutes per week, z = -3.269, p = 0.001; days per week, z = -3.384, p = 0.001), favoring the intervention group. There were significant between-group findings in 6-minute walk change scores (z = -2.546, p = 0.009), favoring the intervention group. Barriers were significantly reduced within the intervention group (z = -2.184, p = 0.029). Evidence suggests a physical activity intervention with spiritual strategies increases physical activity behavior. The Health Promotion Model can be used to develop physical activity interventions with spiritual strategies for older African American women in faith communities, thus, supporting Healthy People 2020 goals.


Revisiting self-regulatory techniques to promote physical activity in older adults: null-findings from a randomised controlled trial.

Lisa Warner, Julia Wolff, Jochen Ziegelmann, Ralf Schwarzer, Susanne Wurm

Psychology & health (2016)

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A randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to evaluate a three-hour face-to-face physical activity (PA) intervention in community-dwelling older German adults with four groups: The intervention group (IG) received behaviour change techniques (BCTs) based on the health action process approach plus a views-on-ageing component to increase PA. The second intervention group 'planning' (IGpl) contained the same BCTs, only substituted the views-on-ageing component against an additional planning task. An active control group received the same BCTs, however, targeting volunteering instead of PA. A passive control group (PCG) received no intervention. The RCT comprised 5 time-points over 14 months in N = 310 participants aged 64+. Self-reported as well as accelerometer-assessed PA. Neither PA measure increased in the IG as compared to the other groups at any point in time. Bayes analyses supported these null-effects. A possible explanation for this null-finding in line with a recent meta-analysis is that some self-regulatory BCTs may be ineffective or even negatively associated with PA in interventions for older adults as they are assumed to be less acceptable for older adults. This interpretation was supported by observed reluctance to participate in self-regulatory BCTs in the current study.


The ReSiT study (reducing sitting time): rationale and protocol for an exploratory pilot study of an intervention to reduce sitting time among office workers.

Benjamin Gardner, Stephen Dewitt, Lee Smith, John Buckley, Stuart Biddle, Louise Mansfield

Pilot and feasibility studies [3:47] (2017)

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Desk-based workers engage in long periods of uninterrupted sitting time, which has been associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Previous workplace intervention trials have demonstrated the potential of providing sit-stand workstations, and of administering motivational behaviour change techniques, for reducing sitting time. Yet, few studies have combined these approaches or explored the acceptability of discrete sitting-reduction behaviour change strategies. This paper describes the rationale for a sitting-reduction intervention that combines sit-stand workstations with motivational techniques, and procedures for a pilot study to explore the acceptability of core intervention components among university office workers. The intervention is based on a theory and evidence-based analysis of why office workers sit, and how best to reduce sitting time. It seeks to enhance motivation and capability, as well as identify opportunities, required to reduce sitting time. Thirty office workers will participate in the pilot study. They will complete an initial awareness-raising monitoring and feedback task and subsequently receive a sit-stand workstation for a 12-week period. They will also select from a 'menu' of behaviour change techniques tailored to self-declared barriers to sitting reduction, effectively co-producing and personally tailoring their intervention. Interviews at 1, 6, and 12 weeks post-intervention will explore intervention acceptability. To our knowledge, this will be the first study to explore direct feedback from office workers on the acceptability of discrete tailored sitting-reduction intervention components that they have received. Participants' choice of and reflections on intervention techniques will aid identification of strategies suitable for inclusion in the next iteration of the intervention, which will be delivered in a self-administered format to minimise resource burden. ISRCTN29395780 (registered 21 November 2016).


Effectiveness of physician-based assessment and counseling for exercise in a staff model HMO.

S Norris, L Grothaus, D Buchner, M Pratt

Preventive medicine [30:513-23] (2000)

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Few primary care physicians routinely counsel for exercise, despite the benefits of physical activity and the high prevalence of inactivity. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of Physician-Based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise (PACE), a brief, behavior-based tool for primary care providers counseling healthy adults. This study is a randomized controlled trial of 812 patients age 30 years or older registered for well visits at 32 primary care physician offices at a staff model health maintenance organization. Intervention physicians were trained to deliver PACE exercise counseling protocols at the index visit, and one reminder telephone call occurred at 1 month. An enhanced intervention group received additional activity reminders. At the 6-month follow-up, the control group did not differ significantly from the intervention group for energy expended (2,048 kcal/week versus 2,108 kcal/ week, P = 0.77), time spent in walking or other moderate to vigorous activities (202 min/week versus 187 min/ week, P = 0.99), mental health, physical function, or behaviors previously shown to predict activity change. Among the intervention patients, the stages-of-change score for Contemplators increased significantly compared with controls (P = 0.03), but without a significant change in energy expended. Baseline levels of physical activity counseling were high (50%), as were baseline patient physical activity levels (61% exercised at least three times a week). These results suggest that a one-time PACE counseling session with minimal reinforcement, in a setting with high baseline levels of activity, does not further increase activity. The finding that Contemplators advanced in stage of behavior change suggests that further studies are needed to examine long-term, repeated counseling interventions.


An extended theory of planned behavior intervention for older adults with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Katherine White, Deborah Terry, Carolyn Troup, Lynn Rempel, Paul Norman, Kerry Mummery, Malcolm Riley, Natasha Posner, Justin Kenardy

Journal of aging and physical activity [20:281-99] (2012)

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A randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a 4-wk extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) intervention to promote regular physical activity and healthy eating among older adults diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease (N = 183). Participants completed TPB measures of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention, as well as planning and behavior, at preintervention and 1 wk and 6 wk postintervention for each behavior. No significant time-by-condition effects emerged for healthy eating. For physical activity, significant time-by-condition effects were found for behavior, intention, planning, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm. In particular, compared with control participants, the intervention group showed short-term improvements in physical activity and planning, with further analyses indicating that the effect of the intervention on behavior was mediated by planning. The results indicate that TPB-based interventions including planning strategies may encourage physical activity among older people with diabetes and cardiovascular disease.


Effects of a self-determination theory-based mail-mediated intervention on adults' exercise behavior.

Susan Levy, Bradley Cardinal

American journal of health promotion : AJHP [18:345-9] ()

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To examine the effect of a mail-mediated intervention, based on self-determination theory, on adults'exercise behavior. The study was a randomized control trial conducted over a 2-month period. Of the initial 185 volunteer participants, 126 (68.1%) completed questionnaires at baseline, 1 month, and 2 months. Participants in intervention-only and intervention-plus-booster groups received a mail-delivered packet containing strategies designed to promote perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness regarding exercise. Those in a control group received an American Heart Association physical-activity facts packet. After 1 month, those in the intervention-plus-booster group received a booster postcard, reiterating the main points of the initial intervention packet. Exercise behavior was the primary outcome variable. Perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness were evaluated as mediating variables. Separate 3 (group) x 3 (time) repeated measures analyses of variance conducted for men and women revealed that for women, all three groups significantly increased exercise levels over the 2-month period. No significant interactions were found regarding the influence of the intervention on the mediating variables. A process evaluation indicated a lack of compliance regarding completing intervention-packet worksheets. Findings suggested that more intensive interventions and greater fidelity of treatment may be needed to evidence change in exercise behavior.


The effects of an 'exercise and education' programme on exercise self-efficacy and levels of independent activity in adults with acquired neurological pathologies: an exploratory, randomized study.

Jo Haworth, Carolyn Young, Everard Thornton

Clinical rehabilitation [23:371-83] (2009)

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To evaluate the effects of an exercise and education programme on primary outcomes of exercise efficacy and activity levels; and on secondary outcomes including quality of life, mood and physical disability. Randomized, single blind trial. Specialist neurosciences centre. Forty-four patients with acquired neurological pathologies. Twenty-one participants undertook a four-week exercise and education programme alongside standard follow-up care. Twenty-three participants underwent standard follow-up care alone. Primary outcome measures included the Exercise Efficacy Scale and Human Activity Profile. Secondary outcomes were evaluated by the Short Form 36 Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist, Motricity Index, Frenchay Arm Test, Rivermead Mobility Index, 10-metre timed walk and a visual analogue scale. Data were collected at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. At six weeks, significant improvements in exercise efficacy were found following the treatment but not the control (P= 0.001). Moderate improvements in activity levels were noted for both study groups with no between-group differences. Short Form 36 'physical health' and 'general health' domains showed trends towards increased positive change following the intervention, but these did not reach significant levels. Mood, physical impairment and physical disability remained unchanged within either study group. Longer term follow-up revealed that the improvements noted in exercise self-efficacy, activity levels and quality of life were maintained. The intervention resulted in improved exercise efficacy and may positively influence the physical and general health dimensions of health-related quality of life.


Mediation of effects of a theory-based behavioral intervention on self-reported physical activity in South African men.

John Jemmott, Alisa Stephens-Shields, Ann O'Leary, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Anne Teitelman, Zolani Ngwane, Xoliswa Mtose

Preventive medicine [72:1-7] (2015)

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Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men.


Effects of health risk assessment and counselling on physical activity in older people: A pragmatic randomised trial.

Anna Herghelegiu, André Moser, Gabriel Ioan Prada, Stephan Born, Matthias Wilhelm, Andreas Stuck

PloS one [12:e0181371] (2017)

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Interventions to increase physical activity (PA) among older community-dwelling adults may be enhanced by using multidimensional health risk assessment (HRA) as a basis for PA counselling. The study was conducted among nondisabled but mostly frail persons 65 years of age and older at an ambulatory geriatric clinic in Bucharest, Romania. From May to July 2014, 200 participants were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Intervention group participants completed an initial HRA questionnaire and then had monthly counselling sessions with a geriatrician over a period of six months that were aimed at increasing low or maintaining higher PA. Counselling also addressed the older persons' concomitant health risks and problems. The primary outcome was PA at six months (November 2014 to February 2015) evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. At baseline, PA levels were similar in intervention and control groups (median 1089.0, and 1053.0 MET [metabolic equivalent of task] minutes per week, interquartile ranges 606.0-1401.7, and 544.5-1512.7 MET minutes per week, respectively). Persons in the intervention group had an average of 11.2 concomitant health problems and risks (e.g., pain, depressive mood, hypertension). At six months, PA increased in the intervention group by a median of 180.0 MET minutes per week (95% confidence interval (CI) 43.4-316.6, p = 0.01) to 1248.8 MET minutes per week. In the control group, PA decreased by a median of 346.5 MET minutes per week (95% CI 178.4-514.6, p<0.001) to 693.0 MET minutes per week due to a seasonal effect, resulting in a difference of 420.0 MET minutes per week (95% CI 212.7-627.3, p< 0.001) between groups. The use of HRA to inform individualized PA counselling is a promising method for achieving improvements in PA, and ultimately health and longevity among large groups of community-dwelling older persons. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN11166046.


mHealth Technologies to Influence Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors: Behavior Change Techniques, Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Artur Direito, Eliana Carraça, Jonathan Rawstorn, Robyn Whittaker, Ralph Maddison

Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (2016)

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mHealth programs offer potential for practical and cost-effective delivery of interventions capable of reaching many individuals. To (1) compare the effectiveness of mHealth interventions to promote physical activity (PA) and reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in free-living young people and adults with a comparator exposed to usual care/minimal intervention; (2) determine whether, and to what extent, such interventions affect PA and SB levels and (3) use the taxonomy of behavior change techniques (BCTs) to describe intervention characteristics. A systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA guidelines was undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing mHealth interventions with usual or minimal care among individuals free from conditions that could limit PA. Total PA, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), walking and SB outcomes were extracted. Intervention content was independently coded following the 93-item taxonomy of BCTs. Twenty-one RCTs (1701 participants-700 with objectively measured PA) met eligibility criteria. SB decreased more following mHealth interventions than after usual care (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.26, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.53 to -0.00). Summary effects across studies were small to moderate and non-significant for total PA (SMD 0.14, 95 % CI -0.12 to 0.41); MVPA (SMD 0.37, 95 % CI -0.03 to 0.77); and walking (SMD 0.14, 95 % CI -0.01 to 0.29). BCTs were employed more frequently in intervention (mean = 6.9, range 2 to 12) than in comparator conditions (mean = 3.1, range 0 to 10). Of all BCTs, only 31 were employed in intervention conditions. Current mHealth interventions have small effects on PA/SB. Technological advancements will enable more comprehensive, interactive and responsive intervention delivery. Future mHealth PA studies should ensure that all the active ingredients of the intervention are reported in sufficient detail.


A randomised controlled trial of three very brief interventions for physical activity in primary care.

Sally Pears, Maaike Bijker, Katie Morton, Joana Vasconcelos, Richard Parker, Kate Westgate, Soren Brage, Ed Wilson, A Toby Prevost, Ann-Louise Kinmonth, Simon Griffin, Stephen Sutton, Wendy Hardeman

BMC public health [16:1033] (2016)

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Very brief interventions (VBIs) for physical activity are promising, but there is uncertainty about their potential effectiveness and cost. We assessed potential efficacy, feasibility, acceptability, and cost of three VBIs in primary care, in order to select the most promising intervention for evaluation in a subsequent large-scale RCT. Three hundred and ninety four adults aged 40-74 years were randomised to a Motivational (n = 83), Pedometer (n = 74), or Combined (n = 80) intervention, delivered immediately after a preventative health check in primary care, or control (Health Check only; n = 157). Potential efficacy was measured as the probability of a positive difference between an intervention arm and the control arm in mean physical activity, measured by accelerometry at 4 weeks. For the primary outcome the estimated effect sizes (95 % CI) relative to the Control arm for the Motivational, Pedometer and Combined arms were respectively: +20.3 (-45.0, +85.7), +23.5 (-51.3, +98.3), and -3.1 (-69.3, +63.1) counts per minute. There was a73% probability of a positive effect on physical activity for each of the Motivational and Pedometer VBIs relative to control, but only 46 % for the Combined VBI. Only the Pedometer VBI was deliverable within 5 min. All VBIs were acceptable and low cost. Based on the four criteria, the Pedometer VBI was selected for evaluation in a large-scale trial. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02863077 . Retrospectively registered 05/10/2012.


The effect of a multifaceted efficacy intervention on exercise behavior in relatives of colon cancer patients.

Erin McGowan, Harry Prapavessis, Nerissa Campbell, Casey Gray, Joy Elkayam

International journal of behavioral medicine [19:550-62] (2012)

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Regular physical activity (PA) provides health benefits; however, at least 60% of the population fails to engage in the recommended amount of PA required to produce these health benefits. The primary purpose of the study was to examine over a 12-week structured exercise program the effect of a multifaceted efficacy intervention (MEI-i.e., task and specific types of self-regulatory efficacy) on objectively measured exercise behavior. Secondary purposes were to examine the effect of the MEI on both task and self-regulatory efficacy levels; and to determine whether efficacy beliefs could predict exercise behavior. Relatives of colon cancer patients (N = 140) were enrolled in an exercise program, and were randomized to either a MEI or attention control condition, and took part in classroom sessions. Behavior was assessed throughout the 12-week program using objective measures of frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise, and dropout rates, while self-reported task, barrier, scheduling, goal-setting, and relapse prevention efficacy were assessed at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12. The MEI group exercised for longer duration in the early phase of the program (i.e., 0-4 weeks); however, no significant differences were noted for exercise frequency and intensity. Differential dropout was found favoring the MEI group at weeks 8 and 12. No treatment condition differences were found for reported efficacy beliefs. Proceeding self-efficacious beliefs were associated with objective measures of behavior. A MEI grounded in Social Cognitive Theory was partially effective in influencing colon cancer relatives' exercise behavior.


Referral for Expert Physical Activity Counseling: A Pragmatic RCT.

Erica James, Ben Ewald, Natalie Johnson, Fiona Stacey, Wendy Brown, Elizabeth Holliday, Mark Jones, Fan Yang, Charlotte Hespe, Ronald Plotnikoff

American journal of preventive medicine (2017)

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Primary care physicians are well placed to offer physical activity counseling, but insufficient time is a barrier. Referral to an exercise specialist is an alternative. In Australia, exercise specialists are publicly funded to provide face-to-face counseling to patients who have an existing chronic illness. This trial aimed to (1) determine the efficacy of primary care physicians' referral of insufficiently active patients for counseling to increase physical activity, compared with usual care, and (2) compare the efficacy of face-to-face counseling with counseling predominantly via telephone. Three-arm pragmatic RCT. Two hundred three insufficiently active (<7,000 steps/day) primary care practice patients (mean age 57 years; 70% female) recruited in New South Wales, Australia, in 2011-2014. (1) Five face-to-face counseling sessions by an exercise specialist, (2) one face-to-face counseling session followed by four telephone calls by an exercise specialist, or (3) a generic mailed physical activity brochure (usual care). The counseling sessions operationalized social cognitive theory via a behavior change counseling framework. Change in average daily step counts between baseline and 12 months. Data were analyzed in 2016. Forty (20%) participants formally withdrew; completion rates at 3 and 6 months were 64% and 58%, respectively. Intervention attendance was high (75% received five sessions). The estimated mean difference between usual care and the combined intervention groups at 12 months was 1,002 steps/day (95% CI=244, 1,759, p=0.01). When comparing face-to-face with predominantly telephone counseling, the telephone group had a non-significant higher mean daily step count (by 619 steps) at 12 months. Provision of expert physical activity counseling to insufficiently active primary care patients resulted in a significant increase in physical activity (approximately 70 minutes of walking per week) at 12 months. Face-to-face only and counseling conducted predominantly via telephone were both effective. This trial provides evidence to expand public funding for expert physical activity counseling and for delivery via telephone in addition to face-to-face consultations. This trial is registered at www.anzctr.org.au/ ACTRN12611000884909.


Implementation of behavior change techniques in mobile applications for physical activity.

Chih-Hsiang Yang, Jaclyn Maher, David Conroy

American journal of preventive medicine [48:452-5] (2015)

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Mobile applications (apps) for physical activity are popular and hold promise for promoting behavior change and reducing non-communicable disease risk. App marketing materials describe a limited number of behavior change techniques (BCTs), but apps may include unmarketed BCTs, which are important as well. To characterize the extent to which BCTs have been implemented in apps from a systematic user inspection of apps. Top-ranked physical activity apps (N=100) were identified in November 2013 and analyzed in 2014. BCTs were coded using a contemporary taxonomy following a user inspection of apps. Users identified an average of 6.6 BCTs per app and most BCTs in the taxonomy were not represented in any apps. The most common BCTs involved providing social support, information about others' approval, instructions on how to perform a behavior, demonstrations of the behavior, and feedback on the behavior. A latent class analysis of BCT configurations revealed that apps focused on providing support and feedback as well as support and education. Contemporary physical activity apps have implemented a limited number of BCTs and have favored BCTs with a modest evidence base over others with more established evidence of efficacy (e.g., social media integration for providing social support versus active self-monitoring by users). Social support is a ubiquitous feature of contemporary physical activity apps and differences between apps lie primarily in whether the limited BCTs provide education or feedback about physical activity.


A randomized controlled trial of an office-based physical activity and physical fitness intervention for older adults.

Janet Purath, Colleen Keller, Sterling McPherson, Barbara Ainsworth

Geriatric nursing (New York, N.Y.) [34:204-11] ()

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This primary care-based study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a 24-week intervention on physical activity and physical fitness in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Secondary aims were to determine the effect of the intervention on self-efficacy and barriers to physical activity. Intervention participants (n = 36) received an exercise prescription based on physical fitness test results and personal choice. Comparison participants (n = 36) received a nutrition intervention. Both groups received 10 follow-up telephone calls. Repeated measures ANOVA analyses showed no direct effects of the intervention on the primary outcomes of physical activity or physical fitness in the intervention group (p > 0.05). Secondary analyses with ANCOVA that included potential moderating variables of age, gender, income, BMI, and support for physical activity showed that the intervention group significantly increased frequency of all physical activity (F = 3.50, p < 0.05) as well as the fitness outcomes of lower body strength (F = 3.63, p < 0.05) and aerobic endurance (F = 4.03, p < 0.05). This is one of the first studies to evaluate the use of fitness measures to increase physical activity and fitness in the primary care setting. The intervention improved some aspects of physical activity and fitness for selected participants.


A process evaluation of a Psychomotor Dance Therapy Intervention (DANCIN) for behavior change in dementia: attitudes and beliefs of participating residents and staff.

Azucena Guzmán, Lisa Robinson, Lynn Rochester, Ian James, Julian Hughes

International psychogeriatrics (2016)

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In a previous paper, we presented results from a 12-week study of a Psychomotor DANCe Therapy INtervention (DANCIN) based on Danzón Latin Ballroom that involves motor, emotional-affective, and cognitive domains, using a multiple-baseline single-case design in three care homes. This paper reports the results of a complementary process evaluation to elicit the attitudes and beliefs of home care staff, participating residents, and family members with the aim of refining the content of DANCIN in dementia care. An external researcher collected bespoke questionnaires from ten participating residents, 32 care home staff, and three participants' family members who provided impromptu feedback in one of the care homes. The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1) provided a methodological tool for identifying active components of the DANCIN approach warranting further exploration, development, and implementation. Ten residents found DANCIN beneficial in terms of mood and socialization in the care home. Overall, 78% of the staff thought DANCIN led to improvements in residents' mood; 75% agreed that there were improvements in behavior; 56% reported increased job satisfaction; 78% of staff were enthusiastic about receiving further training. Based on participants' responses, four BCTTv1 labels-Social support (emotional), Focus on past success and verbal persuasion to boost self-efficacy, Restructuring the social environment and Habit formation-were identified to describe the intervention. Residents and staff recommended including additional musical genres and extending the session length. Discussions of implementing a supervision system to sustain DANCIN regularly regardless of management or staff turnover were suggested. Care home residents with mild to moderate dementia wanted to continue DANCIN as part of their routine care and staff and family members were largely supportive of this approach. This study argues in favor of further dissemination of DANCIN in care homes. We provide recommendations for the future development of DANCIN based on the views of key stakeholder groups.


TTM-based motivational counselling does not increase physical activity of low back pain patients in a primary care setting--A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

Corinna Leonhardt, Stefan Keller, Jean-François Chenot, Judith Luckmann, Heinz-Dieter Basler, Karl Wegscheider, Erika Baum, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff, Michael Pfingsten, Jan Hildebrandt, Michael Kochen, Annette Becker

Patient education and counseling [70:50-60] (2008)

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To investigate the effectiveness of a TTM-based motivational counselling approach by trained practice nurses to promote physical activity of low back pain patients in a German primary care setting. Data were collected in a cluster-randomized controlled trial with three study arms via questionnaires and patient interviews at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. We analysed total physical activity and self-efficacy by using random effect models to allow for clustering. A total of 1378 low back pain patients, many with acute symptoms, were included in the study. Nearly 40% of all patients reported sufficient physical activity at baseline. While there were significant improvements in patients' physical activity behaviour in all study arms, there was no evidence for an intervention effect. The outcome may be explained by insufficient performance of the practice nurses, implementation barriers caused by the German health care system and the heterogenous sample. Given the objective to incorporate practice nurses into patient education, there is a need for a better basic training of the nurses and for a change towards an organizational structure that facilitates patient-nurse communication. Counselling for low back pain patients has to consider more specificated aims for different subgroups.


Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

Laura Belmon, Anouk Middelweerd, Saskia J Te Velde, Johannes Brug

JMIR mHealth and uHealth [3:e103] (2015)

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Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. This study aimed to explore young adults' opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants' gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: "goal setting and goal reviewing," "feedback and self-monitoring," and "social support and social comparison." Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase "goal setting and goal reviewing" and "feedback and self-monitoring," but not for BCTs addressing "social support and social comparison." Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality characteristics and BCTs were observed: "agreeableness" was related to more positive ratings of BCTs addressing "goal setting and goal reviewing" (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06-2.41), "neuroticism" was related to BCTs addressing "feedback and self-monitoring" (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-1.00), and "exercise self-efficacy" was related to a high rating of BCTs addressing "feedback and self-monitoring" (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11). No associations were observed between personality characteristics (ie, personality, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity) and participants' ratings of BCTs addressing "social support and social comparison." Young Dutch physically active adults rate self-regulation techniques as most positive and techniques addressing social support as less positive among mobile phone apps that aim to promote physical activity. Such ratings of BCTs differ according to personality traits and exercise self-efficacy. Future research should focus on which behavior change techniques in app-based interventions are most effective to increase physical activity.


A Dyadic Action Control Trial in Overweight and Obese Couples (DYACTIC).

U Scholz, C Berli

BMC public health [14:1321] (2014)

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Enhancing physical activity in overweight and obese individuals is an important means to promote health in this target population. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA), which was the theoretical framework of this study, focuses on individual self-regulation variables for successful health behavior change. One key self-regulation variable of this model is action control with its three subfacets awareness of intentions, self-monitoring and regulatory effort. The social context of individuals, however, is usually neglected in common health behavior change theories. In order to integrate social influences into the HAPA, this randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of a dyadic conceptualization of action control for promoting physical activity. This protocol describes the design of a single-blind randomized controlled trial, which comprises four experimental groups: a dyadic action control group, an individual action control group and two control groups. Participants of this study are overweight or obese, heterosexual adult couples who intend to increase their physical activity. Blocking as means of a gender-balanced randomization is used to allocate couples to conditions and partners to either being the target person of the intervention or to the partner condition. The ecological momentary intervention takes place in the first 14 days after baseline assessment and is followed by another 14 days diary phase without intervention. Follow-ups are one month and six months later. Subsequent to the six-months follow-up another 14 days diary phase takes place.The main outcome measures are self-reported and accelerometer-assessed physical activity. Secondary outcome measures are Body Mass Index (BMI), aerobic fitness and habitual physical activity. This is the first study examining a dyadic action control intervention in comparison to an individual action control condition and two control groups applying a single-blind randomized control trial. Challenges with running couples studies as well as advantages and disadvantages of certain design-related decisions are discussed.


The Logan Healthy Living Program: a cluster randomized trial of a telephone-delivered physical activity and dietary behavior intervention for primary care patients with type 2 diabetes or hypertension from a socially disadvantaged community--rationale, design and recruitment.

Elizabeth Eakin, Marina Reeves, Sheleigh Lawler, Brian Oldenburg, Chris Del Mar, Ken Wilkie, Adele Spencer, Diana Battistutta, Nicholas Graves

Contemporary clinical trials [29:439-54] (2008)

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Physical activity and dietary behavior changes are important to both the primary prevention and secondary management of the majority of our most prevalent chronic conditions (i.e., cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, breast and colon cancer). With over 85% of Australian adults visiting a general practitioner each year, the general practice setting has enormous potential to facilitate wide scale delivery of health behaviour interventions. However, there are also many barriers to delivery in such settings, including lack of time, training, resources and remuneration. Thus there is an important need to evaluate other feasible and effective means of delivering evidence-based physical activity and dietary behaviour programs to patients in primary care, including telephone counseling interventions. Using a cluster randomized design with practice as the unit of randomization, this study evaluated a telephone-delivered intervention for physical activity and dietary change targeting patients with chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes or hypertension) recruited from primary care practices in a socially disadvantaged community in Queensland, Australia. Ten practices were randomly assigned to the telephone intervention or to usual care, and 434 patients were recruited. Patients in intervention practices received a workbook and 18 calls over 12 months. Assessment at baseline, 4-, 12- and 18-months allows for assessment of initial change and maintenance of primary outcomes (physical activity and dietary behavior change) and secondary outcomes (quality of life, cost-effectiveness, support for health behavior change). This effectiveness trial adds to the currently limited number of telephone-delivered intervention studies targeting both physical activity and dietary change. It also addresses some of the shortcomings of previous trials by targeting patients from a disadvantaged community, and by including detailed reporting on participant representativeness, intervention implementation and cost-effectiveness, as well as an evaluation of maintenance of health behavior change.


The role of self-regulating abilities in long-term weight loss in severely obese children and adolescents undergoing intensive combined lifestyle interventions (HELIOS); rationale, design and methods.

Jutka Halberstadt, Sabine Makkes, Emely de Vet, Anita Jansen, Chantal Nederkoorn, Olga Hvan der Baan-Slootweg, Jacob Seidell

BMC pediatrics [13:41] (2013)

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Adequate treatment of severe childhood obesity is important given its serious social, psychological and physical consequences. Self-regulation may be a crucial determinant of treatment success. Yet, little is known about the role that self-regulation and other psychosocial factors play in the long-term outcome of obesity treatment in severely obese children and adolescents.In this paper, we describe the design of a study that aims to determine whether the ability to self-regulate predicts long-term weight loss in severely obese children and adolescents. An additional objective is to identify other psychosocial factors that may modify this relation. The study is designed as a prospective observational study of 120 severely obese children and adolescents (8-19 years) and their parents/caregivers undergoing an intensive combined lifestyle intervention during one year. The intervention uses behavior change techniques to improve the general ability to self-regulate.Measurements will be taken at three points in time: at baseline (start of treatment), at the end of treatment (1 year after baseline) and at follow-up (2 years after baseline). The primary outcome measurement is the gender and age-specific change in SDS-BMI.The children's general self-regulation abilities are evaluated by two behavioral computer tasks assessing two distinct aspects of self-regulation that are particularly relevant to controlling food intake: inhibitory control (Stop Signal Task) and sensitivity to reward (Balloon Analogue Risk Task). In addition to the computer tasks, a self-report measure of eating-specific self-regulation ability is used. Psychosocial factors related to competence, motivation, relatedness and outcome expectations are examined as moderating factors using several questionnaires for the patients and their parents/caregivers. This study will provide knowledge about the relation between self-regulation and long-term weight loss after intensive lifestyle interventions over a two-year period in severely obese children and adolescents, a growing but often overlooked patient group. We aim to investigate to what extent (changes in) the general ability to self-regulate predicts weight loss and weight loss maintenance. This study will also contribute to the knowledge on how this association is modified by other psychosocial factors. The results may contribute to the development of more successful interventions. Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1678, registered 20-Feb-2009).


Systematic Development of the YouRAction program, a computer-tailored physical activity promotion intervention for Dutch adolescents, targeting personal motivations and environmental opportunities.

Richard Prins, Pepijn van Empelen, Marielle Beenackers, Johannes Brug, Anke Oenema

BMC public health [10:474] (2010)

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Increasing physical activity (PA) among adolescents is an important health promotion goal. PA has numerous positive health effects, but the majority of Dutch adolescents do not meet PA requirements. The present paper describes the systematic development of a theory-based computer-tailored intervention, YouRAction, which targets individual and environmental factors determining PA among adolescents. The intervention development was guided by the Intervention Mapping protocol, in order to define clear program objectives, theoretical methods and practical strategies, ensure systematic program planning and pilot-testing, and anticipate on implementation and evaluation. Two versions of YouRAction were developed: one that targets individual determinants and an extended version that also provides feedback on opportunities to be active in the neighbourhood. Key determinants that were targeted included: knowledge and awareness, attitudes, self-efficacy and subjective norms. The extended version also addressed perceived availability of neighbourhood PA facilities. Both versions aimed to increase levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA among adolescents. The intervention structure was based on self-regulation theory, comprising of five steps in the process of successful goal pursuit. Monitoring of PA behaviour and behavioural and normative feedback were used to increase awareness of PA behaviour; motivation was enhanced by targeting self-efficacy and attitudes, by means of various interactive strategies, such as web movies; the perceived environment was targeted by visualizing opportunities to be active in an interactive geographical map of the home environment; in the goal setting phase, the adolescents were guided in setting a goal and developing an action plan to achieve this goal; in the phase of active goal pursuit adolescents try to achieve their goal and in the evaluation phase the achievements are evaluated. Based on the results of the evaluation adolescents could revise their goal or choose another behaviour to focus on. The intervention is delivered in a classroom setting in three lessons. YouRAction will be evaluated in a cluster-randomized trial, with classes as unit of randomization. Evaluation will focus on PA outcomes, cognitive mediators/moderators and process measures. The planned development of YouRAction resulted in two computer-tailored interventions aimed at the promotion of PA in a Dutch secondary school setting. NTR1923.


Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study.

Scott Duncan, Julia McPhee, Philip Schluter, Caryn Zinn, Richard Smith, Grant Schofield

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [8:127] (2011)

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Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.


Development of a web-based and mobile app to support physical activity in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the second step of a co-design process.

Åsa Revenäs, Christina Opava, Cathrin Martin, Ingrid Demmelmaier, Christina Keller, Pernilla Åsenlöf

JMIR research protocols [4:e22] (2015)

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Long-term adherence to physical activity recommendations remains challenging for most individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite evidence for its health benefits. The aim of this study was to provide basic data on system requirement specifications for a Web-based and mobile app to self-manage physical activity. More specifically, we explored the target user group, features of the future app, and correlations between the system requirements and the established behavior change techniques (BCTs). We used a participatory action research design. Qualitative data were collected using multiple methods in four workshops. Participants were 5 individuals with RA, a clinical physiotherapist, an officer from the Swedish Rheumatism Association, a Web designer, and 2 physiotherapy researchers. A taxonomy was used to determine the degree of correlation between the system requirements and established BCTs. Participants agreed that the future Web-based and mobile app should be based on two major components important for maintaining physical activity: (1) a calendar feature for goal setting, planning, and recording of physical activity performance and progress, and (2) a small community feature for positive feedback and support from peers. All system requirements correlated with established BCTs, which were coded as 24 different BCTs. To our knowledge, this study is the first to involve individuals with RA as co-designers, in collaboration with clinicians, researchers, and Web designers, to produce basic data to generate system requirement specifications for an eHealth service. The system requirements correlated to the BCTs, making specifications of content and future evaluation of effectiveness possible.


Long-term impact of Fit and Strong! on older adults with osteoarthritis.

Susan Hughes, Rachel Seymour, Richard Campbell, Gail Huber, Naomi Pollak, Leena Sharma, Pankaja Desai

The Gerontologist [46:801-14] (2006)

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We present final outcomes from the multiple-component Fit and Strong! intervention for older adults with lower extremity osteoarthritis. A randomized controlled trial compared the effects of this exercise and behavior-change program followed by home-based reinforcement (n=115) with a wait list control (n=100) at 2, 6, and 12 months. Fit and Strong! combined flexibility, aerobic walking, and resistance training with education and group problem solving to enhance self-efficacy for exercise and maintenance of physical activity. All participants developed individualized plans for long-term maintenance. Relative to controls, treatment participants experienced statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy for exercise (p=.001), minutes of exercise per week (p=.000), and lower extremity stiffness (p=.018) at 2 months. These benefits were maintained at 6 months and were accompanied by increased self-efficacy for adherence to exercise over time (p=.001), reduced pain (p=.040), and a marginally significant increase in self-efficacy for arthritis pain management (p=.052). Despite a substantially smaller sample size at 12 months, significant treatment-group effects were maintained on self-efficacy for exercise (p=.006) and minutes of exercise per week (p=.001), accompanied by marginally significant reductions in lower extremity stiffness (p=.056) and pain (p=.066). No adverse health effects were seen. Effect sizes for self-efficacy for exercise and for maintenance of physical activity were 0.798 and 0.713, and 0.905 and 0.669, respectively, in the treatment group at 6 and 12 months. This consistent pattern of benefits indicates that this low-cost intervention is efficacious for older adults with lower extremity osteoarthritis.


A Text-Messaging and Pedometer Program to Promote Physical Activity in People at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Development of the PROPELS Follow-On Support Program.

Katie Morton, Stephen Sutton, Wendy Hardeman, Jacqui Troughton, Tom Yates, Simon Griffin, Melanie Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Helen Eborall

JMIR mHealth and uHealth [3:e105] (2015)

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Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represent a promising strategy for reducing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk. The PROPELS trial investigates whether structured group-based education alone or supplemented with a follow-on support program combining self-monitoring with pedometers and tailored text-messaging is effective in promoting and maintaining physical activity among people at high risk of T2DM. This paper describes the iterative development of the PROPELS follow-on support program and presents evidence on its acceptability and feasibility. We used a modified mHealth development framework with four phases: (1) conceptualization of the follow-on support program using theory and evidence, (2) formative research including focus groups (n=15, ages 39-79 years), (3) pre-testing focus groups using a think aloud protocol (n=20, ages 52-78 years), and (4) piloting (n=11). Analysis was informed by the constant comparative approach, with findings from each phase informing subsequent phases. The first three phases informed the structure, nature, and content of the follow-on support program, including the frequency of text messages, the need for tailored content and two-way interaction, the importance of motivational messages based on encouragement and reinforcement of affective benefits (eg, enjoyment) with minimal messages about weight and T2DM risk, and the need for appropriate language. The refined program is personalized and tailored to the individual's perceived confidence, previous activity levels, and physical activity goals. The pilot phase indicated that the program appeared to fit well with everyday routines and was easy to use by older adults. We developed a feasible and innovative text messaging and pedometer program based on evidence and behavior change theory and grounded in the experiences, views, and needs of people at high diabetes risk. A large scale trial is testing the effectiveness of this 4-year program over and above structured group education alone. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 83465245; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN83465245/83465245 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6dfSmrVAe).


A scoping review on interventions to promote physical activity among adults with disabilities.

Oscar Castro, Kwok Ng, Elizaveta Novoradovskaya, Grégoire Bosselut, Mary Hassandra

Disability and health journal [11:174-183] (2018)

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Despite the strong evidence that physical activity (PA) is a key determinant of health, there is limited knowledge on the content and outcomes of PA promotion interventions among individuals with disabilities. To conduct a scoping review in order to examine the published literature on PA promotion interventions among adults with disabilities. A scoping review following the methodological framework provided by Arksey and O'Malley used electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL), reference lists, and journals to locate studies. Inclusion criteria were based on study aim, outcome measures, and a disability definition by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy version 1 and Furlan and collaborators' risk of bias assessment were utilized during the data charting stage. Thirty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies (70%) reported a significant increase in PA behavior immediately following intervention. However, less than half of the studies (46%) examined the maintenance of pre-/post-test differences. The number of identified behavior change techniques was significantly higher for successful PA promotion interventions than for interventions with no effects on PA. Approximately one-third of studies (32%) were rated as having a high risk of bias. Although findings support the idea that PA promotion interventions produce positive changes in PA behavior for a variety of disability conditions, risk of bias assessment calls for prudence. There are opportunities for continued development of the area of PA promotion among individuals with disabilities through systematic reviews and meta-analyses.


Study design and protocol for a mixed methods evaluation of an intervention to reduce and break up sitting time in primary school classrooms in the UK: The CLASS PAL (Physically Active Learning) Programme.

Ash Routen, Stuart Biddle, Danielle Bodicoat, Lorraine Cale, Stacy Clemes, Charlotte Edwardson, Cris Glazebrook, Deirdre Harrington, Kamlesh Khunti, Natalie Pearson, Jo Salmon, Lauren Sherar

BMJ open [7:e019428] (2017)

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Children engage in a high volume of sitting in school, particularly in the classroom. A number of strategies, such as physically active lessons (termed movement integration (MI)), have been developed to integrate physical activity into this learning environment; however, no single approach is likely to meet the needs of all pupils and teachers. This protocol outlines an implementation study of a primary school-based MI intervention: CLASS PAL (Physically Active Learning) programme. This study aims to (A) determine the degree of implementation of CLASS PAL, (B) identify processes by which teachers and schools implement CLASS PAL and (C) investigate individual (pupil and teacher) level and school-level characteristics associated with implementation of CLASS PAL. The intervention will provide teachers with a professional development workshop and a bespoke teaching resources website. The study will use a single group before-and-after design, strengthened by multiple interim measurements. Six state-funded primary schools will be recruited within Leicestershire, UK.Evaluation data will be collected prior to implementation and at four discrete time points during implementation: At measurement 0 (October 2016), school, teacher and pupil characteristics will be collected. At measurements 0 and 3 (June-July 2017), accelerometry, cognitive functioning, self-reported sitting and classroom engagement data will be collected. At measurements 1(December 2016-March 2017) and 3 , teacher interviews (also at measurement 4; September-October 2017) and pupil focus groups will be conducted, and at measurements 1 and 2 (April-May 2017), classroom observations. Implementation will be captured through website analytics and ongoing teacher completed logs. Ethical approval was obtained through the Loughborough University Human Participants Ethics Sub-Committee (Reference number: R16-P115). Findings will be disseminated via practitioner and/or research journals and to relevant regional and national stakeholders through print and online media and dissemination event(s).


Effects of integrating pedometers, parental materials, and E-mail support within an extracurricular school sport intervention.

David Lubans, Philip Morgan, Robin Callister, Clare Collins

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine [44:176-83] (2009)

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a school-based intervention (Program X) incorporating pedometers and e-mail support on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and healthy eating in adolescents. A randomized control trial was used to evaluate the impact of the Program X intervention. Six schools (N = 124 participants; mean age 14.1 +/- .8 years) were randomized to intervention or control conditions for the 6-month study period. Objectively recorded physical activity (mean steps/day), self-reported sedentary behavior, and dietary habits were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up and intervention effects were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and chi(2) tests. Participants in the intervention group increased their step counts by 956 +/- 4107 steps/day (boys) and 999 +/- 1999 (girls). Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant group-by-time interactions for boys (F = 7.4, p = .01, d = .80) and girls (F = 29.6, p <.001, d = 1.27) for mean steps/day. The intervention significantly decreased the number of energy-dense/low-nutrient snacks consumed by boys (chi(2) = 4.0, p = .043) and increased the number of fruit serves among girls (chi(2) = 4.8, p = .028). The intervention did not have a statistically significant effect on sedentary behavior. A school-based intervention incorporating physical activity monitoring using pedometers and e-mail support was successful in promoting physical activity and selected healthy eating behaviors in adolescent boys and girls.


Physical activity and health outcomes three months after completing a physical activity behavior change intervention: persistent and delayed effects.

Laura Rogers, Patricia Hopkins-Price, Sandy Vicari, Stephen Markwell, Richard Pamenter, Kerry Courneya, Karen Hoelzer, Catherine Naritoku, Billie Edson, Linda Jones, Gary Dunnington, Steven Verhulst

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology [18:1410-8] (2009)

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We previously reported the effectiveness of a 12-week physical activity behavior change intervention for breast cancer survivors postintervention with this report, aiming to determine delayed and/or persistent effects 3 months after intervention completion. Forty-one sedentary women with stage I, II, or IIIA breast cancer currently receiving hormonal therapy were randomly assigned to receive the 12-week Better Exercise Adherence after Treatment for Cancer intervention or usual care. Assessments occurred at baseline, postintervention, and 3 months postintervention. Weekly minutes of greater than or equal to moderate intensity physical activity measured by accelerometer showed a significant group by time interaction (F = 3.51; P = 0.035; between group difference in the mean change from baseline to 3 months postintervention, 100.1 minute, P = 0.012). Significant group by time interactions also showed sustained improvements from baseline to 3 months postintervention in strength (F = 3.82; P = 0.027; between group difference, 11.2 kg; P = 0.026), waist-to-hip ratio (F = 3.36; P = 0.041; between group difference, -0.04; P = 0.094), and social well-being (F = 4.22; P = 0.023; between group difference, 3.9; P = 0.039). A delayed reduction in lower extremity dysfunction 3 months postintervention was noted (F = 3.24; P = 0.045; between group difference in the mean change from postintervention to 3 months follow-up; P = -7.6; P = 0.015). No group by time effect was noted for fitness, body mass index, percent fat, bone density, total quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General), fatigue, endocrine symptoms, cognitive function, or sleep. The intervention resulted in sustained improvements in physical activity, strength, central adiposity, and social well-being with lower extremity function benefits appearing 3 months after intervention completion. Testing translation in a multisite study is warranted.


Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a very brief physical activity intervention delivered in NHS Health Checks (VBI Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Joanna Mitchell, Wendy Hardeman, Sally Pears, Joana Vasconcelos, A Toby Prevost, Ed Wilson, Stephen Sutton

Trials [17:303] (2016)

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Physical activity interventions that are targeted at individuals can be effective in encouraging people to be more physically active. However, most such interventions are too long or complex and not scalable to the general population. This trial will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a very brief physical activity intervention when delivered as part of preventative health checks in primary care (National Health Service (NHS) Health Check). The Very Brief Intervention (VBI) Trial is a two parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation and follow-up at 3 months. A total of 1,140 participants will be recruited from 23 primary care practices in the east of England. Participants eligible for an NHS Health Check and who are considered suitable to take part by their doctor and able to provide written informed consent are eligible for the trial. Participants are randomly assigned at the beginning of the NHS Health Check to either 1) the control arm, in which they receive only the NHS Health Check, or 2) the intervention arm, in which they receive the NHS Health Check plus 'Step It Up' (a very brief intervention that can be delivered in 5 minutes by nurses and/or healthcare assistants at the end of the Health Check). 'Step It Up' includes (1) a face-to-face discussion, including feedback on current activity level, recommendations for physical activity, and information on how to use a pedometer, set step goals, and monitor progress; (2) written material supporting the discussion and tips and links to further resources to help increase physical activity; and (3) a pedometer to wear and a step chart for monitoring progress. The primary outcome is accelerometer counts per minute at 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include the time spent in the different levels of physical activity, self-reported physical activity and economic measures. Trial recruitment is underway. The VBI trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Step It Up intervention delivered during NHS Health Checks and will inform policy decisions about introducing very brief interventions into routine primary care practice. ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN72691150 . Registered on 17 July 2014.


PRomotion Of Physical activity through structured Education with differing Levels of ongoing Support for people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (PROPELS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Tom Yates, Simon Griffin, Danielle Bodicoat, Gwen Brierly, Helen Dallosso, Melanie Davies, Helen Eborall, Charlotte Edwardson, Mike Gillett, Laura Gray, Wendy Hardeman, Sian Hill, Katie Morton, Stephen Sutton, Jacqui Troughton, Kamlesh Khunti

Trials [16:289] (2015)

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The prevention of type 2 diabetes is recognised as a health care priority. Lifestyle change has proven effective at reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, but limitations in the current evidence have been identified in: the promotion of physical activity; availability of interventions that are suitable for commissioning and implementation; availability of evidence-based interventions using new technologies; and physical activity promotion among ethnic minorities. We aim to investigate whether a structured education programme with differing levels of ongoing support, including text-messaging, can increase physical activity over a 4 year period in a multi-ethnic population at high risk of diabetes. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial, with follow-up at 12 and 48 months. The primary outcome is change in ambulatory activity at 48 months. Secondary outcomes include changes to markers of metabolic, cardiovascular, anthropometric and psychological health along with cost-effectiveness. Participants aged 40-74 years for White European, or 25-74 years for South Asians, with an HbA1c value of between 6.0 and < 6.4% (42 and 47 mmol/mol) or with a previously recorded plasma glucose level or HbA1c value within the high risk (prediabetes) range within the last five years, are invited to take part in the trial. Participants are identified through primary care, using an automated diabetes risk score within their practice database, or from a database of previous research participants. Participants are randomly assigned to either: 1) the control group who receive a detailed advice leaflet; 2) the Walking Away group, who receive the same leaflet and attend a 3 hour structured education programme with annual maintenance sessions delivered in groups; or 3) the Walking Away Plus group, who receive the leaflet, attend the structured education programme with annual maintenance sessions, plus receive follow-on support through highly-tailored text-messaging and telephone calls to help to aid pedometer use and behaviour change. This study will provide new evidence for the long-term effectiveness of a structured education programme focused on physical activity, conducted within routine care in a multi-ethnic population in the UK. It will also investigate the impact of different levels of ongoing support and the cost-effectiveness of each intervention. ISRCTN83465245 Trial registration date: 14/06/2012.


Which characteristics of planning matter? Individual and dyadic physical activity plans and their effects on plan enactment.

Jan Keller, Lena Fleig, Diana Hilda Hohl, Amelie Wiedemann, Silke Burkert, Aleksandra Luszczynska, Nina Knoll

Social science & medicine (1982) [189:53-62] (2017)

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Past research supports individual planning as an effective intervention strategy to increase physical activity in individuals. A similar strategy, dyadic planning, adds a planning partner who supports an individual's planning processes. Whether the two planning formats differ in terms of participants' entered plan content and whether and how different content characteristics are linked to plan enactment remains unknown. By investigating the content of generated plans, this study aimed at distinguishing plan characteristics of the two planning formats and examining their role as predictors of later plan enactment. Secondary analyses of a three-arm RCT with German couples (data collection between 2013 and 2015). Couples were assigned to an individual (IPC, n = 114) or dyadic planning condition (DPC, n = 111) and formulated up to 5 physical activity plans for a target person. Couples assigned to a control condition were not included as they did not generate plans. The following characteristics were distinguished and coded for each plan: number of planned opportunities, presence of a planned routine, planned cue- or activity-related specificity, activity-related intensity, and chronological plan rank. One week before (T0) and two weeks following (T2) the intervention (T1), increase vs. no increase of the planned activity was coded as a dichotomous plan enactment variable. Multilevel logistic regressions were fit. Plan enactment was higher in dyadic than in individual planners. Findings indicated that routines (e.g., after work) were positively related to plan enactment, whereas a high specificity of when-cues (e.g., Friday at 6.30 p.m.) showed a negative relationship. None of the examined plan characteristics could explain differences in enactment between IPC and DPC. Linking health behaviours to other behavioural routines seems beneficial for subsequent plan enactment. Dyadic planning was linked with higher enactment rates than individual planning. However, as mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear, they should be investigated further.


An intervention to improve the physical activity levels of children: design and rationale of the 'Active Classrooms' cluster randomised controlled trial.

R Martin, EM Murtagh

Contemporary clinical trials [41:180-91] (2015)

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Recent evidence demonstrates that children are not engaging in the recommended 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Physical activity (PA) interventions have been acknowledged by the WHO (2010) as a key strategy to increase the PA levels of children. School has been recognised as a primary location for reaching the majority of children and providing PA opportunities for them. However, the sedentary nature of lessons carried out in the classroom has been identified as a contributing factor to physical inactivity among this age group. The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a classroom-based intervention which integrates PA and academic content, and evaluate its effects on the PA levels of children aged 8-11 in Ireland. Active Classrooms is an 8-week classroom based intervention guided by the behaviour change wheel (BCW) framework (Michie et al. 2011) that will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). Study measures will be taken at baseline, during the final week of the intervention and at follow-up after 4 months. The primary outcome is minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during school time objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph). Teachers' perceptions on the effectiveness and use of the intervention and students' enjoyment of the programme will be evaluated post intervention. Changing teacher behaviour towards using physically active teaching methods may increase the moderate to vigorous physical activity levels of their students. Therefore, the results of this study may have important implications for the health of children both now and into the future. ISRCTN14265493.


Behavior Change Techniques in Physical Activity eHealth Interventions for People With Cardiovascular Disease: Systematic Review.

Orlaith Mairead Duff, Deirdre Walsh, Bróna Furlong, Noel O'Connor, Kieran Moran, Catherine Woods

Journal of medical Internet research [19:e281] (2017)

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature death and disability in Europe, accounting for 4 million deaths per year and costing the European Union economy almost €196 billion annually. There is strong evidence to suggest that exercise-based secondary rehabilitation programs can decrease the mortality risk and improve health among patients with CVD. Theory-informed use of behavior change techniques (BCTs) is important in the design of cardiac rehabilitation programs aimed at changing cardiovascular risk factors. Electronic health (eHealth) is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health. This emerging area of health care has the ability to enhance self-management of chronic disease by making health care more accessible, affordable, and available to the public. However, evidence-based information on the use of BCTs in eHealth interventions is limited, and particularly so, for individuals living with CVD. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the application of BCTs in eHealth interventions designed to increase physical activity (PA) in CVD populations. A total of 7 electronic databases, including EBSCOhost (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, and CINAHL Complete), Scopus, and Web of Science (Core Collection) were searched. Two authors independently reviewed references using the software package Covidence (Veritas Health Innovation). The reviewers met to resolve any discrepancies, with a third independent reviewer acting as an arbitrator when required. Following this, data were extracted from the papers that met the inclusion criteria. Bias assessment of the studies was carried out using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias within Covidence; this was followed by a narrative synthesis. Out of the 987 studies that were identified, 14 were included in the review. An additional 9 studies were added following a hand search of review paper references. The average number of BCTs used across the 23 studies was 7.2 (range 1-19). The top three most frequently used BCTs included information about health consequences (78%, 18/23), goal setting (behavior; 74%, 17/23), and joint third, self-monitoring of behavior and social support (practical) were included in 11 studies (48%, 11/23) each. This systematic review is the first to investigate the use of BCTs in PA eHealth interventions specifically designed for people with CVD. This research will have clear implications for health care policy and research by outlining the BCTs used in eHealth interventions for chronic illnesses, in particular CVD, thereby providing clear foundations for further research and developments in the area.


Testing mediator variables in a resistance training intervention for obese adults with type 2 diabetes.

David Lubans, Ronald Plotnikoff, Mary Jung, Neil Eves, Ron Sigal

Psychology & health [27:1388-404] (2012)

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A poor understanding of behaviour change mechanisms has hindered the development of effective physical activity interventions. The aim of this study was to identify potential mediators of change in a home-based resistance training (RT) program for obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Obese individuals with type 2 diabetes (N = 48) were randomly allocated to either an RT intervention (n = 27) or a control group (n = 21) for the 16-week study period. The study sample included 16 men and 32 women and the mean age of participants was 54.4 (±11.7) years. Participants in the RT group received a multi-gym and dumbbells and home supervision from a certified personal trainer. RT behaviour was measured using a modified Godin Leisure Time Questionnaire. Social-cognitive constructs were measured and tested in a mediating variable framework using a product-of-coefficients test. The intervention had a significant effect on RT behaviour (p < 0.001) and muscular strength (p < 0.001). The intervention had a significant effect on RT planning strategies (p < 0.01), which mediated the effect of the intervention on RT behaviour. The home-based RT program successfully targeted participants' RT planning strategies which contributed to their exercise adherence.


Pregnancy, exercise and nutrition research study with smart phone app support (Pears): Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

Maria Kennelly, Kate Ainscough, Karen Lindsay, Eileen Gibney, Mary McCarthy, Fionnuala McAuliffe

Contemporary clinical trials [46:92-9] (2016)

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Maternal adiposity confers an increased risk of GDM in pregnancy. A low glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention has been found to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce gestational weight gain. Mobile Health (mHealth) Technology-assisted interventions are becoming commonplace as an aid to treating many chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a 'healthy lifestyle package' with mHealth smart phone technology as support compared with usual care on the incidence of GDM in an overweight and obese pregnant population. We propose a randomized controlled trial of an mHealth assisted healthy lifestyle intervention package versus standard obstetric care in pregnant women with a BMI ≥25kg/m(2)-39.9kg/m(2). Patients are randomized to control or intervention group in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention arm healthy lifestyle package includes a motivational counseling session to encourage behavior change, involving targeted, low GI nutritional advice and daily physical activity prescription delivered before 18weeks gestation, as well as a smart phone app to provide ongoing healthy lifestyle advice and support throughout pregnancy. The primary outcome is the incidence of GDM at 29weeks' gestation and power analysis indicates that 253 women are required in each group to detect a difference. This will be the first clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone technology-assisted targeted healthy lifestyle intervention, which is grounded in behavior change theories and techniques, to support antenatal management of an overweight and obese pregnant population in preventing GDM.


Effects of a 6-week walking program on Taiwanese women newly diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer.

Ya-Jung Wang, Marcia Boehmke, Yow-Wu Wu, Suzanne Dickerson, Nadine Fisher

Cancer nursing [34:E1-13] ()

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In Western culture, evidence has shown that in women with breast cancer exercise decreases fatigue and improves quality of life. However, only 1 pilot study about the effect of exercise has been examined in the Asian breast cancer population that indicated feasibility. Therefore, it is important to further study the effect of an exercise program for Taiwanese women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a walking program on Taiwanese women newly diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. This was an experimental, longitudinal study with 4-time repeated measures based on Bandura's Self-efficacy Theory, with the aim of implementing interventions to boost exercise self-efficacy and to evaluate research outcomes. SPSS 17.0 with descriptive statistics using frequency, percentage, mean, and SD as well as inferential statistics such as t test, χ test, hierarchical linear model, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and analysis of covariance was used for data analysis. Results of this study indicated that subjects in the exercise group had significantly better quality of life, less fatigue, less sleep disturbances, higher exercise self-efficacy, more exercise behavior, and better exercise capacity compared with those in the usual-care group after the intervention. This program was effective and feasible, but more research studies with experimental, longitudinal design to verify the effects of this exercise program on Taiwanese women with breast cancer will be needed. Nurses, depending on skill and knowledge, can encourage physical activity, refer patients to rehabilitation programs, and prescribe and monitor exercise in breast cancer population.


A cluster-randomised controlled trial to promote physical activity in adolescents: the Raising Awareness of Physical Activity (RAW-PA) Study.

Nicola Ridgers, Anna Timperio, Helen Brown, Kylie Ball, Susie Macfarlane, Samuel Lai, Kara Richards, Winsfred Ngan, Jo Salmon

BMC public health [17:6] (2017)

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Recent technological advances provide an alternative yet underutilised opportunity for promoting physical activity in youth. The primary aim of the Raising Awareness of Physical Activity (RAW-PA) Study is to examine the short- and longer-term impact of a wearable activity monitor combined with digital behaviour change resources on adolescents' daily physical activity levels. RAW-PA is a 12 week, multicomponent physical activity intervention that utilises a popular activity tracker (Fitbit® Flex) and supporting digital materials that will be delivered online via social media. The resources target key behaviour change techniques. The intervention structure and components have been informed by participatory research principles. RAW-PA will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial design with schools as the unit of randomisation. Twelve schools located in Melbourne, Australia, will allocated to either the intervention or wait-list control group. The target sample size is 300 Year 8 adolescents (aged 13-14 years). Participants' moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity will be the primary outcome. Survey measures will be completed. Process factors (e.g. feasibility, acceptability/appeal, fidelity) will also be collected. To our knowledge, this study will provide some of the first evidence concerning the effect of wearable activity trackers and digital behaviour change resources on adolescents' physical activity levels. This study will provide insights into the use of such technologies for physical activity promotion, which may have a significant impact on health education, promotion, practice and policy. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12616000899448 . Date of registration: July 7, 2016.


Community-based intervention to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis (CIPPA-RA): a study protocol for a pilot randomised control trial.

Louise Larkin, Stephen Gallagher, Alexander Fraser, Norelee Kennedy

Rheumatology international [37:2095-2103] (2017)

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory condition which may cause pain, stiffness and fatigue. People who have RA have reduced levels of physical activity due to these symptoms. Interventions targeting physical activity behaviour in this population have had limited efficacy. This paper describes a protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a theory-based intervention delivered in a community setting designed to promote physical activity in people who have RA. The aim of the pilot study is to assess the impact of the intervention on moderate-intensity physical activity in people with RA. The objectives are to obtain reliable estimates regarding recruitment rates; participant retention, protocol adherence and generate potential effect size estimates to inform sample size calculations for a main trial on physical activity participation. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with a selected sample of participants to explore their experiences. Participants will be recruited from direct referrals from the rheumatology clinics in a public hospital. Participants meeting inclusion criteria will be randomised into a 6 week physical activity intervention (four sessions delivered over a 6-week period by a trained physiotherapist) or a control group (physical activity information leaflet). Results of the pilot study will provide data to determine if a larger RCT is feasible. Qualitative data will inform intervention design and delivery. The findings will be disseminated to health professionals, in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.


Testing the effects of narrative and play on physical activity among breast cancer survivors using mobile apps: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Elizabeth Lyons, Tom Baranowski, Karen Basen-Engquist, Zakkoyya Lewis, Maria Swartz, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi

BMC cancer [16:202] (2016)

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Physical activity reduces risk for numerous negative health outcomes, but postmenopausal breast cancer survivors do not reach recommended levels. Many interventions encourage self-monitoring of steps, which can increase physical activity in the short term. However, these interventions appear insufficient to increase motivation for sustained change. There is a need for innovative strategies to increase physical activity motivation in this population. Narratives are uniquely persuasive, and video games show promise for increasing motivation. This study will determine the effectiveness of an intervention that combines narrative and gaming to encourage sustained physical activity. SMARTGOAL (Self-Monitoring Activity: a Randomized Trial of Game-Oriented AppLications) is a randomized controlled intervention trial. The intervention period is six months, followed by a six month maintenance period. Participants (overweight, sedentary postmenopausal breast cancer survivors aged 45-75) will be randomized to a self-monitoring group or an enhanced narrative game group. The self-monitoring group will be encouraged to use a mobile application for self-monitoring and feedback and will receive 15 counseling phone calls emphasizing self-regulation. The narrative game group will be encouraged to use a mobile application that includes self-monitoring and feedback as well as a narrative-based active video game. The 15 calls for this group will emphasize concepts related to the game storyline. Counseling calls in both groups will occur weekly in months 1 - 3 and monthly in months 4 - 6. No counseling calls will occur after month 6, but both groups will be encouraged to continue using their apps. The primary outcome of the study is minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity at six months. Other objectively measured outcomes include fitness and physical function. Self-reported outcomes include quality of life, depression, and motivation. This protocol will result in implementation and evaluation of two technology-based physical activity interventions among breast cancer survivors. Both interventions hold promise for broad dissemination. Understanding the potential benefit of adding narrative and game elements to interventions will provide critical information to interventionists, researchers, clinicians, and policymakers. This study is uniquely suited to investigate not just whether but how and why game elements may improve breast cancer survivors' health. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02341235 (January 9, 2015).