| Melanie Giles, Carol McClenahan, Cherie Armour, Samantha Millar, Gordon Rae, John Mallett, Barbara Stewart-Knox|
British journal of health psychology [19:16-35] (2014)
The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention designed to enhance young people's motivations to breastfeed.
A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 50 post-primary schools from across Northern Ireland. However, dropout and exclusion criteria utilized for the current study resulted in an effective sample size of 42 schools.
The intervention was delivered in two 35-min classroom sessions targeting those beliefs identified by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as significant in predicting motivation to breastfeed. Questionnaires incorporating the key components of the TPB were administered to all intervention and control schools at baseline, 1 and 6 months post-intervention. Multi-level modelling was used to analyse the data.
Findings suggest that the intervention was effective in that it increased females' intentions to breastfeed, expanded their knowledge and led to more favourable attitudes and perceptions of subjective norms. Notably, females' knowledge increased more in secondary schools than in grammar schools irrespective of whether they were control or intervention schools.
The research has provided evidence to support the use of the TPB in the design and evaluation of an intervention to increase females' intentions to breastfeed.
| SA Creedon|
Clinical nursing research [15:6-26] (2006)
The primary purpose of this quasi-experimental research is to observe health care workers' compliance with hand-hygiene guidelines during patient care in an intensive care unit in Ireland before (pretest) and after (posttest) implementation of a multifaceted hand-hygiene program. Health care workers' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge in relation to compliance with handwashing guidelines were also investigated. A convenience sample of nurses, doctors, physiotherapists, and care assistants (n = 73 observational participants, n = 62 questionnaire respondents) was used. Data (N = 314 observations, 62 questionnaires) were analyzed descriptively and cross-tabulated using chi-square (Pearson's) and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Results revealed that a significant shift (32%) occurred in health care workers' compliance with handwashing guidelines (pretest 51%, posttest 83%, p < .001) following the interventional hand-hygiene program. Significant changes were also found in relation to health care workers' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge (p < .05).