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Guided, internet-based, rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (i-RFCBT) versus a no-intervention control to prevent depression in high-ruminating young adults, along with an adjunct assessment of the feasibility of unguided i-RFCBT, in the REducing Stress and Preventing Depression trial (RESPOND): study protocol for a phase III randomised controlled trial.

L Cook, E Watkins

Trials [17:1] (2016)

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Depression is a global health challenge. Prevention is highlighted as a priority to reduce its prevalence. Although effective preventive interventions exist, the efficacy and coverage can be improved. One proposed means to increase efficacy is by using interventions to target specific risk factors, such as rumination. Rumination-focused CBT (RFCBT) was developed to specifically target depressive rumination and reduces acute depressive symptoms and relapse for patients with residual depression in a randomised controlled trial. Preliminary findings from a Dutch randomised prevention trial in 251 high-risk 15- to 22-year-old subjects selected with elevated worry and rumination found that both supported internet-RFBCT and group-delivered RFCBT equally reduced depressive symptoms and the onset of depressive cases over a period of 1 year, relative to the no-intervention control. A phase III randomised controlled trial following the Medical Research Council (MRC) Complex Interventions Framework will extend a Dutch trial to the United Kingdom, with the addition of diagnostic interviews, primarily to test whether guided internet-RFCBT reduces the onset of depression relative to a no-intervention control. High-risk young adults (aged 18 to 24 years), selected with elevated worry/rumination and recruited through university and internet advertisement, will be randomised to receive either guided internet-RFCBT, supported by clinical psychologists or mental health paraprofessionals, or a no-intervention control. As an adjunct arm, participants are also randomised to unguided internet-RFCBT self-help to provide an initial test of the feasibility and effect size of this intervention. While participants are also randomised to unguided internet-RFCBT, the trial was designed and powered as a phase III trial comparing guided internet-RFCBT versus a no-intervention control. In the comparison between these two arms, the primary outcomes are as follows: a) onset of major depressive episode over a 12-month period, assessed with a Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis at 3 months (post-intervention), 6 months and 15 months after randomisation. The following secondary outcomes will be recorded: the incidence of generalized anxiety disorder, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and levels of worry and rumination, measured at baseline and at the same follow-up intervals. In relation to the pilot investigation of unguided internet-RFCBT (the adjunct intervention arm), we will assess the feasibility and acceptability of the data-collection procedures, levels of attrition, effect size and acceptability of the unguided internet-RFCBT intervention. Widespread implementation is necessary for effective prevention, suggesting that the internet may be a valuable mode of delivery. Previous research suggests that guided internet-RFCBT reduces incidence rates relative to controls. We are also interested in developing and evaluating an unguided version to potentially increase the availability and reduce the costs. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12683436 . Date of registration: 27 October 2014.


Comparing the effectiveness of an enhanced MOtiVational intErviewing InTervention (MOVE IT) with usual care for reducing cardiovascular risk in high risk subjects: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Adam Bayley, Nicole de Zoysa, Derek Cook, Peter Whincup, Daniel Stahl, Katherine Twist, Katie Ridge, Paul McCrone, Janet Treasure, Mark Ashworth, Anne Greenough, Clare Blythe, Kirsty Winkley, Khalida Ismail

Trials [16:112] (2015)

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Interventions targeting multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including poor diet and physical inactivity, are more effective than interventions targeting a single risk factor. A motivational interviewing (MI) intervention can provide modest dietary improvements and physical activity increases, while adding cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) skills may enhance the effects of MI. We designed a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to examine whether specific behaviour change techniques integrating MI and CBT result in favourable changes in weight and physical activity in those at high risk of CVD. A group and individual intervention will be compared to usual care. A group intervention offers potential benefits from social support and may be more cost effective. Individuals aged between 40 and 74 years in 11 South London Clinical Commissioning Groups who are at high risk of developing CVD (≥20%) in the next 10 years will be recruited. A sample of 1,704 participants will be randomised to receive the enhanced MI intervention, delivered by trained healthy lifestyle facilitators (HLFs), in group or individual formats, in 10 sessions (plus an introductory session) over one year, or usual care. Randomisation will be conducted by King's College London Clinical Trials Unit and researchers collecting outcome data will be blinded to treatment allocation. At 12-month and 24-month follow-up assessments, primary outcomes will be change in weight and physical activity (average steps per day). Secondary outcomes include changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CVD risk score. Incidence of CVD events since baseline will be recorded. A process evaluation will be conducted to evaluate factors which impact on delivery, adherence and outcome. An economic evaluation will estimate relative cost-effectiveness of each type of intervention delivery. This RCT assesses the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle intervention for people at high risk of CVD. Benefits of the study include the ethnic and socioeconomic diversity of the study population and that, via social support within the group setting and long-term follow-up period, the intervention offers the potential to support maintenance of a healthy lifestyle. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry (identifier: ISRCTN84864870, registered 15 May 2012).