? All interventions
| Danielle Zerr, Amanda Allpress, Joan Heath, Rena Bornemann, Elizabeth Bennett|
The Pediatric infectious disease journal [24:397-403] (2005)
Hand hygiene is an effective means of preventing hospital-associated infection, but compliance among health care workers is poor. Few studies aimed at increasing hand hygiene in the hospital setting have shown sustained improvement and concurrent decreases in hospital-associated infections, and even fewer have been performed in the pediatric setting.
We implemented a hand hygiene program with the hopes of improving hand hygiene and decreasing hospital-associated rotavirus infection rates. A multidisciplinary group developed a hospital supported, house-wide campaign. Opportunities for hand hygiene were observed during 5 periods. The frequency of hospital-associated rotavirus infection was tracked over time by review of laboratory records. Correlates of hand hygiene were investigated with the use of multivariate logistic regression.
Overall hand hygiene compliance improved from 62% in period 1 to 81% in period 5 (P < 0.001). Soap and water was the most common method for practicing hand hygiene, and alcohol hand gel use increased from 4% to 29% between the first and last observation periods (P < 0.001). The rate of hospital-associated rotavirus infection decreased from 5.9 episodes per 1000 discharged patients in 2001 to 2.2 episodes per 1000 discharged patients in 2004 (P = 0.01). Period of observation, hospital ward, type of care provider and type of care performed were all independently associated with hand hygiene (adjusted P < or = 0.02 for all).
Improving hand hygiene is an important goal for health care institutions. These data can be useful for development of interventions aimed at improving hand hygiene.
| SA Creedon|
Clinical nursing research [15:6-26] (2006)
The primary purpose of this quasi-experimental research is to observe health care workers' compliance with hand-hygiene guidelines during patient care in an intensive care unit in Ireland before (pretest) and after (posttest) implementation of a multifaceted hand-hygiene program. Health care workers' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge in relation to compliance with handwashing guidelines were also investigated. A convenience sample of nurses, doctors, physiotherapists, and care assistants (n = 73 observational participants, n = 62 questionnaire respondents) was used. Data (N = 314 observations, 62 questionnaires) were analyzed descriptively and cross-tabulated using chi-square (Pearson's) and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Results revealed that a significant shift (32%) occurred in health care workers' compliance with handwashing guidelines (pretest 51%, posttest 83%, p < .001) following the interventional hand-hygiene program. Significant changes were also found in relation to health care workers' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge (p < .05).
| Guangyu Zhou, Tingting Jiang, Nina Knoll, Ralf Schwarzer|
Psychology, health & medicine [20:824-31] (2015)
To improve regular hand hygiene in adolescents, educational messages based on medical information have not been very successful. Therefore, a theory-guided self-regulatory intervention has been designed with a particular focus on planning strategies. A randomised controlled trial with 307 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, was conducted in high schools. The control group received educational hand hygiene leaflets, whereas the experimental group received a self-regulatory treatment which required them to generate specific action plans and coping plans. Three times during one month, both groups received verbal reminder messages about planning to wash their hands properly. At one-month follow-up, hand hygiene behaviour as well as planning to practise hand hygiene were higher in the self-regulation than in the education group (p < .01). Moreover, changes in planning levels operated as a mediator between experimental conditions and changes in behavioural outcomes. Teaching self-regulatory planning strategies may constitute a superior approach than educational messages to improve regular hand hygiene practice in adolescents.
| Pempa Lhakhang, Sonia Lippke, Nina Knoll, Ralf Schwarzer|
BMC public health [15:79] (2015)
Frequent handwashing can prevent infections, but non-compliance to hand hygiene is pervasive. Few theory- and evidence-based interventions to improve regular handwashing are available. Therefore, two intervention modules, a motivational and a self-regulatory one, were designed and evaluated.
In a longitudinal study, 205 young adults, aged 18 to 26 years, were randomized into two intervention groups. The Mot-SelfR group received first a motivational intervention (Mot; risk perception and outcome expectancies) followed by a self-regulatory intervention (SelfR; perceived self-efficacy and planning) 17 days later. The SelfR-Mot group received the same two intervention modules in the opposite order. Follow-up data were assessed 17 and 34 days after the baseline.
Both intervention sequences led to an increase in handwashing frequency, intention, self-efficacy, and planning. Also, overall gains were found for the self-regulatory module (increased planning and self-efficacy levels) and the motivational module (intention). Within groups, the self-regulatory module appeared to be more effective than the motivational module, independent of sequence.
Self-regulatory interventions can help individuals to exhibit more handwashing. Sequencing may be important as a motivation module (Mot) first helps to set the goal and a self-regulatory module (SelfR) then helps to translate this goal into actual behavior, but further research is needed to evaluate mechanisms.
| Thomas von Lengerke, Bettina Lutze, Christian Krauth, Karin Lange, Jona Stahmeyer, Iris Chaberny|
Deutsches Arzteblatt international [114:29-36] (2017)
The German "Clean Hands Campaign" (an adaptation of the WHO "Clean Care is Safer Care" programme) to promote hand hygiene among hospital personnel at Hannover Medical School (MHH, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover), known as Aktion Saubere Hände (ASH), met with initial success. By 2013, however, compliance rates with hygienic hand disinfection in the hospital's ten intensive care units (ICUs) and two hematopoietic stem cell transplantation units (HSCTUs) had relapsed to their initial levels (physicians: 48%; nurses: 56%). The cluster- randomized controlled trial PSYGIENE was conducted to investigate whether interventions tai - lored in ways suggested by research in behavioral psychology might bring about more sustainable improvements than the ASH.
The "Health Action Process Approach" (HAPA) compliance model specifies key psychological determinants of compliance. These determinants were assessed among health care workers in the ICUs and HSCTUs of the MHH by questionnaire (response rates: physicians: 71%; nurses: 63%) and by interviews of the responsible ward physicians and head nurses (100%). In 2013, 29 tailored behavior change techniques were implemented in educational training sessions and feedback discussions in the six wards that constituted the intervention arm of the trial, while ASH training sessions were provided in the control arm. The compliance rates for 2014 and 2015 (the primary outcomes of the trial) were determined by nonparticipating observation of hygienic hand disinfection, in accordance with the World Health Organization's gold standard.
The two groups did not differ in their baseline compliance rates in 2013 (intervention: 54%, control: 55%, p = 0.581). The tailored interventions led to increased compliance in each of the two follow-up years (2014: 64%, p<0.001; 2015: 70%, p = 0.001), while the compliance in the control arm increased to 68% in 2014 (p<0.001) but fell back to 64% in 2015 (p = 0.007). The compliance increases from 2013-2015 and the compliance rate in 2015 were higher in the intervention arm (p<0.005). This was mainly attributable to the nurses' behavior, as the corresponding parameters for physicians did not differ significantly between the two study arms in stratified analysis.
Tailored interventions based on behavioral psychology principles led to more sustainable increases in compliance with hand hygiene guidelines than ASH training sessions did. This was true among nurses, and thus also for hospital ward personnel as a whole (i.e., nurses and physicians combined). Further studies are needed to identify more target group-specific interventions that may improve compliance among physicians.