In-store music affects product choice

AC North, DJ Hargreaves, J McKendrick

Nature, 390(6656), 132–132

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Royalty payments for non-broadcast commercial uses of music in 1995 amounted to £53.8 million in the UK alone1. Research on music and consumer behaviour2,3 has, however, almost completely ignored the potential effect of in-store music on purchasing and particularly on product choice. By investigating the purchasing of German and French wines we have found that musical ‘fit’ has a profound influence on product choice.

The behavioralist as tax collector: Using natural field experiments to enhance tax compliance

M Hallsworth, JA List, RD Metcalfe, I Vlaev

Journal of Public Economics, Volume 148, Issue null, Pages 14-31 (2017)

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This paper presents results from two large-scale natural field experiments that tested the effect of social norm messages on tax compliance. Using administrative data from > 200,000 individuals in the United Kingdom, we show that including social norm messages in standard reminder letters increases payment rates for overdue tax. This result offers a rare example of social norm messages affecting tax compliance behavior in a real world setting. We find no evidence that loss framing is more effective than gain framing. Descriptive norms appear to be more effective than injunctive norms. Messages referring to public services or financial information also significantly increased payment rates. The field experiments accelerated the collection of tax revenue at little cost.

Nudge to nobesity II: Menu positions influence food orders

E Dayan, Bar-Hillel M

Judgment and Decision Making, Vol. 6, No. 4, June 2011, pp. 333–342

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“Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to have significant effects, even erasing obesity over a period of years” (Rozin et al., 2011). In two studies, one a lab study and the other a real-world study, we examine the effect of manipulating the position of different foods on a restaurant menu. Items placed at the beginning or the end of the list of their category options were up to twice as popular as when they were placed in the center of the list. Given this effect, placing healthier menu items at the top or bottom of item lists and less healthy ones in their center (e.g.,sugared drinks vs. calorie-free drinks) should result in some increase in favor of healthier food choices.

Signing at the beginning makes ethics salient and decreases dishonest self-reports in comparison to signing at the end

LL Shua, Nina Mazarb, Francesca Gino, Dan Ariely, Bazermanc MH

PNAS, September 18, 2012, vol. 109, no. 38

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Many written forms required by businesses and governments rely on honest reporting. Proof of honest intent is typically provided through signature at the end of, e.g., tax returns or insurance policy forms. Still, people sometimes cheat to advance their financial self-interests—at great costs to society. We test an easy-to-implement method to discourage dishonesty: signing at the beginning rather than at the end of a self-report, thereby reversing the order of the current practice. Using laboratory and field experiments, we find that signing before–rather than after–the opportunity to cheat makes ethics salient when they are needed most and significantly reduces dishonesty

Save More Tomorrow™: Using Behavioral Economics to Increase Employee Saving

Richard Thaler, Shlomo Benartzi

Journal of Political Economy 112(2004): S164-S187.

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As firms switch from defined‐benefit plans to defined‐contribution plans, employees bear more responsibility for making decisions about how much to save. The employees who fail to join the plan or who participate at a very low level appear to be saving at less than the predicted life cycle savings rates. Behavioral explanations for this behavior stress bounded rationality and self‐control and suggest that at least some of the low‐saving households are making a mistake and would welcome aid in making decisions about their saving. In this paper, we propose such a prescriptive savings program, called Save More Tomorrow™ (hereafter, the SMarT program). The essence of the program is straightforward: people commit in advance to allocating a portion of their future salary increases toward retirement savings. We report evidence on the first three implementations of the SMarT program. Our key findings, from the first implementation, which has been in place for four annual raises, are as follows: (1) a high proportion (78 percent) of those offered the plan joined, (2) the vast majority of those enrolled in the SMarT plan (80 percent) remained in it through the fourth pay raise, and (3) the average saving rates for SMarT program participants increased from 3.5 percent to 13.6 percent over the course of 40 months. The results suggest that behavioral economics can be used to design effective prescriptive programs for important economic decisions.

Do Defaults Save Lives?

Johnson, EJ Goldstein, G Daniel

Science, Vol. 302, pp. 1338-1339, 2003.

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The article discusses how should policy-makers choose defaults regarding organ donors. First, consider that every policy must have a no-action default, and defaults impose physical, cognitive, and, in the case of donation, emotional costs on those who must change their status. Second, note that defaults can lead to two kinds of misclassification, willing donors who are not identified or people who become donors against their wishes. Changes in defaults could increase donations in the United States of additional thousands of donors a year. Because each donor can be used for about three transplants, the consequences are substantial in lives saved.

Size matter! A choice architectural field experiment in reducing food waste

PG Hansen, AM Jespersen, LR Skov

Journal of Food and Hospitality Research vol. 4 (2015)

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Objectives: We examined how a reduction in plate size would affect the amount of food waste from leftovers in a field experiment at a standing lunch for 220 CEOs. Methods: A standing lunch for 220 CEOs in the Danish Opera House was arranged to feature two identical buffets with plates of two different sizes. One buffet featured standard sized plates that served as control (standard size as provided by the caterer, 27cm). A second buffet featured smaller sized plates (24cm) that served as the intervention. After the lunch concluded (30 minutes), all leftover food was collected in designated trash bags according to size of plates and weighed in bulk. Results: Those eating from smaller plates (n=145) left significantly less food to waste (aver. 14,8g) than participants eating from standard plates (n=75) (aver. 20g) amounting to a reduction of 25,8%. Conclusions: Our field experiment tests the hypothesis that a decrease in the size of food plates may lead to significant reductions in food waste from buffets. It supports and extends the set of circumstances in which a recent experiment found that reduced dinner plates in a hotel chain lead to reduced quantities of leftovers.

Stating Appointment Costs in SMS Reminders Reduces Missed Hospital Appointments: Findings from Two Randomised Controlled Trials

M Hallsworth, D Berry, M Sanders, Sallis A, D King, I Vlaev

PLoS ONE 10(9): e0137306. pmid:26366885

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Missed hospital appointments are a major cause of inefficiency worldwide. Healthcare providers are increasingly using Short Message Service reminders to reduce ‘Did Not Attend’ (DNA) rates. Systematic reviews show that sending such reminders is effective, but there is no evidence on whether their impact is affected by their content. Accordingly, we undertook two randomised controlled trials that tested the impact of rephrasing appointment reminders on DNA rates in the United Kingdom. Participants were outpatients with a valid mobile telephone number and an outpatient appointment between November 2013 and January 2014 (Trial One, 10,111 participants) or March and May 2014 (Trial Two, 9,848 participants). Appointments were randomly allocated to one of four reminder messages, which were issued five days in advance. Message assignment was then compared against appointment outcomes (appointment attendance, DNA, cancellation by patient). In Trial One, a message including the cost of a missed appointment to the health system produced a DNA rate of 8.4%, compared to 11.1% for the existing message (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61–0.89, P<0.01). Trial Two replicated this effect (DNA rate 8.2%), but also found that expressing the same concept in general terms was significantly less effective (DNA rate 9.9%, OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.00–1.48, P<0.05). Moving from the existing reminder to the more effective costs message would result in 5,800 fewer missed appointments per year in the National Health Service Trust in question, at no additional cost. The study’s main limitations are that it took place in a single location in England, and that it required accurate phone records, which were only obtained for 20% of eligible patients. We conclude that missed appointments can be reduced, for no additional cost, by introducing persuasive messages to appointment reminders. Future studies could examine the impact of varying reminder messages in other health systems.

Redesigning the ‘choice architecture’ of hospital prescription charts: a mixed methods study incorporating in situ simulation testing

D King, A Jabbar, E Charani

BMJ Open 2014

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Objectives To incorporate behavioural insights into the user-centred design of an inpatient prescription chart (Imperial Drug Chart Evaluation and Adoption Study, IDEAS chart) and to determine whether changes in the content and design of prescription charts could influence prescribing behaviour and reduce prescribing errors. Design A mixed-methods approach was taken in the development phase of the project; in situ simulation was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed IDEAS prescription chart. Setting A London teaching hospital. Interventions/methods A multimodal approach comprising (1) an exploratory phase consisting of chart reviews, focus groups and user insight gathering (2) the iterative design of the IDEAS prescription chart and finally (3) testing of final chart with prescribers using in situ simulation. Results Substantial variation was seen between existing inpatient prescription charts used across 15 different UK hospitals. Review of 40 completed prescription charts from one hospital demonstrated a number of frequent prescribing errors including illegibility, and difficulty in identifying prescribers. Insights from focus groups and direct observations were translated into the design of IDEAS chart. In situ simulation testing revealed significant improvements in prescribing on the IDEAS chart compared with the prescription chart currently in use in the study hospital. Medication orders on the IDEAS chart were significantly more likely to include correct dose entries (164/164 vs 166/174; p=0.0046) as well as prescriber's printed name (163/164 vs 0/174; p<0.0001) and contact number (137/164 vs 55/174; p<0.0001). Antiinfective indication (28/28 vs 17/29; p<0.0001) and duration (26/28 vs 15/29; p<0.0001) were more likely to be completed using the IDEAS chart. Conclusions In a simulated context, the IDEAS prescription chart significantly reduced a number of common prescribing errors including dosing errors and illegibility. Positive behavioural change was seen without prior education or support, suggesting that some common prescription writing errors are potentially rectifiable simply through changes in the content and design of prescription charts.

Mobile-izing Savings with Automatic Contributions: Experimental Evidence on Dynamic Inconsistency and the Default Effect in Afghanistan

J Blumenstock, M Callen, T Ghani

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Through a field experiment in Afghanistan, we show that default enrollment in payroll deductions increases rates of savings by 40 percentage points, and that this increase is driven by present-biased preferences. Working with Afghanistan’s primary mobile phone operator, we designed and deployed a new mobile phone-based automatic payroll deduction system. Each of 967 employees at the country’s largest firm was randomly assigned a default contribution rate (either 0% or 5%) as well as a matching incentive rate (0%, 25%, or 50%). We find that employees initially assigned a default contribution rate of 5% are 40 percentage points more likely to contribute to the account 6months later than individuals assigned to a default contribution rate of zero; to achieve this effect through financial incentives alone would require a 50% match from the employer. We also find evidence of habit formation: default enrollment increases the likelihood that employees continue to save after the trial ended, and increases employees’ self-reported interest in saving and sense of financial security. To understand why default enrollment increases participation, we conducted several interventions designed to induce employees to make a non-default election, and separately measured employee time preferences. Ruling out several competing explanations, we find evidence that the default effect is driven largely by present-biased preferences that cause the employee to procrastinate in making a non-default election.

South Africa Project: Safety Pilot

ideas42

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We developed a prototype tool and tested it with young people from Cape Town’s Cape Flats neighborhoods. We wanted to assess whether it was more effective than the traditional approach of improving safety awareness in two respects: • Improving how “safe” the young people reported feeling. • Reducing the number of violent events they experienced in the past week. The tool had powerful effects. A randomized controlled trial found that young people in the treatment group were half as likely as the control group to participate in unsafe activities by the end of the study. The treatment population was also almost half as likely as the control group to report feeling unsafe, and half as likely to report experiencing violence in the past week.These results have significant implications for how we think about improving safety and reducing crime. In many parts of the world violent crime is a serious problem, with policy makers and practitioners alike looking to increased investment in enforcement as a way of mitigating the problem. This pilot project illustrates that supporting targeted decision-making and planning for both potential victims and perpetrators has the potential to significantly reduce violent crime.

Can an Email Make it Easier to Schedule Tutoring?

ideas42

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A randomized evaluation found that among students who were eligible to use the Tutoring Center, the redesigned emails sent to students increased their likelihood of attending tutoring by almost 2 percentage points, from 5.0% to 6.7%, and increased the overall number of tutoring sessions that were attended from 171 to 263.

The Impact of Text Message Reminders on Adherence to Antimalarial Treatment in Northern Ghana: A Randomized Trial

JR Raifman

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Background Low rates of adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) regimens increase the risk of treatment failure and may lead to drug resistance, threatening the sustainability of current anti-malarial efforts. We assessed the impact of text message reminders on adherence to ACT regimens. Methods Health workers at hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, and other stationary ACT distributors in Tamale, Ghana provided flyers advertising free mobile health information to individuals receiving malaria treatment. The messaging system automatically randomized self-enrolled individuals to the control group or the treatment group with equal probability; those in the treatment group were further randomly assigned to receive a simple text message reminder or the simple reminder plus an additional statement about adherence in 12-hour intervals. The main outcome was self-reported adherence based on follow-up interviews occurring three days after treatment initiation. We estimated the impact of the messages on treatment completion using logistic regression. Results 1140 individuals enrolled in both the study and the text reminder system. Among individuals in the control group, 61.5% took the full course of treatment. The simple text message reminders increased the odds of adherence (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI [1.03 to 2.04], p-value 0.028). Receiving an additional message did not result in a significant change in adherence (adjusted OR 0.77, 95% CI [0.50 to 1.20], p-value 0.252). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a simple text message reminder can increase adherence to antimalarial treatment and that additional information included in messages does not have a significant impact on completion of ACT treatment. Further research is needed to develop the most effective text message content and frequency.

Increasing Enrollment in a Senior Discount

ideas42

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The City of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania offers a discount to low-income senior citizens living in the municipality on their water bills. Senior water and sewer customers can apply to receive 25 percent off their payments for water in an effort to reduce the financial burden on those elderly citizens with lesser means.

Goals and Social Comparisons Promote Walking Behavior

GB Chapman, H Colby, K Convery, EJ Coups

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The effectiveness of a pedometer intervention was affectedby manipulating the goals given to participants and byproviding social comparison feedback about how partici-pants’ performance compared with others. In study 1(n= 148), university staff members received a low,medium, or high walking goal (10%, 50%, or 100%increase over baseline walking). Participants walked1358 more steps per day (95% confidence interval [CI],729, 1985), when receiving a high goal than when receiv-ing a medium goal, but a medium goal did not increasewalking relative to a low goal (554 more steps; 95% CI,–71,1179). In study 2 (n= 64), participants received individual feedback only or individual plus social com-parison feedback. Participants walked 1120 more stepsper day (95% CI, 538, 1703) when receiving social compar-ison feedback than when receiving only individual feed-back. Goals and the performance of others act asreference points and influence the effect that pedometerfeedback has on walking behavior, illustrating the applica-bility of the principles of behavioral economics and socialpsychology to the design of health behavior interventions.

Small Cues Change Savings Choices

J Choi

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The researchers used a randomized control trial to test the effects of different types of messaging on employee 401(k) contributions. They found that among the employees who contributed the least to their 401(k) plans, those who received the $16,500 cue contributed higher proportions of income on average than those who received the $3,000 cue.

Reducing Household Water Consumption

S Datta

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A randomized evaluation found that households which received letters comparing water consumption to their local neighbors reduced water consumption by 1.5 m 3 (from 28 to 26.5 m 3).

Collection of Delinquent Fines: An Adaptive Randomized Trial to Assess the Effectiveness of Alternative Text Messages

LC Haynes

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The collection of delinquent fines is a vast and ongoing public administration challenge. In the United Kingdom, unpaid fines amount to more than 500 million pounds. Managing noncompliant accounts and dispatching bailiffs to collect fines in person is costly. This paper reports the results of a large randomized controlled trial, led by the UK Cabinet Office's Behavioural Insights Team, which was designed to test the effectiveness of mobile phone text messaging as an alternative method of inducing people to pay their outstanding fines. An adaptive trial design was used, first to test the effectiveness of text messaging against no treatment and then to test the relative effectiveness of alternative messages. Text messages, which are relatively inexpensive, are found to significantly increase average payment of delinquent fines. We found text messages to be especially effective when they address the recipient by name.

Randomized trial of lottery-based incentives to improve warfarin adherence

SE Kimmel

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Background Poor adherence to medications is a major cause of morbidity and inadequate drug effectiveness. Efforts to improve adherence have typically been either ineffective or too complex to implement in clinical practice. Lottery-based incentive interventions could be a scalable approach to improving adherence.MethodsThis was a randomized, controlled clinical trial of a daily lottery-based incentive in patients on warfarin stratified by baseline international normalized ratio (INR). The trial randomized 100 patients to either a lottery-based incentive or no lottery intervention. Main outcome was out-of-range INRs.ResultsOver 6 months, the overall percentage of out-of-range INRs did not differ between the 2 arms (mean 23.0% in lottery arm and 25.9% in control arm, adjusted odds ratio[OR]0.93,95%CI0.62-1.41). However, among the a priori subgroup with a baseline INR below therapeutic range, there was a significant reduction in out-of-range INR in the lottery arm versus the control arm (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.25-0.62), whereas there was no such effect among those with therapeutic INRs at baseline(adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI, 0.76-2.09, P value for interaction = .0016). Among those with low INR at baseline, there was a nonsignificant 49% reduction in the odds of nonadherence with the intervention (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.23-1.14).ConclusionsAlthough a lottery-based intervention was not associated with a significant improvement in anticoagulation control among all study participants, it improved control among an a priori group of patients at higher risk for poor adherence.(Am Heart J 2012;164:268-74.)

Can indifference make the world greener?

Johan Egebark, E Mathias

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We conducted a natural field experiment to evaluate two resource conservation programs. One intervention consisted of a moral appeal message asking university employees to cut back on printing in general, and to use double-sided printing whenever possible. The other intervention tested whether people׳s tendency to stick with pre-set alternatives is applicable to resource use: at random points in time we changed the default setting on the university printers, from single-sided to double-sided printing. Whereas the moral appeal had no impact, the default change cut paper use by 15 percent. Further analysis adds two important insights. First, we show that defaults influence behavior also in the longer run. Second, we present results indicating that resource efficient defaults have the advantage of avoiding unintended behavioral responses. Overall, our findings send a clear message to anyone concerned about resource conservation: there are potentially large gains to be made from small interventions.

Keeping It Simple: Financial Literacy and Rules of Thumb

A Drexler, G Fischer, A Schoar

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Micro-entrepreneurs often lack the financial literacy required to make important financial decisions. We conducted a randomized evaluation with a bank in the Dominican Republic to compare the impact of two distinct programs: standard accounting training versus a simplified, rule-of-thumb training that taught basic financial heuristics. The rule-of-thumb training significantly improved firms' financial practices, objective reporting quality, and revenues. For micro-entrepreneurs with lower skills or poor initial financial practices, the impact of the rule-of-thumb training was significantly larger than that of the standard accounting training, suggesting that simplifying training programs might improve their effectiveness for less sophisticated individuals.

Plan-Making Reminders Improve Timely Loan Payments

ideas42

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A randomized evaluation found that on average, borrowers who were sent redesigned monthly statements and strategically timed reminders received 23% fewer penalties for having insufficient funds in their loan repayment

Keeping College Students in School: "You Belong"

ideas42

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To help first-year students understand that the challenges they faced were neither unique to them nor evidence of personal failure, all incoming first-year students at SF State were asked to watch a three-minute video in which older students described the struggles they had faced and their routes to success.

Offering Inputs for Sale When Farmers Have Liquidity Can Drive Up Adoption

ideas42

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Improved agricultural technologies and inputs can raise productivity and incomes for smallholder farmers, and simultaneously drive down extension and buying costs for agribusinesses that source from these farmers.

Turning a Shove into a Nudge? A "Labeled Cash Transfer" for Education

N Benhassine, F Devoto, E Duflo, P Dupas, V Pouliquen

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Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs) have been shown to increase human capital investments, but their standard features make them expensive. We use a large randomized experiment in Morocco to estimate an alternative government-run program, a "labeled cash transfer" (LCT): a small cash transfer made to fathers of school-aged children in poor rural communities, not conditional on school attendance but explicitly labeled as an education support program. We document large gains in school participation. Adding conditionality and targeting mothers made almost no difference in our context. The program increased parents' belief that education was a worthwhile investment, a likely pathway for the results. (JEL H23, I24, 128, I38, J24, O15, O18)

Update Tax Exemption Status

ideas42

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Project Summary. The Queensland Government tested the impact of three different behaviorally informed letter designs on response rates. Impact. 21.8-24.8% of people responded to one of the intervention letters, compared to 5.3% who responded to the traditional control letter.

Member Centered Credit Union Banking: How behavioral insights can help credit unions better serve members

ideas42

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A loan application should collect necessary information while providing a painless, easy, and engaging experience for members and potential new members. Our recommendations for improving the loan application process were driven by three behavioral principles essential to the design of any human process: (1) reducing perceived hassles and uncer-tainty wherever possible; (2) avoiding jargon; and (3) designing with potential user error in mind. Our recommen-dations for Alliant included a new process timeline to more accurately set applicant expectations and reflected progress through the application; reframing key decision points to ensure users do not accidentally cancel their applications; and revising language that may be unfamiliar to some applicants, such as “collateral,” “debt-to-income,” and “co-borrower.” These principles and recommendations may seem simple, but through our work we have seen how even small changes can have big impacts on client behaviors. Moreover, as service designers, intimately aware of the loan process, it can be difficult for financial experts to design financial products and services that feel intuitive and easy to understand to new users. Alliant has incorporated the majority of our design recommendations into the new loan application process.

Boosting Survey Response Rates

ideas42

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Low response rates to government surveys hinder research and limit the robustness of the policy evaluations and recommendation. To compensate for low rates of response, research teams often need to increase sample sizes, making research more costly.

Increasing Engagement with Mobile Banking in Nigeria

ideas42

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In 2014, only 48.6% of Nigeria's adult population had access to, and used, formal financial products.To make these products more accessible to people of all incomes, a major bank and a telecommunications company in Nigeria jointly launched a mobile bank account.

A Personal Touch: Text Messaging for Loan Repayment

Karlan, Morten, Zinman

Behavioral Science & Policy, Volume 2, Issue 2, 2016

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A randomized evaluation found that most of the messages failed to achieve any significant result on loan repayment. The only message that increased repayment rates was a positive framing and the inclusion of the account officer's name.

Did you get your shots? Experimental evidence on the role of reminders

Busso, Cristia, Humpage

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Many families fail to vaccinate their children despite the supply of these services at no cost. This study tests whether personal reminders can increase demand for vaccination. A field experiment was conducted in rural Guatemala in which timely reminders were provided to families whose children were due for a vaccine. The six-month intervention increased the probability of vaccination completion by 2.2 percentage points among all children in treatment communities. Moreover, for children in treatment communities who were due to receive a vaccine, and whose parents were expected to be reminded about that due date, the probability of vaccination completion increased by 4.6 percentage points. The cost of an additional child with complete vaccination due to the intervention is estimated at about $7.50.

Peer Mentoring and Financial Incentives to Improve Glucose Control in African American Veterans: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

JA Long

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Background Compared to whites, African Americans have a greater incidence of diabetes, decreased control, and higher rates of micro-vascular complications. A peer mentorship model could be a scalable approach to improving control in this population and reducing disparities in diabetic outcomes. Objective To determine whether peer mentors or financial incentives are superior to usual care in helping African American Veterans improve their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Design A six month randomized controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01125956) Setting The Philadelphia VA Medical Center. Patients African American veterans, age 50-70 years old, with persistently poor diabetes control. Measurements Change in HbA1c at 6 months Intervention 118 participants were randomized to one of the three arms. Usual care participants were notified of their starting HbA1c and recommended goals for HbA1c. Those in the peer mentor arm were assigned a peer mentor who formerly had poor glycemic control but now had good control (HbA1c < 7.5%) who was asked to talk with the participant at least once a week. Peer mentors were matched on race, sex, and age. Those in the financial incentive arm could earn $100 by dropping their HbA1c by one point and $200 by dropping it by two points or to a HbA1c of 6.5%. Results Mentors and mentees talked the most in the first month (mean calls 4: range 0-30) and dropped to a mean of 2 calls (range 0-10) by the sixth month. HbA1c dropped from 9.9% to 9.8% in the control arm, 9.8% to 8.7% in the peer mentor arm and from 9.5% to 9.1% in the financial incentive arm. Mean change in HbA1c from baseline to 6 months relative to control was −1.07 (95% CI −1.84 to −0.31) in the peer mentor arm and −0.45 (95% CI −1.23 to 0.32) in the financial incentive arm. Limitations The study included only veterans and lasted only 6 months. Conclusions Peer mentorship improved glucose control in a cohort of African American Veterans with diabetes.

Holding the Hunger Games Hostage at the Gym: An Evaluation of Temptation Bundling

Katy Milkman, JA Minson, Kevin Volpp

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We introduce and evaluate the effectiveness of temptation bundling—a method for simultaneously tackling two types of self-control problems by harnessing consumption complementarities. We describe a field experiment measuring the impact of bundling instantly gratifying but guilt-inducing “want” experiences (enjoying page-turner audiobooks) with valuable “should” behaviors providing delayed rewards (exercising). We explore whether such bundles increase should behaviors and whether people would pay to create these restrictive bundles. Participants were randomly assigned to a full treatment condition with gym-only access to tempting audio novels, an intermediate treatment involving encouragement to restrict audiobook enjoyment to the gym, or a control condition. Initially, full and intermediate treatment participants visited the gym 51% and 29% more frequently, respectively, than control participants, but treatment effects declined over time (particularly following Thanksgiving). After the study, 61% of participants opted to pay to have gym-only access to iPods containing tempting audiobooks, suggesting demand for this commitment device.

Risking it all for love? Resetting beliefs about HIV risk among low-income South African teens

S Datta

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Research suggests that the much higher HIV prevalence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa than among males of their age cohort is linked to the high prevalence of age-disparate sexual partnerships, and that incorrect beliefs about the relationship between age and HIV-risk are partly responsible. We report the results of an experiment that tests whether a simple, computer-based “HIV risk game” leads to better understanding of the relationship between HIV-risk and age among low-income South African adolescents than a version of the traditional “brochure approach” to dispensing information does. Our results are striking. The randomly assigned treatment group, which receives repeated doses of information about the link between age and HIV-risk as feedback to their own responses to simple questions about relative HIV-risk, is significantly more likely to correctly identify which of a pair of hypothetical men or women of different ages is more likely to have HIV than the control group. Subjects in the treatment group answer, on average, 1.65 times as many questions about HIV risk and age correctly as those in the control group. We also find that subjects’ (particularly female subjects’) beliefs about HIV risk among women are less accurate than their beliefs about HIV risk among men. Finally, a follow-up survey with no significant difference in attrition rates between those in the treatment and control groups, shows substantially higher information retention among treatment subjects than among control subjects.

Getting More Work for Nothing? Symbolic Awards and Worker Performance

M Kosfeld, S Neckermann

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We study the impact of status and social recognition on worker performance in a field experiment. In collaboration with an international non-governmental organization, we hired students to work on a database project. Students in the award treatment were offered a congratulatory card honoring the best performance. The award was purely symbolic to ensure that any behavioral effect is driven by non-material benefits. Our results show that the award increases performance by about 12 percent on average. The results provide strong evidence for the motivating power of status and social recognition in labor relations. (JEL C93, J33, M12, M52)

Encouraging Diabetics to Use Statins: Nudging for Long-Term Health

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For this controlled trial, we randomly divided our sample population of 2,324 diabetics into four groups and sent each a different type of letter from the Oklahoma Health Care Authority. To track and compare the responses of the different groups, we analyzed Medicaid claims data for each patient over the next year, noting payments for physician visits, blood tests and filled prescriptions. By the end of our one-year analysis period, the control group had caught up with the nudge recipients (not surprising in a population of diabetics, who are likely to have medical checkups over an extended period). There was no longer a significant difference in the number of prescriptions filled, whether as the result of physician visits or renewals of existing prescriptions. So it seems that the value of the nudge is actually in prompting recipients to act more quickly – which should have a positive effect on long-term health outcomes, particularly when extended across a population of millions.

Pilot OSHA Citation Process Increases Employer Responsiveness

G Chojnacki

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hrough a nationwide randomized controlled trial, we tested whether employers who were cited for health and safety violations would be more responsive if OSHA changed the way it issues and follows up on citations. Employer responsiveness is a critical component of fulfilling OSHA’s mission; when employers do not respond to citations, the agency cannot verify that workplace hazards have been corrected, and local offices must refer unresolved citations to the national office for enforcement and debt collection, a costly and burdensome process.As part of the new process, OSHA staff: (1) gave employers a new handout as part of the preview of the citation process when they conducted their inspections, (2) used a new cover letter for citations, and (3) provided timely reminders, including a postcard and follow-up phone call, to employers about their response options and the corresponding deadlines. With the new process, OSHA staff also had access to Spanish-language versions of all materials, which had never been provided consistently on a national scale. The new process was based on insights from experienced field staff combined with findings from behavioral research, and aimed to address possible behavioral factors that may prevent employers from responding to citations.About half of the nation’s local OSHA offices began implementing the new citation process in June 2015, while the other half continued their normal process, which involves only sending a comprehensive, written citation package. (The test included 27 states in 8 of OSHA’s 10 regions, and excluded two regions in which nearly all of the states operate their own job safety and health plans.) We then used OSHA records collected at the end of November 2015 to determine whether employers had positively engaged with OSHA in response to a citation.

Stimulating interest: Reminding savers to act when rates decrease

P Adams, S Hunt, Vale, Zaliauskas

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The FCA used a randomized evaluation to test the effect of the reminders in motivating consumers to switch their savings account. The study found that reminders increased the percentage of customers taking some action following the rate decrease, whether switching their account internally, or closing the account and moving to another institution, by between 5.4 and 7.9 percentage points.

Financial incentives for home-based health monitoring: a randomized controlled trial.

KG. Volpp, DA Asch, George Loewenstein, JD Park, J Zhu, Y Tao, MF Hu, SL Bellamy, B Stearman, EB Riley, TB Sewell, AP Sen

J Gen Intern Med. 2014 May;29(5):770-7.

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BACKGROUND: Home wireless device monitoring could play an important role in improving the health of patients with poorly controlled chronic diseases, but daily engagement rates among these patients may be low. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of two different magnitudes of financial incentives for improving adherence to remote-monitoring regimens among patients with poorly controlled diabetes. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. (Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01282957). PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five patients with a hemoglobin A1c greater than or equal to 7.5% recruited from a Primary Care Medical Home practice at the University of Pennsylvania Health System. INTERVENTIONS: Twelve weeks of daily home-monitoring of blood glucose, blood pressure, and weight (control group; n = 28); a lottery incentive with expected daily value of $2.80 (n = 26) for daily monitoring; and a lottery incentive with expected daily value of $1.40 (n = 21) for daily monitoring. MAIN MEASURES: Daily use of three home-monitoring devices during the three-month intervention (primary outcome) and during the three-month follow-up period and change in A1c over the intervention period (secondary outcomes). KEY RESULTS: Incentive arm participants used devices on a higher proportion of days relative to control (81% low incentive vs. 58%, P = 0.007; 77% high incentive vs. 58%, P = 0.02) during the three-month intervention period. There was no difference in adherence between the two incentive arms (P = 0.58). When incentives were removed, adherence in the high incentive arm declined while remaining relatively high in the low incentive arm. In month 6, the low incentive arm had an adherence rate of 62% compared to 35% in the high incentive arm (P = 0.015) and 27% in the control group (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: A daily lottery incentive worth $1.40 per day improved monitoring rates relative to control and had significantly better efficacy once incentives were removed than a higher incentive.

The Short-Run and Long-Run Effects of Behavioral Interventions: Experimental Evidence from Energy Conservation

H Allcott, T Rogers

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Traditionally, utility companies have tried to promote energy conservation by providing subsidies for energy-efficient appliances. But recently there has been an increased focus on influencing consumer behavior.

Do-Gooders and Go-Getters: Selection and Performance in Public Service Delivery

Ashraf, Bandiera, Lee

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Project Summary. Posters and brochures emphasizing career incentives—especially the opportunity to move up to higher and better-paid positions—helped recruit new, more effective community health workers.

Underinvestment in a Profitable Technology: The Case of Seasonal Migration in Bangladesh

GC Bryan, Mobarak Shyamal

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Hunger during pre-harvest lean seasons is widespread in the agrarian areas of Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. We randomly assign an $8.50 incentive to households in rural Bangladesh to temporarily out-migrate during the lean season. The incentive induces 22% of households to send a seasonal migrant, their consumption at the origin increases significantly, and treated households are 8–10 percentage points more likely to re-migrate 1 and 3 years after the incentive is removed. These facts can be explained qualitatively by a model in which migration is risky, mitigating risk requires individual-specific learning, and some migrants are sufficiently close to subsistence that failed migration is very costly. We document evidence consistent with this model using heterogeneity analysis and additional experimental variation, but calibrations with forward-looking households that can save up to migrate suggest that it is difficult for the model to quantitatively match the data. We conclude with extensions to the model that could provide a better quantitative accounting of the behavior.

Nudging Guideline-Concordant Antibiotic Prescribing

D Meeker

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Importance “Nudges” that influence decision making through subtle cognitive mechanisms have been shown to be highly effective in a wide range of applications, but there have been few experiments to improve clinical practice. Objective To investigate the use of a behavioral “nudge” based on the principle of public commitment in encouraging the judicious use of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized clinical trial in 5 outpatient primary care clinics. A total of 954 adults had ARI visits during the study timeframe: 449 patients were treated by clinicians randomized to the posted commitment letter (335 in the baseline period, 114 in the intervention period); 505 patients were treated by clinicians randomized to standard practice control (384 baseline, 121 intervention). Interventions The intervention consisted of displaying poster-sized commitment letters in examination rooms for 12 weeks. These letters, featuring clinician photographs and signatures, stated their commitment to avoid inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. Main Outcomes and Measures Antibiotic prescribing rates for antibiotic-inappropriate ARI diagnoses in baseline and intervention periods, adjusted for patient age, sex, and insurance status. Results Baseline rates were 43.5% and 42.8% for control and poster, respectively. During the intervention period, inappropriate prescribing rates increased to 52.7% for controls but decreased to 33.7% in the posted commitment letter condition. Controlling for baseline prescribing rates, we found that the posted commitment letter resulted in a 19.7 absolute percentage reduction in inappropriate antibiotic prescribing rate relative to control (P = .02). There was no evidence of diagnostic coding shift, and rates of appropriate antibiotic prescriptions did not diminish over time. Conclusions and Relevance Displaying poster-sized commitment letters in examination rooms decreased inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. The effect of this simple, low-cost intervention is comparable in magnitude to costlier, more intensive quality-improvement efforts.

Attention, intentions, and follow-through in preventive health behavior: Field experimental evidence on flu vaccination

ET Bronchetti

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Preventive health behaviors like flu vaccination have important benefits, but compliance is poor, and the reasons are not fully understood. We conducted a large study across six colleges (N = 9358), with a methodology that offers an unusual opportunity to look at three potential factors: inattention to information, informed intentions to not comply, and problems following through on intentions. We also tested three interventions in an RCT. We find that inattention to information is not the primary driver of low take-up, while informed decisions to not get the vaccine, but also lack of follow-through, are important factors. A financial intervention increased take-up and had persistent, positive effects on intentions for vaccination in future years. Two low-cost “nudges” did not increase vaccination rates, although the peer endorsement nudge increased exposure to information, especially if aligned with social networks.

Text Messages as Mobilization Tools: The Conditional Effect of Habitual Voting and Election Salience

N Malhotra, MR Michelson, T Rogers, A Valenzuela

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Dale and Strauss’s (DS) noticeable reminder theory (NRT) of voter mobili­zation posits that mobilization efforts that are highly noticeable and salient to potential voters, even if impersonal, can be successful. In an innovative experimental design, DS show that text messages substantially boost turnout, challenging previous claims that social connectedness is the key to increasing participation. We replicate DS’s research design and extend it in two key ways. First, whereas the treatment in DS’s experiment was a “warm” text message combined with contact, we test NRT more cleanly by examining the effect of “cold” text messages that are completely devoid of auxiliary interaction. Second, we test an implication of NRT that habitual voters should exhibit the largest treatment effects in lower salience elections whereas casual voters should exhibit the largest treatment effects in higher salience elections. Via these two extensions, we find support for NRT.

‘Nudging’ hotel guests to reduce food waste as a win–win environmental measure

S Kallbekken, H Sælen

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We show that two simple and nonintrusive ‘nudges’–reducing plate size and providing social cues–reduce the amount of food waste in hotel restaurants by around 20%. The results are statistically significant. They are also environmentally substantial as food waste is a major contributor to climate change and other forms of environmental degradation. Given the magnitude of the contribution of food waste to global environmental change, it is surprising that this issue has not received greater attention. The measures reduce the amount of food the restaurants need to purchase, and there is no change in guest satisfaction, making it likely that profits will increase. The measures thus constitute potential win–win opportunities.

What's advertising content worth? Evidence from aconsumer credit marketing field experiment

M Bertrand

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While the average take-up rate for all loan offers was 8.5%, this randomized evaluation found that extending the deadline to apply by two weeks (from 2 weeks to 4 weeks, or from 4 weeks to 6 weeks) increased the probability of applying by 3 percentage points, roughly equivalent to the increase achieved by reducing the interest rate 10 percentage points.

Account Opening Process to Increase Intentional Savings

Fiorello, Potok, Wright

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ideas42 redesigned four aspects of the CARD Bank system to increase savings: a new account opening form, a printed savings plan, reminders to make savings deposits, and a new savings calendar.

Improving immunisation coverage in rural India: clustered randomised controlled evaluation of immunisation campaigns with and without incentives

AV Banerjee, Duflo, Glennerster, Kothari

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Objective To assess the efficacy of modest non-financial incentives on immunisation rates in children aged 1-3 and to compare it with the effect of only improving the reliability of the supply of services. Design Clustered randomised controlled study. Setting Rural Rajasthan, India. Participants 1640 children aged 1-3 at end point. Interventions 134 villages were randomised to one of three groups: a once monthly reliable immunisation camp (intervention A; 379 children from 30 villages); a once monthly reliable immunisation camp with small incentives (raw lentils and metal plates for completed immunisation; intervention B; 382 children from 30 villages), or control (no intervention, 860 children in 74 villages). Surveys were undertaken in randomly selected households at baseline and about 18 months after the interventions started (end point). Main outcome measures Proportion of children aged 1-3 at the end point who were partially or fully immunised. Results Among children aged 1-3 in the end point survey, rates of full immunisation were 39% (148/382, 95% confidence interval 30% to 47%) for intervention B villages (reliable immunisation with incentives), 18% (68/379, 11% to 23%) for intervention A villages (reliable immunisation without incentives), and 6% (50/860, 3% to 9%) for control villages. The relative risk of complete immunisation for intervention B versus control was 6.7 (4.5 to 8.8) and for intervention B versus intervention A was 2.2 (1.5 to 2.8). Children in areas neighbouring intervention B villages were also more likely to be fully immunised than those from areas neighbouring intervention A villages (1.9, 1.1 to 2.8). The average cost per immunisation was $28 (1102 rupees, about £16 or €19) in intervention A and $56 (2202 rupees) in intervention B. Conclusions Improving reliability of services improves immunisation rates, but the effect remains modest. Small incentives have large positive impacts on the uptake of immunisation services in resource poor areas and are more cost effective than purely improving supply.

Potential follow-up increases private contributions to public goods

T Rogers, J Ternovski, E Yoeli

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People contribute more to public goods when their contributions are made more observable to others. We report an intervention that subtly increases the observability of public goods contributions when people are solicited privately and impersonally (e.g., mail, email, social media). This intervention is tested in a large-scale field experiment (n=770,946) in which people are encouraged to vote through get-out-the-vote letters. We vary whether the let-ters include the message, “We may call you after the election to ask about your voting experience.” Increasing the perceived ob-servability of whether people vote by including that message increased the impact of the get-out-the-vote letters by more than the entire effect of a typical get-out-the-vote letter. This tech-nique for increasing perceived observability can be replicated whenever public goods solicitations are made in private.

Using implementation intentions prompts to enhance influenza vaccination rates

Katy Milkman

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A randomized evaluation found that writing both a date and time increased the number of employees getting their flu shots.. Employees who received the more detailed "time plan" mailer were 4 percentage points more likely than those who received the standard mailer to get their shot (37.1% compared to 33.1%).

Effect of Financial Incentives to Physicians, Patients, or Both on Lipid Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial

DA Asch

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Importance Financial incentives to physicians or patients are increasingly used, but their effectiveness is not well established. Objective To determine whether physician financial incentives, patient incentives, or shared physician and patient incentives are more effective than control in reducing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among patients with high cardiovascular risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Four-group, multicenter, cluster randomized clinical trial with a 12-month intervention conducted from 2011 to 2014 in 3 primary care practices in the northeastern United States. Three hundred forty eligible primary care physicians (PCPs) were enrolled from a pool of 421. Of 25 627 potentially eligible patients of those PCPs, 1503 enrolled. Patients aged 18 to 80 years were eligible if they had a 10-year Framingham Risk Score (FRS) of 20% or greater, had coronary artery disease equivalents with LDL-C levels of 120 mg/dL or greater, or had an FRS of 10% to 20% with LDL-C levels of 140 mg/dL or greater. Investigators were blinded to study group, but participants were not. Interventions Primary care physicians were randomly assigned to control, physician incentives, patient incentives, or shared physician-patient incentives. Physicians in the physician incentives group were eligible to receive up to $1024 per enrolled patient meeting LDL-C goals. Patients in the patient incentives group were eligible for the same amount, distributed through daily lotteries tied to medication adherence. Physicians and patients in the shared incentives group shared these incentives. Physicians and patients in the control group received no incentives tied to outcomes, but all patient participants received up to $355 each for trial participation. Main Outcomes and Measures Change in LDL-C level at 12 months. Results Patients in the shared physician-patient incentives group achieved a mean reduction in LDL-C of 33.6 mg/dL (95% CI, 30.1-37.1; baseline, 160.1 mg/dL; 12 months, 126.4 mg/dL); those in physician incentives achieved a mean reduction of 27.9 mg/dL (95% CI, 24.9-31.0; baseline, 159.9 mg/dL; 12 months, 132.0 mg/dL); those in patient incentives achieved a mean reduction of 25.1 mg/dL (95% CI, 21.6-28.5; baseline, 160.6 mg/dL; 12 months, 135.5 mg/dL); and those in the control group achieved a mean reduction of 25.1 mg/dL (95% CI, 21.7-28.5; baseline, 161.5 mg/dL; 12 months, 136.4 mg/dL; P < .001 for comparison of all 4 groups). Only patients in the shared physician-patient incentives group achieved reductions in LDL-C levels statistically different from those in the control group (8.5 mg/dL; 95% CI, 3.8-13.3; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance In primary care practices, shared financial incentives for physicians and patients, but not incentives to physicians or patients alone, resulted in a statistically significant difference in reduction of LDL-C levels at 12 months. This reduction was modest, however, and further information is needed to understand whether this approach represents good value.

Boost Flood Preparedness with a Redesigned Letter

ideas42

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Recent severe weather events have increased concerns about growing flood risk and the resiliency of households in the floodplain, prompting efforts to improve preparedness and insurance coverage.

Don’t Blame the Messenger: A Field Experiment on Delivery Methods for Increasing Tax Compliance

D Ortega, C Scartascini

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There is an ample literature on the determinants of tax compliance. Several field experiments have evaluated the effect and comparative relevance of sending deterrence and moral suasion messages to taxpayers. The effect of different delivery mechanisms, however, has not been evaluated so far. This study conducts a field experiment in Colombia that varies the way the National Tax Agency contacts taxpayers on payments due for income, value added, and wealth taxes. More than 20,000 taxpayers were randomly assigned to a control or one of three delivery mechanisms (letter, email, and personal visit by a tax inspector). Results indicate large and highly significant effects, as well as sizable differences across delivery methods. A personal visit by a tax inspector is more effective than a physical letter or an email, conditional on delivery, but email tends to reach its target more often. Improving the quality of taxpayer contact information can significantly improve the collection of delinquencies.

The Underutilized Potential of Teacher-Parent Communication

ideas42

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Past research indicates there is a positive relationship between parental involvement and students' success in school, but communication between educators and parents is often infrequent or unsystematic.

Selling Fertilizer Soon After Harvest Can Increase Use

J Blumenstock, M Callen, T Ghani

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A randomized evaluation found that selling farmers a voucher for fertilizer soon after the harvest increased fertilizer usage. In the first season, usage increased by 14 percentage points (on a base of 23%); in the second season, offering the voucher increased usage by 18 percentage points (on a base of 30%).

Nudging study habits: A field experiment on peer tutoring in higher education

T Pugatch, N Wilson

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A randomized evaluation found that a one-time message increased attendance at peer tutoring sessions by 7 percentage points, from 29% to 36%. Attendance at multiple tutoring sessions increased by 6 percentage points, from 18% to 24%.

Habit formation in children: Evidence from incentives for healthy eating

George Loewenstein, J Price, K Volpp

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We present findings from a field experiment conducted at 40 elementary schools involving 8000 children and 400,000 child-day observations, which tested whether providing short-run incentives can create habit formation in children. Over a 3- or 5-week period, students received an incentive for eating a serving of fruits or vegetables during lunch. Relative to an average baseline rate of 39%, providing small incentives doubled the fraction of children eating at least one serving of fruits or vegetables. Two months after the end of the intervention, the consumption rate at schools remained 21% above baseline for the 3-week treatment and 44% above baseline for the 5-week treatment. These findings indicate that short-run incentives can produce changes in behavior that persist after incentives are removed.

Beating the Deadline: Reminders to Apply for Financial Aid on Time

ideas42

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A randomized evaluation found that among families where both students and parents received the redesigned emails, 50% filed their financial aid application by the priority deadline.

Emails About Course Selection Increase Financial Aid

ideas42

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This randomized evaluation found that the average aid award for students receiving both redesigned emails rose by 2%, or $150.28 per student for the Spring semester, compared to students who received neither email ($6,368 vs. $6,217).

Enhanced active choice: A new method to motivate behavior change

PA Keller, B Harlam, George Loewenstein, Kevin Volpp

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Not adhering to medication regimens has individual, public health, and economic consequences. While helpful automatic prescription refill programs are widely available, few individuals enroll.

The Personal Side of Relationship Banking

A Schoar

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This paper documents a widely overlooked dimension of relationship lending: the personal interaction between the borrower and the lender reduces the willingness of the borrower to engage in moral hazard and default on the loan officer. We conduct a randomized experiment with small business borrowers of the largest commercial bank in India to test the impact of three different levels of interactions between the borrower and the bank. Borrowers who are regularly called either by a single assigned relationship manager or by one manager randomly selected from a small team of managers show much better repayment behavior and greater satisfaction with the bank services than borrowers who either receive no follow up or only receive follow up calls from the bank when they are delinquent. The results are economically and statistically significant: borrowers who receive the more intensive treatment see a large reduction in the number of late payment spells and delinquencies.

Reminders, Raffles and Rent Payments

ideas42

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there was a mismatch between the actual rent due date (the first of the month) and when renters perceived rent to be due (the 10 th of the month, when penalties kicked in).

Source Dispensers and Home Delivery of Chlorine in Kenya

S Asman, C Casarotto

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Researchers sought to examine the impact of factors including price, persuasion, promotion and the chlorination products themselves with a two-phase study. Prior to the study baseline surveys were administered to a random selection of households.In the first phase, households were given seven WaterGuard bottles, an individual water treatment product, each sufficient for one month’s supply of clean water. They were also provided with improved drinking water storage pots with a tap to prevent contamination and detailed instructions on use. One third of this group received twelve coupons for a 50 percent discount on WaterGuard bottles, each valid for one month during the next year, and calendars with reminders. Another third received additional verbal persuasion messages beyond the basic WaterGuard instructions, and another third received no additional coupons or messages. To estimate social networking effects, the free WaterGuard bottles were distributed in different percentages in each community, allowing researchers to see if higher community levels of use increased individual adoption. A follow-up survey was administered between 2 and 7 months after the free WaterGuard was distributed.In the second phase researchers compared six different treatments designed to increase WaterGuard adoption. For the first three treatments, scripted promotional messages were delivered at either the(1) household level, (2) community level, or (3) both. The second two treatments included repeated promotion of chlorination through a home visit by a community elected promoter. Despite volunteering to work for free, the promoter was paid either a (4) flat rate, or was (5) paid based on how many households had chlorinated water at follow-up visits. The last treatment (6) combined the incentivized promoter model with an unlimited supply of free WaterGuard delivered through a point-of-collection chlorine dispenser at the local water source. Follow-up surveys were conducted 3 weeks and 3-6 months after the start of the study.

Do You Have a Voting Plan? Implementation Intentions, Voter Turnout, and Organic Plan Making

DW Nickerson, T Rogers

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Phone calls encouraging citizens to vote are staples of modern campaigns. Insights from psychological science can make these calls dramatically more potent while also generating opportunities to expand psychological theory. We present a field experiment conducted during the 2008 presidential election (N = 287,228) showing that facilitating the formation of a voting plan (i.e., implementation intentions) can increase turnout by 4.1 percentage points among those contacted, but a standard encouragement call and self-prediction have no significant impact. Among single-eligible-voter households, the formation of a voting plan increased turnout among persons contacted by 9.1 percentage points, whereas those in multiple-eligible-voter households were unaffected by all scripts. Some situational factors may organically facilitate implementation-intentions formation more readily than others; we present data suggesting that this could explain the differential treatment effect that we found. We discuss implications for psychological and political science, and public interventions involving implementation-intentions formation.

Information Disclosure, Cognitive Biases, and Payday Borrowing

M Bertrand, A Morse

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A randomized evaluation showed that envelopes printed with dollar costs over time reduced borrowing from the payday lender in later pay cycles by about 11%.The other information types did not significantly reduce the likelihood of borrowing in a post-intervention pay cycle.

Getting to the Top of Mind: How Reminders Increase Saving

Dean Karlan, M McConnell, S Mullainathan, J Zinman

Management Science, Volume 62 No. 12 pp. 3393-3411

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Randomized evaluations in each country found that clients who were sent reminders had saved more and were more likely to have reached their savings goals by the commitment end dates (around a year after opening accounts) than clients who did not receive the messages.

Opioid prescribing decreases after learning of a patient’s fatal overdose

JN Doctor

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Most opioid prescription deaths occur among people with common conditions for which prescribing risks outweigh benefits. General psychological insights offer an explanation: People may judge risk to be low without available personal experiences, may be less careful than expected when not observed, and may falter without an injunction from authority. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a randomized trial of 861 clinicians prescribing to 170 persons who subsequently suffered fatal overdoses. Clinicians in the intervention group received notification of their patients’ deaths and a safe prescribing injunction from their county’s medical examiner, whereas physicians in the control group did not. Milligram morphine equivalents in prescriptions filled by patients of letter recipients versus controls decreased by 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 6.2 to 13.2%; P < 0.001) over 3 months after intervention. We also observed both fewer opioid initiates and fewer high-dose opioid prescriptions by letter recipients.

Redesigned Emails Bolster Work-Study Applications

ideas42

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A randomized evaluation found that the redesigned emails increased the number of students applying for SEED jobs by 3 percentage points, from 9% to 12%.Additionally, there was a 56% increase in the number of applications submitted, from 304 to 475 applications.

Mobile phone technologies improve adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting: a randomized controlled trial of text message reminders

C Pop-Eleches

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Objective There is limited evidence on whether growing mobile phone availability in sub-Saharan Africa can be used to promote high adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study tested the efficacy of short message service (SMS) reminders on adherence to ART among patients attending a rural clinic in Kenya. Design A randomized controlled trial of four SMS reminder interventions with 48 weeks of follow-up. Methods Four hundred and thirty-one adult patients who had initiated ART within 3 months were enrolled and randomly assigned to a control group or one of the four intervention groups. Participants in the intervention groups received SMS reminders that were either short or long and sent at a daily or weekly frequency. Adherence was measured using the medication event monitoring system. The primary outcome was whether adherence exceeded 90% during each 12-week period of analysis and the 48-week study period. The secondary outcome was whether there were treatment interruptions lasting at least 48 h. Results In intention-to-treat analysis, 53% of participants receiving weekly SMS reminders achieved adherence of at least 90% during the 48 weeks of the study, compared with 40% of participants in the control group (P=0.03). Participants in groups receiving weekly reminders were also significantly less likely to experience treatment interruptions exceeding 48 h during the 48-week follow-up period than participants in the control group (81 vs. 90%, P = 0.03). Conclusion These results suggest that SMS reminders may be an important tool to achieve optimal treatment response in resource-limited settings.

Delivering information about retirement saving among Hispanic women: two Facebook experiments

L Blanco, L Rodriguez

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We conducted two Facebook experiments (the first one during July 21–25, 2016, and the second during April 22–25, 2018) to determine what type of message related to injunctive norms is more effective in getting Hispanic women interested in learning about financial planning for retirement. We also explore how social media tools could be used in future interventions to promote retirement saving among Hispanic women. In both experiments, we found that a message centered on peer influence may be more successful than a message centered on familism in getting Hispanic women interested in learning more about financial planning for retirement. When we disaggregate our data by age and state, we find that click-through rates were higher among Hispanic women between 45 and 55 years old, and the largest numbers of impressions were among Hispanic women in California and Texas. When we disaggregate our data by device, we find that most study participants were reached through an Android smartphone.

Default Options In Advance Directives Influence How Patients Set Goals For End-Of-Life Care

SD Halpern

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A randomized evaluation found that presenting patients with a default, preselected influenced the type of end-of-life care patients chose. When the advance directed had no preselected option, 61% percent of patients chose comfort-oriented care.

Behavioral Emails Increase Flu Vaccine Uptake among City Employees

ideas42

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SUMMARY To increase uptake of flu vaccines and maintain a healthy workforce during the 2016-17 flu season, New York City’s Behavioral Design Team (NYC BDT) partnered with WorkWell NYC to design behaviorally informed emails to encourage New York City employees to visit a worksite flu clinic. One version of the redesigned email used the strategy of “enhanced active choice,” whereby employees were prompted to make a choice that had a clear right answer. IMPACT Behavioral emails more than doubled click-through rates and statistically increased appointment sign-ups. Most importantly, the enhanced active choice version of the email increased vaccine uptake by 5 percent at worksite locations.

Heckle and Chide: Results of a randomized road safety intervention in Kenya

J Habyarimana, W Jack

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We report the results of a randomized field experiment aimed at improving the safety of long-distance mini-busses or matatus in Kenya. Our intervention combines evocative messages aimed at motivating passengers to speak up against bad driving with a lottery that rewards matatu drivers for keeping the stickers in place. Independent insurance claims data were collected for more than 2000 long-distance matatus before and after the intervention. Our results indicate that insurance claims fell by a half to two-thirds, from a baseline annual rate of about 10%, and that claims involving injury or death fell by 60%. While we are unable to identify the mechanism(s) underlying this effect, the intervention is more cost effective in reducing mortality than other documented public health interventions.

Integrating a Parenting Intervention With Routine Primary Health Care: A Cluster Randomized Trial

SM Chang

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OBJECTIVE: More than 200 million children globally do not attain their developmental potential. We hypothesized that a parent training program could be integrated into primary health center visits and benefit child development. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized trial in the Caribbean (Jamaica, Antigua, and St Lucia). Fifteen centers were randomly assigned to the control (n = 250 mother-child pairs) and 14 to the intervention (n = 251 mother-child pairs) groups. Participants were recruited at the 6- to 8-week child health visit. The intervention used group delivery at 5 routine visits from age 3 to 18 months and comprised short films of child development messages, which were shown in the waiting area; discussion and demonstration led by community health workers; and mothers’ practice of activities. Nurses distributed message cards and a few play materials. Primary outcomes were child cognition, language, and hand-eye coordination and secondary outcomes were caregiver knowledge, practices, maternal depression, and child growth, measured after the 18-month visit. RESULTS: Eight-five percent of enrolled children were tested (control = 210, intervention = 216). Loss did not differ by group. Multilevel analyses showed significant benefits for cognitive development (3.09 points; 95% confidence interval: 1.31 to 4.87 points; effect size: 0.3 SDs). There were no other child benefits. There was a significant benefit to parenting knowledge (treatment effect: 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.01 to 2.17; effect size: 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: An innovative parenting intervention, requiring no additional clinic staff or mothers’ time, was integrated into health services, with benefits to child cognitive development and parent knowledge. This is a promising strategy that merits further evaluation at scale.

Individual- versus group-based financial incentives for weight loss: a randomized, controlled trial

JT Kullgren

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BACKGROUND: Data on the effectiveness of employer-sponsored financial incentives for employee weight loss are limited. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of 2 financial incentive designs for promoting weight loss among obese employees. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01208350) SETTING: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. PARTICIPANTS: 105 employees with a body mass index between 30 and 40 kg/m2. INTERVENTION: 24 weeks of monthly weigh-ins (control group; n = 35); individual incentive, designed as $100 per person per month for meeting or exceeding weight-loss goals (n = 35); and group incentive, designed as $500 per month split among participants within groups of 5 who met or exceeded weight-loss goals (n = 35). MEASUREMENTS: Weight loss after 24 weeks (primary outcome) and 36 weeks and changes in behavioral mediators of weight loss (secondary outcomes). RESULTS: Group-incentive participants lost more weight than control participants (mean between-group difference, 4.4 kg [95% CI, 2.0 to 6.7 kg]; P < 0.001) and individual-incentive participants (mean between-group difference, 3.2 kg [CI, 0.9 to 5.5 kg]; P = 0.008). Twelve weeks after incentives ended and after adjustment for 3-group comparisons, group-incentive participants maintained greater weight loss than control group participants (mean between-group difference, 2.9 kg [CI, 0.5 to 5.3 kg]; P = 0.016) but not greater than individual-incentive participants (mean between-group difference, 2.7 kg [CI, 0.4 to 5.0 kg]; P = 0.024). LIMITATION: Single employer and short follow-up. CONCLUSION: A group-based financial incentive was more effective than an individual incentive and monthly weigh-ins at promoting weight loss among obese employees at 24 weeks.

Can Referral Improve Targeting? Evidence from an Agricultural Training Experiment

M Fafchamps

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Farmers in Bangladesh received incentives to refer peers for agricultural training, in some cases contingent on the referred farmer adopting the innovation.

Increasing Financial Aid Awards with Reminders

ideas42

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Students were instructed to download a smartphone app that, over a period of weeks, delivered timely reminders and simple instructions about important deadlines and upcoming tasks related to applying for financial aid.

Effect of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing Among Primary Care Practices

D Meeker

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Importance Interventions based on behavioral science might reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Objective To assess effects of behavioral interventions and rates of inappropriate (not guideline-concordant) antibiotic prescribing during ambulatory visits for acute respiratory tract infections. Design, Setting, and Participants Cluster randomized clinical trial conducted among 47 primary care practices in Boston and Los Angeles. Participants were 248 enrolled clinicians randomized to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 interventions for 18 months. All clinicians received education on antibiotic prescribing guidelines on enrollment. Interventions began between November 1, 2011, and October 1, 2012. Follow-up for the latest-starting sites ended on April 1, 2014. Adult patients with comorbidities and concomitant infections were excluded. Interventions Three behavioral interventions, implemented alone or in combination: suggested alternatives presented electronic order sets suggesting nonantibiotic treatments; accountable justification prompted clinicians to enter free-text justifications for prescribing antibiotics into patients’ electronic health records; peer comparison sent emails to clinicians that compared their antibiotic prescribing rates with those of “top performers” (those with the lowest inappropriate prescribing rates). Main Outcomes and Measures Antibiotic prescribing rates for visits with antibiotic-inappropriate diagnoses (nonspecific upper respiratory tract infections, acute bronchitis, and influenza) from 18 months preintervention to 18 months afterward, adjusting each intervention’s effects for co-occurring interventions and preintervention trends, with random effects for practices and clinicians. Results There were 14 753 visits (mean patient age, 47 years; 69% women) for antibiotic-inappropriate acute respiratory tract infections during the baseline period and 16 959 visits (mean patient age, 48 years; 67% women) during the intervention period. Mean antibiotic prescribing rates decreased from 24.1% at intervention start to 13.1% at intervention month 18 (absolute difference, −11.0%) for control practices; from 22.1% to 6.1% (absolute difference, −16.0%) for suggested alternatives (difference in differences, −5.0% [95% CI, −7.8% to 0.1%]; P = .66 for differences in trajectories); from 23.2% to 5.2% (absolute difference, −18.1%) for accountable justification (difference in differences, −7.0% [95% CI, −9.1% to −2.9%]; P < .001); and from 19.9% to 3.7% (absolute difference, −16.3%) for peer comparison (difference in differences, −5.2% [95% CI, −6.9% to −1.6%]; P < .001). There were no statistically significant interactions (neither synergy nor interference) between interventions. Conclusions and Relevance Among primary care practices, the use of accountable justification and peer comparison as behavioral interventions resulted in lower rates of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections.

Loose Knots: Strong versus Weak Commitments to Save for Education in Uganda

Dean Karlan, L Linden

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A randomized evaluation found that some versions of the Super Savers program had a positive impact on savings and educational outcomes. Students saved more when they were offered the less restrictive cash payout which returned their savings in cash compared to the more restrictive voucher payout (see Figure 1).

Goals and Social Comparisons Promote Walking Behavior

GB Chapman, H Colby, K Convery, EJ Coups

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A randomized evaluation found that staff members assigned a high goal walked an average of 1,358 more steps per day than their colleagues who were assigned a medium goal, and 1,912 more steps per day than those assigned a low goal.

Cash vs. food assistance to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected adults in Tanzania

SI McCoy

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Good adherence to HIV medication is crucial to extend the length and quality of life and to eliminate transmission of HIV to others. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, only 29% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) have viral suppression, the ultimate goal of treatment.

Web-Based Access to Positive Airway Pressure Usage with or without an Initial Financial Incentive Improves Treatment Use in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

ST Kuna

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We tested whether providing adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with daily Web-based access to their positive airway pressure (PAP) usage over 3 mo with or without a financial incentive in the first week improves adherence and functional outcomes.Academic- and community-based sleep centers.One hundred thirty-eight adults with newly diagnosed OSA starting PAP treatment.Participants were randomized to: usual care, usual care with access to PAP usage, or usual care with access to PAP usage and a financial incentive. PAP data were transmitted daily by wireless modem from the participants' PAP unit to a website where hours of usage were displayed. Participants in the financial incentive group could earn up to $30/day in the first week for objective PAP use ≥ 4 h/day.Mean hours of daily PAP use in the two groups with access to PAP usage data did not differ from each other but was significantly greater than that in the usual care group in the first week and over 3 mo (P < 0.0001). Average daily use (mean ± standard deviation) during the first week of PAP intervention was 4.7 ± 3.3 h in the usual care group, and 5.9 ± 2.5 h and 6.3 ± 2.5 h in the Web access groups with and without financial incentive respectively. Adherence over the 3-mo intervention decreased at a relatively constant rate in all three groups. Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire change scores at 3 mo improved within each group (P < 0.0001) but change scores of the two groups with Web access to PAP data were not different than those in the control group (P > 0.124).Positive airway pressure adherence is significantly improved by giving patients Web access to information about their use of the treatment. Inclusion of a financial incentive in the first week had no additive effect in improving adherence.

Campaigns Against Vote-Selling in the Philippines: Do Promises Work?

A Hicken

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Vote-buying and vote-selling obstruct the democratic process, yet they remain pervasive in many developing democracies. Researchers asked voters in the Philippines to make a simple, unenforceable promise not to accept money from politicians or to promise to vote according to their conscience, even if they do accept money, to test the impact of promises on voters’ behavior. A majority of respondents made promises not to sell their votes. Researchers found that the promise significantly reduced vote-selling, cutting the number of people who sold their votes by 11 percentage points in the smallest-stakes election, but was not effective in the mayoral election with higher pay-outs. These results suggest that simply asking voters to promise not to sell votes can help reduce vote-selling in elections where vote-buying payments are typically small.

Public praise vs. private pay: Effects of rewards on energy conservation in the workplace

MJJ Handgraaf, Margriet van Lidth de Jeude, Kirstin Appelt

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Energy consumption is a major source of CO2 emissions, which contribute to global climate change. Although technological solutions can help reduce CO2 emissions, behavioral changes are necessary to achieve sufficient reductions.

Female Empowerment: Impact of a Commitment Savings Product in the Philippines

N Ashraf

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A randomized evaluation found that clients who were offered commitment savings accounts saved an extra 235 pesos over the first six months of the program, and an extra 411 pesos during the first year.

Earmarking and Partitioning: Increasing Saving by Low-Income Households

D Soman, A Cheema

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A randomized evaluation found that workers who received their earmarked savings in two envelopes saved an average of 414 rupees, or 72% more than the 241 rupees saved by workers who received their savings in one envelope.

The Impact of Alternative Incentive Schemes on Completion of Health Risk Assessments

E Haisley, Kevin Volpp, T Pellathy, George Loewenstein

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Purpose. The biggest challenge for corporate wellness initiatives is low rates of employee participation. We test whether a behavioral economic approach to incentive design (i.e., a lottery) is more effective than a direct economic payment of equivalent monetary value (i.e., a grocery gift certificate) in encouraging employees to complete health risk assessments (HRAs). Design. Employees were assigned to one of three arms. Assignment to a treatment arm versus the nontreatment arm was determined by management. Assignment to an arm among those eligible for treatment was randomized by office. Setting. A large health care management and information technology consulting company. Patients. A total of 1299 employees across 14 offices participated. Intervention. All employees were eligible to receive $25 for completing the HRA. Those in the lottery condition were assigned to teams of four to eight people and, conditional on HRA completion, were entered into a lottery with a prize of $100 (expected value, $25) and a bonus value of an additional $25 if 80% of team members participated. Those in the grocery gift certificate condition who completed an HRA received a $25 grocery gift certificate. Those in the comparison condition received no additional incentive. Measures. HRA completion rates. Analysis. Logistic regression analysis. Results. HRA completion rates were significantly higher among participations in the lottery incentive condition (64%) than in both the grocery gift certificate condition (44%) and the comparison condition (40%). Effects were larger for lower-income employees, as indicated by a significant interaction between income and the lottery incentive. Conclusion. Lottery incentives that incorporate regret aversion and social pressure can provide higher impact for the same amount of money as simple economic incentives.

Nutrition education worksite intervention for university staff: application of the health belief model.

Doris Abood, David Black, Diane Feral

Journal of nutrition education and behavior [35:260-7] ()

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To evaluate the efficacy of an 8-week worksite nutrition education intervention for university staff using the Health Belief Model (HBM) to promote healthful dietary behaviors that reduce risks for cardiovascular disease and cancer. 2 3 2 repeated measures baseline/posttest ex post facto research design. Staff employees were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 28) and control groups (n = 25). The intervention focused on specific health beliefs, nutrition knowledge, and dietary practices to demonstrate treatment effect. Dependent variables were specific health beliefs, nutrition knowledge, and dietary behaviors. Independent variables were demographic characteristics and group assignment. Tests of parametric assumptions, power analyses, analysis of variance, and Kuder-Richardson and Pearson product-moment coefficients were computed and specificity of treatment effects was assessed. Perceived benefits of healthy nutrition practices and nutrition knowledge related to cardiovascular disease and cancer significantly improved among the treatment participants, P <.001. Treatment group participants also significantly reduced total calories, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol intake (each P <.001). The intervention appears to be related to treatment effects and significantly increased nutrition knowledge and decreased energy, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol intake to levels consistent with national recommendations.

Interrupting pathways to sepsis: Effectiveness of an intervention to reduce delays in timely care for sick children in rural Bangladesh.

Frances Aboud, Ehsanur Rahman, Rosemin Kassam, Jasmin Khan, Nabeel Ashraf Ali, Fahmida Taleb

Social science & medicine (1982) (2017)

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The time it takes for a child with suspected sepsis to receive care is critical. We evaluated care-seeking practices for sick children under 5 years in rural Bangladesh, following interpersonal communication to inform households of newly introduced supports for quality care. Based on the Delays Framework, we assessed length and source of care-seeking delays, use of formal providers, and autonomous decision-making among mothers. Using two cross-sectional rounds before and after the 3-year intervention (August 2012 and August 2015), we surveyed 400 mothers of recently sick children in 26 randomly sampled villages from 2 intervention and 2 control subdistricts, using structured questions about delays. Six to ten times during the 18-month intervention period, local workers communicated four key messages to most intervention households in 292 villages: serious symptoms of suspected sepsis in children, a call-in center number for referral advice, a reliable transport hub, and upgrades to the local hospital. Compared to baseline, endline results demonstrated a significant difference in the total delay between the onset of child's illness and seeking external care, with intervention families having shorter delays. Over 90% of mothers informed someone in the family, mainly the husband, about the sick child before acting to seek care. Delays due to transportation and receiving provider care were short and not different. Using a benchmark of seeking external care within 24 h of onset, only 14.14% of intervention households and 13.40% of control households were "timely" in seeking care. Approximately 78% of parents, similar for the two groups, sought care from a non-formal practitioner (the village doctor). The results demonstrate that the delay in deciding to seek external care is most serious, and that communication strategies at the community level are necessary to increase the uptake of improved health services.

The PULSE (Prevention Using LifeStyle Education) trial protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a Type 2 Diabetes Prevention programme for men.

Elroy Aguiar, Philip Morgan, Clare Collins, Ronald Plotnikoff, Myles Young, Robin Callister

Contemporary clinical trials [39:132-44] (2014)

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Intensive lifestyle interventions have been successful in reducing type 2 diabetes incidence. Whether intensive programmes requiring face-to-face contact, trained staff and access to facilities are feasible, on a larger scale, has been debated. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention in men using an assessor-blinded, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. The 'Type 2 Diabetes PULSE (Prevention Using LifeStyle Education) Programme for Men' is a 6-month, self-administered, gender-tailored lifestyle intervention, with a multicomponent approach (weight loss, dietary modification, aerobic exercise and resistance training). Eligible men were aged 18-65 years, overweight/obese (BMI 25-40 kg·m(-2)) and at high-risk for type 2 diabetes (score ≥ 12, Australian diabetes risk tool). Men with diagnosed prediabetes were eligible, but those with type 1 and 2 diabetes were ineligible. Randomisation was stratified by age (

Pathway to health: cluster-randomized trial to increase fruit and vegetable consumption among smokers in public housing.

Jasjit Ahluwalia, Nicole Nollen, Harsohena Kaur, Aimee James, Matthew Mayo, Ken Resnicow

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association [26:214-21] (2007)

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Examine the effectiveness of an intervention to increase fruits and vegetables (FV) consumption among smokers. Cluster-randomized trial of 20 public housing developments; 10 randomly assigned to an FV intervention and 10 to a smoking cessation intervention. Usual (past 7 days) and past 30 days change in daily FV intake at 8 weeks and 6 months postbaseline. Greater increases were seen in the FV group. At Week 8 and Month 6, the FV group had consumed 1.58 (p = .001) and 0.78 (p = .04), respectively, more daily FV servings in the past 7 days than the cessation group. At the same time points, the FV group had consumed 3.61 (p = .01) and 3.93 (p = .01), respectively, more FV servings in the past 30 days than the cessation group. Completing more motivational interviewing sessions (p = .02) and trying more recipes (p = .02) led to significantly greater increases at Month 6 among FV participants. Motivational interviewing counseling and lifestyle modification through trying out healthy recipes may be effective in helping a high-risk population increase their FV intake.

Increasing screening mammography in asymptomatic women: evaluation of a second-generation, theory-based program.

L Aiken, S West, C Woodward, R Reno, K Reynolds

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association [13:526-38] (1994)

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Two theory-based programs to increase mammography screening rates among asymptomatic women were implemented and evaluated in the community. One program (E) was based on the Health Belief Model (HBM); the second program (EP) added exercises adapted from the social psychology of compliance. Program impact on screening among 295 primarily Caucasian, middle-class women was evaluated against untreated controls (C) over a 6-month period. Both programs led to increases in HBM components (Perceived Susceptibility, and Perceived Benefits) and Intentions to obtain a mammogram. Screening rates 2 to 3 times higher were observed in the EP and E over C conditions; EP and E did not differ. A mediational model of compliance illustrated the interplay of HBM components in the compliance process.

Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

R Alcalay, A Ghee, S Scrimshaw

Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974) [108:354-62] ()

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Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population.

The program for rheumatic independent self-management: a pilot evaluation.

M Alderson, L Starr, S Gow, J Moreland

Clinical rheumatology [18:283-92] (1999)

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The 'Program for Rheumatic Independent Self-Management' (PRISM) is an interdisciplinary programme that integrates group education and individualised treatment using the principles of self-management, adult learning, case management and self-efficacy enhancement. This study is a before-after evaluation of 57 individuals who attended PRISM. Outcome measures were selected to measure self-efficacy, disability, pain and ability to cope. The mean self-efficacy score increased immediately following the programme and this improvement was maintained at 6-month follow-up. Disability decreased from baseline to 6-month follow-up. There was a decrease in the mean level of pain from post-class to 6-month follow-up. All of these changes were statistically significant. These preliminary findings suggest that PRISM may be effective in enhancing self-efficacy, and reducing disability and pain.

The Effectiveness of Prompts to Promote Engagement With Digital Interventions: A Systematic Review.

Ghadah Alkhaldi, Fiona Hamilton, Rosa Lau, Rosie Webster, Susan Michie, Elizabeth Murray

Journal of medical Internet research [18:e6] (2016)

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Digital interventions have been effective in improving numerous health outcomes and health behaviors; furthermore, they are increasingly being used in different health care areas, including self-management of long-term conditions, mental health, and health promotion. The full potential of digital interventions is hindered by a lack of user engagement. There is an urgent need to develop effective strategies that can promote users' engagement with digital interventions. One potential method is the use of technology-based reminders or prompts. To evaluate the effectiveness of technology-based strategies for promoting engagement with digital interventions. Cochrane Collaboration guidelines on systematic review methodology were followed. The search strategy was executed across 7 electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Databases were searched from inception to September 13, 2013, with no language or publication type restrictions, using three concepts: randomized controlled trials, digital interventions, and engagement. Gray literature and reference lists of included studies were also searched. Titles and abstracts were independently screened by 2 authors, then the full texts of potentially eligible papers were obtained and double-screened. Data from eligible papers were extracted by one author and checked for accuracy by another author. Bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Narrative synthesis was performed on all included studies and, where appropriate, data were pooled using meta-analysis. All findings were reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 14 studies were included in the review with 8774 participants. Of the 14 studies, 9 had sufficient data to be included in the meta-analyses. The meta-analyses suggested that technology-based strategies can potentially promote engagement compared to no strategy for dichotomous outcomes (relative risk [RR] 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60, I(2)=71%), but due to considerable heterogeneity and the small sample sizes in most studies, this result should be treated with caution. No studies reported adverse or economic outcomes. Only one study with a small sample size compared different characteristics; the study found that strategies promoting new digital intervention content and those sent to users shortly after they started using the digital intervention were more likely to engage users. Overall, studies reported borderline positive effects of technology-based strategies on engagement compared to no strategy. However, the results have to be interpreted with caution. More research is needed to replicate findings and understand which characteristics of the strategies are effective in promoting engagement and how cost-effective they are.

Continuous glucose monitoring counseling improves physical activity behaviors of individuals with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial.

Nancy Allen, James Fain, Barry Braun, Stuart Chipkin

Diabetes research and clinical practice [80:371-9] (2008)

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Despite the known benefits, 60% of individuals with diabetes do not engage in regular physical activity (PA). This pilot study tested the effects of a counseling intervention using continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) feedback on PA self-efficacy, PA levels, and physiological variables. Adults (N=52) with type 2 diabetes (non-insulin requiring, inactive) were randomized to intervention (n=27) or control (n=25) groups. Both groups received 90min of diabetes education with a follow-up phone call 4 weeks later. The intervention group also received counseling derived from self-efficacy theory. This intervention included feedback on each participant's CGMS graph and used role model CGMS graphs to clearly depict glucose reductions in response to PA. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Participants receiving the intervention had higher self-efficacy scores than the control group for sticking to activity/resisting relapse at 8 weeks (p<0.05), indicating more confidence in maintaining a PA program. Intervention group participants light/sedentary activity minutes decreased significantly (p<0.05), moderate activity minutes increased significantly (p<0.05), and, HbA1c and BMI decreased significantly (p<0.05). These data suggest that PA counseling interventions using CGMS feedback for individuals with type 2 diabetes may improve PA levels and reduce risk factors for diabetes-related complications.

The effects of a multimodal intervention trial to promote lifestyle factors associated with the prevention of cardiovascular disease in menopausal and postmenopausal Australian women.

Debra Anderson, Khadegh Mizzari, Victoria Kain, Joan Webster

Health care for women international [27:238-53] (2006)

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The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a multimodal intervention (Women's Wellness Program) to improve women's cardiovascular risk factors. This 12-week randomized experiment with a control group targeted women 50-65 years living in the general population. Women in the intervention group were provided with a consultation with a registered nurse at which time biophysical cardiovascular risk measures were taken and health education was provided in both verbal and written form. Women were encouraged to review their smoking, nutrition, and water intakes and to commence an exercise program that included aerobic fitness exercises. Women in the control group continued their normal activities. The sample consisted of 90 women aged 50-65 years. Pre- and post-intervention assessment utilized seven measures of cardiovascular risk factors: waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, heart rate, weight, exercise levels, and smoking. Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention was effective in improving women's aerobic exercise activity and decreasing smoking. The data from all five biophysical outcome measures supported the efficacy of the intervention, with significant decreases seen in the women's WHR, BMI, blood pressure, and measured weight. Study implications suggest that this type of intervention may provide an effective, clinically manageable therapy for women who prefer a self-directed approach to preventing and decreasing cardiovascular risk factors.

Enhancing the effectiveness of community stroke risk screening: a randomized controlled trial.

Roger Anderson, Fabian Camacho, Ala Iaconi, Charles Tegeler, Rajesh Balkrishnan

Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association [20:330-5] ()

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Stroke risk factors are routinely assessed in community screening programs; however, the rate of patient follow-up for health care once risk factors are identified is known to be low. This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of a brief behavioral telephonic intervention in an ongoing community stroke prevention screening program on health care seeking for stroke risk. A total of 227 participants with 2 or more stroke risk factors were randomly allocated to either an attention control arm or a behavioral intervention arm. The control group received standard information on risk and advice, whereas the intervention group received a brief Health Belief Model telephonic intervention designed to motivate care-seeking. The effect of treatment on the participants who completed a health care visit for stroke risk concerns was assessed using logistic regression. Cox survival analysis was used to compare time to physician visit between the 2 groups. Participants in the intervention arm were 1.85 times more likely to visit a primary care physician than controls. At 3 months, 69.2% of subjects in the intervention arm and 52.9% of those in the controls arm reported a new primary care visit after screening (P = .02), with 56.0% in the intervention arm and 38.4% in the control arm reporting a primary care visit specifically to discuss the stroke screening results (P < .01). Our data indicate that the brief, low-cost, motivational intervention effectively promoted adherence to screening advice and merits further testing.

Physical activity with spiritual strategies intervention: a cluster randomized trial with older African American women.

Karen Joy Anderson, Carol Pullen

Research in gerontological nursing [6:11-21] (2013)

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A cluster randomized study was conducted using a convenience sample of four Christian faith communities from which 27 African American women 60 and older were recruited. The purpose was to determine whether African American women receiving a physical activity intervention with spiritual strategies compared to a control group would demonstrate differences over time in physical activity behaviors and biomarkers, in self-efficacy for physical activity, and in barriers to physical activity. Results with baseline and 12-week measurements included significant between-group findings at 12 weeks on muscle strength activity (minutes per week, z = -3.269, p = 0.001; days per week, z = -3.384, p = 0.001), favoring the intervention group. There were significant between-group findings in 6-minute walk change scores (z = -2.546, p = 0.009), favoring the intervention group. Barriers were significantly reduced within the intervention group (z = -2.184, p = 0.029). Evidence suggests a physical activity intervention with spiritual strategies increases physical activity behavior. The Health Promotion Model can be used to develop physical activity interventions with spiritual strategies for older African American women in faith communities, thus, supporting Healthy People 2020 goals.

Effects of the Start For Life treatment on physical activity in primarily African American preschool children of ages 3-5 years.

James Annesi, Alice Smith, Gisèle Tennant

Psychology, health & medicine [18:300-9] (2013)

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In U.S. children of ages 2-5 years, combined overweight and obesity has increased to 21%, with African American children of this age range highest at 26%. Lack of physical activity is highly predictive of overweight and obesity in children. Preschools may be a useful point for intervention. An innovative preschool physical activity treatment (Start For Life) was developed based on principles of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory. It incorporated 30 minutes daily of highly structured physical activity with behavioral and self-regulatory skills training (e.g. goal setting, self-monitoring, productive self-talk) interspersed. Data obtained from accelerometry was used to contrast physical activity outputs during the preschool day in the Start For Life condition (n = 202) with a usual-care control condition (n = 136). After controlling for age and sex of the primarily African American participants (M age = 4.7 years), changes over eight weeks in moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous physical activity were significant, and significantly more favorable in the Start For Life group; F(1, 344) = 4.98, p = .026 and F(1, 344) = 3.60, p = .058, respectively. Start For Life was associated with a weekly increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity of approximately 40 minutes. After sufficient replications that better account for different sample types, parental effects and physical activity outside of the school day, and long-term effects, widespread dissemination may be considered.

Psychological, behavioral, and clinical effects of intra-oral camera: a randomized control trial on adults with gingivitis.

Mário-Rui Araújo, Maria-João Alvarez, Cristina Godinho, Cícero Pereira

Community dentistry and oral epidemiology (2016)

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To evaluate the effects of using an intra-oral camera (IOC) during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT), on the psychological, behavioral, and clinical parameters of patients with gingivitis, outlined by evidence and a theory-based framework. A group of 78 adult patients with gingivitis receiving an SPT was randomized into two groups: IOC and control. Bleeding on Marginal Probing (BOMP), self-reported dental hygiene behaviors, and psychological determinants of behavior change (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and planning) and IOC opinion were evaluated 1 week before or during the appointment and 4 months later. Repeated-measures anova was used to compare groups over time. Almost all the patients brushed their teeth daily, while 78% either never or hardly ever used dental floss. The IOC group showed significant improvements in BOMP index (P < 0.001), self-reported flossing (P < 0.05), and self-efficacy (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. The use of IOC significantly improves clinical, behavioral, and psychological determinants of periodontal health 4 months after treatment.

Development and exploratory cluster-randomised opportunistic trial of a theory-based intervention to enhance physical activity among adolescents.

Vera Araújo-Soares, Teresa McIntyre, Graeme MacLennan, Falko Sniehotta

Psychology & health [24:805-22] (2009)

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This article reports the development and exploratory testing of a school-based intervention programme designed to enhance levels of physical activity in adolescents. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory (SCT), self-regulation theory (SRT) and planning as evidence-based mediators of physical activity changes. Two classes, paired on socio-economic variables, were selected from each of eight Portuguese schools and randomly assigned to an intervention or control group (N = 291). Primary outcome was 'moderate to vigorous physical activity' (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) measured pre and post intervention and at three and nine months follow-up. SCT, SRT and planning variables were secondary outcomes measured pre and post intervention. At post test, participants in the intervention group reported 18 min per week more physical activity (PA), adjusted for pre-intervention, age and sex, than those in the control group (95% confidence interval -10 to 46; p = 0.249). This difference increased to 33 min (95% CI-4 to 71; p = 0.082) at three months and to 57 min (95% CI 13 to 101, p = 0.008) at nine month follow-up. Moreover, the intervention resulted in changes of some of the theoretical target variables, including outcome expectancies and coping planning. However, no evidence was found for the changes in theoretical moderators to mediate the intervention effects on behaviour. Implications for theory and for future research are discussed.

A randomised controlled trial of the effects of implementation intentions on women's walking behaviour.

KP Arbour, Ginis Martin

Psychology & health [24:49-65] (2009)

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The combination of low physical activity rates and increased cardiovascular deaths indicate the overwhelming need for behaviour change interventions that can effectively promote physical activity among sedentary women. This 11-week randomised controlled trial examined the effects of an implementation intentions intervention on sedentary women's walking behaviour. Seventy-five women (M age = 48.17) were randomly assigned to either a control group where they were required to self-monitor their daily pedometer-determined step count or to an experimental group where they were asked to form specific walking plans (i.e. implementation intentions) every 6 weeks and to self-monitor their daily pedometer-determined step count. Measures of exercise intentions, perceived behavioural control, scheduling and barrier self-efficacy were administered at baseline, week 6 and week 11. Analyses indicated higher step counts over the first 6 weeks for women in the experimental condition (p < 0.02). Furthermore, higher self-efficacy to schedule (p < 0.01) and overcome walking barriers (p < 0.03), as well as higher perceptions of behavioural control (p < 0.02) were found at week 11 for women in the experimental versus control condition. However, none of the control beliefs were found to mediate the effects of the intervention on the women's walking behaviour. Furthermore, the intervention did not have any effect on the strength of the goal intention-behaviour relationship. The findings suggest implementation intentions are an effective strategy for initiating leisure-time walking within sedentary women.

Osteoporosis preventive behavior in Thai older adults: feasibility and acceptability.

Suparb Aree-Ue, Linchong Pothiban, Basia Belza, Khanokporn Sucamvang, Sirirat Panuthai

Journal of gerontological nursing [32:23-30] (2006)

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The authors used a one-group pre-test-post-test design to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an osteoporosis prevention program and the effects of the program on knowledge, health beliefs, self-efficacy; and osteoporosis preventive behaviors in older adults. Participants included 48 older adults who attended a health center in Thailand. Results revealed that the program was feasible and acceptable. A significant improvement in osteoporosis knowledge, health beliefs, self-efficacy, and osteoporosis preventive behaviors occurred. Findings suggest that the program helps older adults incorporate new knowledge and skills into their daily lives and helps them maintain bone health.

Field experiment of a very brief worksite intervention to improve nutrition among health care workers.

CJ Armitage

Journal of behavioral medicine [38:599-608] (2015)

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Despite the potential of worksite interventions to boost productivity and save insurance costs, they tend to be costly and tested in nonrandomized trials. The aim of the present study was to test the ability of a very brief worksite intervention based on implementation intentions to improve nutrition among health care workers. Seventy-nine health care workers were randomly allocated to a control condition or to form implementation intentions using standard instructions or with a supporting tool. Fruit intake and metacognitive processing (operationalized as awareness of standards, self-monitoring and self-regulatory effort) were measured at baseline and follow-up. Participants who formed implementation intentions ate significantly more fruit and engaged in significantly more metacognitive processing at follow-up than did participants in the control condition (ds > .70). The findings support the efficacy of implementation intentions for increasing fruit intake in health care workers and preliminary support for the utility of a tool to support implementation intention formation.

Using a mobile health application to reduce alcohol consumption: a mixed-methods evaluation of the drinkaware track & calculate units application.

Sophie Attwood, Hannah Parke, John Larsen, Katie Morton

BMC public health [17:394] (2017)

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Smartphone applications ("apps") offer promise as tools to help people monitor and reduce their alcohol consumption. To date, few evaluations of alcohol reduction apps exist, with even fewer considering apps already available to the public. The aim of this study was to evaluate an existing publically available app, designed by Drinkaware, a UK-based alcohol awareness charity. We adopted a mixed-methods design, analysing routinely collected app usage data to explore user characteristics and patterns of usage. Following this, in-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of app users to examine perceptions of acceptability, usability and perceived effectiveness, as well as to provide recommendations on how to improve the app. One hundred nineteen thousand seven hundred thirteen people downloaded and entered data into the app over a 13-month period. High attrition was observed after 1 week. Users who engaged with the app tended to be "high risk" drinkers and to report being motivated "to reduce drinking" at the point of first download. In those who consistently engaged with the app over time, self-reported alcohol consumption levels reduced, with most change occurring in the first week of usage. Our qualitative findings indicate satisfaction with the usability of the app, but mixed feedback was given regarding individual features. Users expressed conflicting views concerning the type of feedback and notifications that the app currently provides. A common preference was expressed for more personalised content. The Drinkaware app is a useful tool to support behaviour change in individuals who are already motivated and committed to reducing their alcohol consumption. The Drinkaware app would benefit from greater personalisation and tailoring to promote longer term use. This evaluation provides insight into the usability and acceptability of various app features and contains a number of recommendations for improving user satisfaction and the potential effectiveness of apps designed to encourage reductions in alcohol consumption.

Short-term effects of a randomized computer-based out-of-school smoking prevention trial aimed at elementary schoolchildren.

Marlein Ausems, Ilse Mesters, Gerard van Breukelen, Hein De Vries

Preventive medicine [34:581-9] (2002)

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Smoking prevention programs usually run during school hours. In our study, an out-of-school program was developed consisting of a computer-tailored intervention aimed at the age group before school transition (11- to 12-year-old elementary schoolchildren). The aim of this study is to evaluate the additional effect of out-of-school smoking prevention. One hundred fifty-six participating schools were randomly allocated to one of four research conditions: (a) the in-school condition, an existing seven-lesson program; (b) the out-of-school condition, three computer-tailored letters sent to the students' homes; (c) the in-school and out-of-school condition, a combined approach; (d) the control condition. Pretest and 6 months follow-up data on smoking initiation and continuation, and data on psychosocial variables were collected from 3,349 students. Control and out-of-school conditions differed regarding posttest smoking initiation (18.1 and 10.4%) and regarding posttest smoking continuation (23.5 and 13.1%). Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed positive effects regarding the out-of-school program. Significant effects were not found regarding the in-school program, nor did the combined approach show stronger effects than the single-method approaches. The findings of this study suggest that smoking prevention trials for elementary schoolchildren can be effective when using out-of-school computer-tailored interventions.

Design and development of a film-based intervention about teenage men and unintended pregnancy: applying the Medical Research Council framework in practice.

Áine Aventin, Maria Lohan, Peter O'Halloran, Marion Henderson

Evaluation and program planning [49:19-30] (2015)

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Following the UK Medical Research Council's (MRC) guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions, this study aimed to design, develop and optimise an educational intervention about young men and unintended teenage pregnancy based around an interactive film. The process involved identification of the relevant evidence base, development of a theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of unintended teenage pregnancy in relation to young men, and exploratory mixed methods research. The result was an evidence-based, theory-informed, user-endorsed intervention designed to meet the much neglected pregnancy education needs of teenage men and intended to increase both boys' and girls' intentions to avoid an unplanned pregnancy during adolescence. In prioritising the development phase, this paper addresses a gap in the literature on the processes of research-informed intervention design. It illustrates the application of the MRC guidelines in practice while offering a critique and additional guidance to programme developers on the MRC prescribed processes of developing interventions. Key lessons learned were: (1) know and engage the target population and engage gatekeepers in addressing contextual complexities; (2) know the targeted behaviours and model a process of change; and (3) look beyond development to evaluation and implementation.

Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes: protocol for an open pilot study and external pilot clustered randomised controlled trial to assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of a multifaceted behavioural intervention targeting physical activity in primary care.

Leah Avery, Falko Sniehotta, Sarah Denton, Nick Steen, Elaine McColl, Roy Taylor, Michael Trenell

Trials [15:46] (2014)

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Physical activity (PA) and nutrition are the cornerstones of diabetes management. Several reviews and meta-analyses report that PA independently produces clinically important improvements in glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear what the optimal strategies are to increase PA behaviour in people with Type 2 diabetes in routine primary care. This study will determine whether an evidence-informed multifaceted behaviour change intervention (Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes) targeting both consultation behaviour of primary healthcare professionals and PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes is both acceptable and feasible in the primary care setting. An open pilot study conducted in two primary care practices (phase one) will assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. Ongoing feedback from participating primary healthcare professionals and patients will provide opportunities for systematic adaptation and refinement of the intervention and study procedures. A two-arm parallel group clustered pilot randomised controlled trial with patients from participating primary care practices in North East England will assess acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of the intervention (versus usual clinical care) and trial processes over a 12-month period. Consultation behaviour involving fidelity of intervention delivery, diabetes and PA related knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, intentions and self-efficacy for delivering a behaviour change intervention targeting PA behaviour will be assessed in primary healthcare professionals. We will rehearse the collection of outcome data (with the focus on data yield and quality) for a future definitive trial, through outcome assessment at baseline, one, six and twelve months. An embedded qualitative process evaluation and treatment fidelity assessment will explore issues around intervention implementation and assess whether intervention components can be reliably and faithfully delivered in routine primary care. Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes will address an important gap in the evidence-base, that is, the need for interventions to increase free-living PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes. The multifaceted intervention incorporates an online accredited training programme for primary healthcare professionals and represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. This study will establish whether the multifaceted behavioural intervention is acceptable and feasible in routine primary care. Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes (MaMT2D) was registered with Current Controlled Trials on the 14th January 2012: ISRCTN67997502. The first primary care practice was randomised on the 5th October 2012.

The development of an intervention to promote adherence to national guidelines for suspected viral encephalitis.

Ruth Backman, Robbie Foy, Benedict Michael, Sylviane Defres, Rachel Kneen, Tom Solomon

Implementation science : IS [10:37] (2015)

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Central nervous system infections can have devastating clinical outcomes if not diagnosed and treated promptly. There is a documented gap between recommended and actual practice and a limited understanding of its causes. We identified and explored the reasons for this gap, focusing on points in the patient pathway most amenable to change and the development of a tailored intervention strategy to improve diagnosis and treatment. Using theoretically-informed semi-structured interviews, we explored barriers and enablers to diagnosing and managing patients with suspected encephalitis, specifically performing lumbar punctures and initiating antiviral therapy within 6 h. We purposively sampled hospitals and hospital staff in the UK. We audio recorded and transcribed all interviews prior to a framework analysis. We mapped identified barriers and enablers to the patient pathway. We matched behaviour change techniques targeting clinicians to the most salient barriers and enablers and embedded them within an intervention package. We interviewed 43 staff in six hospitals. Clinical staff expressed uncertainty when and how to perform lumbar punctures and highlighted practical difficulties in undertaking them within busy clinical settings. Once treatment need was triggered, clinicians generally felt able to take appropriate therapeutic action, albeit within organisational and resource constraints. Matched behaviour change techniques largely targeted antecedents of treatment. These included decision support to prompt recognition, highlighting the consequences of missed diagnoses for clinicians and patients, and practical support for lumbar punctures. We subsequently devised an evidence-informed package comprising 'core' interventions and, to allow for local flexibility, 'optional' interventions. We identified several points in the patient pathway where practice could improve, the most critical being around clinical suspicion and initial investigation. Interventions targeting professional beliefs and behaviours whilst optimising their clinical environment were amongst the most promising approaches to improve the care of suspected encephalitis. Randomised trial registered with Controlled Trials ISRCTN06886935 .

Tailored and Adaptive Computerized Cognitive Training in Older Adults at Risk for Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Alex Bahar-Fuchs, Shannon Webb, Lauren Bartsch, Linda Clare, George Rebok, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin Anstey

Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD [60:889-911] (2017)

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Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT) has been shown to improve cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mood-related neuropsychiatric symptoms (MrNPS), but many questions remain unresolved. To evaluate the extent to which CCT benefits older adults with both MCI and MrNPS, and its effects on meta-cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, as well as establish whether adapting difficulty levels and tailoring to individuals' profile is superior to generic training. Older adults with MCI (n = 9), MrNPS (n = 11), or both (MCI+, n = 25) were randomized into a home-based individually-tailored and adaptive CCT (n = 21) or an active control condition (AC; n = 23) in a double-blind design. Interventions lasted 8-12 weeks and outcomes were assessed after the intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up. Participants in both conditions reported greater satisfaction with their everyday memory following intervention and at follow-up. However, participants in the CCT condition showed greater improvement on composite measures of memory, learning, and global cognition at follow-up. Participants with MrNPS in the CCT condition were also found to have improved mood at 3-month follow-up and reported using fewer memory strategies at the post-intervention and follow-up assessments. There was no evidence that participants with MCI+ were disadvantaged relative to the other diagnostic conditions. Finally, informant-rated caregiver burden declined at follow-up assessment in the CCT condition relative to the AC condition. Home-based CCT with adaptive difficulty and personal tailoring appears superior to more generic CCT in relation to both cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes. Mechanisms of treatment effect and future directions are discussed.

The Men's Safer Sex project: intervention development and feasibility randomised controlled trial of an interactive digital intervention to increase condom use in men.

Julia Bailey, Rosie Webster, Rachael Hunter, Mark Griffin, Nicholas Freemantle, Greta Rait, Claudia Estcourt, Susan Michie, Jane Anderson, Judith Stephenson, Makeda Gerressu, Chee Siang Ang, Elizabeth Murray

Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) [20:1-124] (2016)

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This report details the development of the Men's Safer Sex website and the results of a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT), health economic assessment and qualitative evaluation. (1) Develop the Men's Safer Sex website to address barriers to condom use; (2) determine the best design for an online RCT; (3) inform the methods for collecting and analysing health economic data; (4) assess the Sexual Quality of Life (SQoL) questionnaire and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, three-level version (EQ-5D-3L) to calculate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs); and (5) explore clinic staff and men's views of online research methodology. (1) Website development: we combined evidence from research literature and the views of experts (n = 18) and male clinic users (n = 43); (2) feasibility RCT: 159 heterosexually active men were recruited from three sexual health clinics and were randomised by computer to the Men's Safer Sex website plus usual care (n = 84) or usual clinic care only (n = 75). Men were invited to complete online questionnaires at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses were recorded from clinic notes at 12 months; (3) health economic evaluation: we investigated the impact of using different questionnaires to calculate utilities and QALYs (the EQ-5D-3L and SQoL questionnaire), and compared different methods to collect resource use; and (4) qualitative evaluation: thematic analysis of interviews with 11 male trial participants and nine clinic staff, as well as free-text comments from online outcome questionnaires. (1) Software errors and clinic Wi-Fi access presented significant challenges. Response rates for online questionnaires were poor but improved with larger vouchers (from 36% with £10 to 50% with £30). Clinical records were located for 94% of participants for STI diagnoses. There were no group differences in condomless sex with female partners [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 1.96]. New STI diagnoses were recorded for 8.8% (7/80) of the intervention group and 13.0% (9/69) of the control group (IRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.89). (2) Health-care resource data were more complete using patient files than questionnaires. The probability that the intervention is cost-effective is sensitive to the source of data used and whether or not data on intended pregnancies are included. (3) The pilot RCT fitted well around clinical activities but 37% of the intervention group did not see the Men's Safer Sex website and technical problems were frustrating. Men's views of the Men's Safer Sex website and research procedures were largely positive. It would be feasible to conduct a large-scale RCT using clinic STI diagnoses as a primary outcome; however, technical errors and a poor response rate limited the collection of online self-reported outcomes. The next steps are (1) to optimise software for online trials, (2) to find the best ways to integrate digital health promotion with clinical services, (3) to develop more precise methods for collecting resource use data and (4) to work out how to overcome barriers to digital intervention testing and implementation in the NHS. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18649610. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 20, No. 91. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

ShopSmart 4 Health: results of a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women.

Kylie Ball, Sarah McNaughton, Nd Le Ha, Gavin Abbott, Lena Stephens, David Crawford

The American journal of clinical nutrition (2016)

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Behavioral interventions show potential for promoting increased fruit and vegetable consumption in the general population. However, little is known about their effectiveness or cost-effectiveness among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who are less likely to consume adequate fruit and vegetables. This study investigated the effects and costs of a behavior change intervention for increasing fruit and vegetable purchasing and consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. ShopSmart 4 Health was a randomized controlled trial involving a 3-mo retrospective baseline data collection phase [time (T) 0], a 6-mo intervention (T1-T2), and a 6-mo no-intervention follow-up (T3). Socioeconomically disadvantaged women who were primary household shoppers in Melbourne, Australia, were randomly assigned to either a behavior change intervention arm (n = 124) or a control arm (n = 124). Supermarket transaction (sales) data and surveys measured the main outcomes: fruit and vegetable purchases and self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption. An analysis of supermarket transaction data showed no significant intervention effects on vegetable or fruit purchasing at T2 or T3. Participants in the behavior change intervention arm reported consumption of significantly more vegetables during the intervention (T2) than did controls, with smaller intervention effects sustained at 6 mo postintervention (T3). Relative to controls, vegetable consumption increased by ∼0.5 serving · participant(-1) · d(-1) from baseline to T2 and remained 0.28 servings/d higher than baseline at T3 among those who received the intervention. There was no intervention effect on reported fruit consumption. The behavior change intervention cost A$3.10 (in Australian dollars) · increased serving of vegetables(-1) · d(-1)Conclusions: This behavioral intervention increased vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. However, the lack of observed effects on fruit consumption and on both fruit and vegetable purchasing at intervention stores suggests that further investigation of effective nutrition promotion approaches for this key target group is required. The ShopSmart 4 Health trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN48771770.

Intervention planning for a digital intervention for self-management of hypertension: a theory-, evidence- and person-based approach.

Rebecca Band, Katherine Bradbury, Katherine Morton, Carl May, Susan Michie, Frances Mair, Elizabeth Murray, Richard McManus, Paul Little, Lucy Yardley

Implementation science : IS [12:25] (2017)

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This paper describes the intervention planning process for the Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP), a digital intervention to promote hypertension self-management. It illustrates how a Person-Based Approach can be integrated with theory- and evidence-based approaches. The Person-Based Approach to intervention development emphasises the use of qualitative research to ensure that the intervention is acceptable, persuasive, engaging and easy to implement. Our intervention planning process comprised two parallel, integrated work streams, which combined theory-, evidence- and person-based elements. The first work stream involved collating evidence from a mixed methods feasibility study, a systematic review and a synthesis of qualitative research. This evidence was analysed to identify likely barriers and facilitators to uptake and implementation as well as design features that should be incorporated in the HOME BP intervention. The second work stream used three complementary approaches to theoretical modelling: developing brief guiding principles for intervention design, causal modelling to map behaviour change techniques in the intervention onto the Behaviour Change Wheel and Normalisation Process Theory frameworks, and developing a logic model. The different elements of our integrated approach to intervention planning yielded important, complementary insights into how to design the intervention to maximise acceptability and ease of implementation by both patients and health professionals. From the primary and secondary evidence, we identified key barriers to overcome (such as patient and health professional concerns about side effects of escalating medication) and effective intervention ingredients (such as providing in-person support for making healthy behaviour changes). Our guiding principles highlighted unique design features that could address these issues (such as online reassurance and procedures for managing concerns). Causal modelling ensured that all relevant behavioural determinants had been addressed, and provided a complete description of the intervention. Our logic model linked the hypothesised mechanisms of action of our intervention to existing psychological theory. Our integrated approach to intervention development, combining theory-, evidence- and person-based approaches, increased the clarity, comprehensiveness and confidence of our theoretical modelling and enabled us to ground our intervention in an in-depth understanding of the barriers and facilitators most relevant to this specific intervention and user population.

The Southampton Initiative for Health: a complex intervention to improve the diets and increase the physical activity levels of women from disadvantaged communities.

Mary Barker, Janis Baird, Wendy Lawrence, Megan Jarman, Christina Black, Katharine Barnard, Sue Cradock, Jenny Davies, Barrie Margetts, Hazel Inskip, Cyrus Cooper

Journal of health psychology [16:178-91] (2011)

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The Southampton Initiative for Health is a training intervention with Sure Start Children's Centre staff designed to improve the diets and physical activity levels of women of childbearing age. Training aims to help staff to support women in making changes to their lifestyles by improving three skills: reflection on current practice; asking 'open discovery' questions; and goal-setting. The impact of the training on staff practice is being assessed. A before and after non-randomized controlled trial is being used to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention in improving women's diets and increasing their physical activity levels.

Improving Collaborative Behaviour Planning in Adult Auditory Rehabilitation: Development of the I-PLAN Intervention Using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

Fiona Barker, Simon de Lusignan, Deborah Cooke

Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (2016)

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The consequences of poorly managed hearing loss can be ameliorated with hearing aid use but rates of use are sub-optimal. The impact of audiologist behaviour on subsequent use, particularly over the long term, is unknown. This study aimed to describe the role of the behaviour change wheel in developing an intervention to introduce and embed particular clinical behaviours into adult hearing aid fitting consultations, within the framework of the Medical Research Council guidance on complex interventions. Following the steps of the behaviour change wheel, audiologist behaviours that might influence hearing aid use were identified based on a systematic review and qualitative work with audiologists. An analysis, using the COM-B model, identified potential drivers of the target behaviours. This was used to select intervention functions and behaviour change techniques likely to influence behaviour in this context. The target behaviours were as follows: giving information about the benefits of hearing aid use and the negative consequences of non-use, providing prompts for use and engaging in collaborative behavioural planning for use. The behavioural analysis suggested that psychological capability, opportunity and motivation were potential drivers of these behaviours. The intervention functions of education, coercion, training, environmental restructuring, modelling and enablement were selected and combined to develop a single complex intervention that seeks to address the target behaviours. This is the first study to use the behaviour change wheel to develop a complex intervention in the context of audiology. The theory-based development of the intervention will facilitate evaluation of its feasibility and effectiveness.

Efficacy of counselor vs. computer-delivered intervention with mandated college students.

Nancy Barnett, James Murphy, Suzanne Colby, Peter Monti

Addictive behaviors [32:2529-48] (2007)

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two brief interventions and the inclusion of a 1-month booster session with college students who were referred to attend alcohol education following an alcohol-related incident. Participants (N=225; 48.9% male) were randomly assigned to receive one session of a Brief Motivational Interview (BMI) or computer-delivered intervention (CDI) with the Alcohol 101 CD-ROM. Participants were also randomly assigned to booster/no booster. At 3-month follow up, participants in BMI reported greater help seeking and use of behavioral strategies to moderate drinking. At 12-month follow up, BMI participants were drinking more frequently and CDI participants were consuming a greater number of drinks per occasion than at baseline. Mediation analyses showed that the use of specific behavioral strategies mediated the effect of the BMI condition on drinking volume. There was no intervention effect on alcohol problems, and the booster condition did not significantly affect outcomes. Promoting specific behaviors in the context of in-person brief interventions may be a promising approach to reducing drinking volume among identified at-risk students.

Effective Feedback to Improve Primary Care Prescribing Safety (EFIPPS) a pragmatic three-arm cluster randomised trial: designing the intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01602705).

Karen Barnett, Marion Bennie, Shaun Treweek, Christopher Robertson, Dennis Petrie, Lewis Ritchie, Bruce Guthrie

Implementation science : IS [9:133] (2014)

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High-risk prescribing in primary care is common and causes considerable harm. Feedback interventions have small/moderate effects on clinical practice, but few trials explicitly compare different forms of feedback. There is growing recognition that intervention development should be theory-informed, and that comprehensive reporting of intervention design is required by potential users of trial findings. The paper describes intervention development for the Effective Feedback to Improve Primary Care Prescribing Safety (EFIPPS) study, a pragmatic three-arm cluster randomised trial in 262 Scottish general practices. The NHS chose to implement a feedback intervention to utilise a new resource, new Prescribing Information System (newPIS). The development phase required selection of high-risk prescribing outcome measures and design of intervention components: (1) educational material (the usual care comparison), (2) feedback of practice rates of high-risk prescribing received by both intervention arms and (3) a theory-informed behaviour change component to be received by one intervention arm. Outcome measures, educational material and feedback design, were developed with a National Health Service Advisory Group. The behaviour change component was informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Health Action Process Approach. A focus group elicitation study and an email Delphi study with general practitioners (GPs) identified key attitudes and barriers of responding to the prescribing feedback. Behaviour change techniques were mapped to the psychological constructs, and the content was informed by the results of the elicitation and Delphi study. Six high-risk prescribing measures were selected in a consensus process based on importance and feasibility. Educational material and feedback design were based on current NHS Scotland practice and Advisory Group recommendations. The behaviour change component was resource constrained in development, mirroring what is feasible in an NHS context. Four behaviour change interventions were developed and embedded in five quarterly rounds of feedback targeting attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and action planning (2×). The paper describes a process which is feasible to use in the resource-constrained environment of NHS-led intervention development and documents the intervention to make its design and implementation explicit to potential users of the trial findings. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01602705.

A systematic review investigating the behaviour change strategies in interventions to prevent misuse of anabolic steroids.

Geoff Bates, Emma Begley, David Tod, Lisa Jones, Conan Leavey, Jim McVeigh

Journal of health psychology (2017)

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We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times. However, studies with components in addition to information provision may be more promising. Interventions outside of sport settings are required to reflect the transition of this form of substance use to the general population.

Comparing the effectiveness of an enhanced MOtiVational intErviewing InTervention (MOVE IT) with usual care for reducing cardiovascular risk in high risk subjects: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Adam Bayley, Nicole de Zoysa, Derek Cook, Peter Whincup, Daniel Stahl, Katherine Twist, Katie Ridge, Paul McCrone, Janet Treasure, Mark Ashworth, Anne Greenough, Clare Blythe, Kirsty Winkley, Khalida Ismail

Trials [16:112] (2015)

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Interventions targeting multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including poor diet and physical inactivity, are more effective than interventions targeting a single risk factor. A motivational interviewing (MI) intervention can provide modest dietary improvements and physical activity increases, while adding cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) skills may enhance the effects of MI. We designed a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to examine whether specific behaviour change techniques integrating MI and CBT result in favourable changes in weight and physical activity in those at high risk of CVD. A group and individual intervention will be compared to usual care. A group intervention offers potential benefits from social support and may be more cost effective. Individuals aged between 40 and 74 years in 11 South London Clinical Commissioning Groups who are at high risk of developing CVD (≥20%) in the next 10 years will be recruited. A sample of 1,704 participants will be randomised to receive the enhanced MI intervention, delivered by trained healthy lifestyle facilitators (HLFs), in group or individual formats, in 10 sessions (plus an introductory session) over one year, or usual care. Randomisation will be conducted by King's College London Clinical Trials Unit and researchers collecting outcome data will be blinded to treatment allocation. At 12-month and 24-month follow-up assessments, primary outcomes will be change in weight and physical activity (average steps per day). Secondary outcomes include changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CVD risk score. Incidence of CVD events since baseline will be recorded. A process evaluation will be conducted to evaluate factors which impact on delivery, adherence and outcome. An economic evaluation will estimate relative cost-effectiveness of each type of intervention delivery. This RCT assesses the effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle intervention for people at high risk of CVD. Benefits of the study include the ethnic and socioeconomic diversity of the study population and that, via social support within the group setting and long-term follow-up period, the intervention offers the potential to support maintenance of a healthy lifestyle. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry (identifier: ISRCTN84864870, registered 15 May 2012).

Stepped wedge randomised controlled trials: systematic review of studies published between 2010 and 2014.

Emma Beard, James Lewis, Andrew Copas, Calum Davey, David Osrin, Gianluca Baio, Jennifer Thompson, Katherine Fielding, Rumana Omar, Sam Ononge, James Hargreaves, Audrey Prost

Trials [16:353] (2015)

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In a stepped wedge, cluster randomised trial, clusters receive the intervention at different time points, and the order in which they received it is randomised. Previous systematic reviews of stepped wedge trials have documented a steady rise in their use between 1987 and 2010, which was attributed to the design's perceived logistical and analytical advantages. However, the interventions included in these systematic reviews were often poorly reported and did not adequately describe the analysis and/or methodology used. Since 2010, a number of additional stepped wedge trials have been published. This article aims to update previous systematic reviews, and consider what interventions were tested and the rationale given for using a stepped wedge design. We searched PubMed, PsychINFO, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and the Current Controlled Trials Register for articles published between January 2010 and May 2014. We considered stepped wedge randomised controlled trials in all fields of research. We independently extracted data from retrieved articles and reviewed them. Interventions were then coded using the functions specified by the Behaviour Change Wheel, and for behaviour change techniques using a validated taxonomy. Our review identified 37 stepped wedge trials, reported in 10 articles presenting trial results, one conference abstract, 21 protocol or study design articles and five trial registrations. These were mostly conducted in developed countries (n = 30), and within healthcare organisations (n = 28). A total of 33 of the interventions were educationally based, with the most commonly used behaviour change techniques being 'instruction on how to perform a behaviour' (n = 32) and 'persuasive source' (n = 25). Authors gave a wide range of reasons for the use of the stepped wedge trial design, including ethical considerations, logistical, financial and methodological. The adequacy of reporting varied across studies: many did not provide sufficient detail regarding the methodology or calculation of the required sample size. The popularity of stepped wedge trials has increased since 2010, predominantly in high-income countries. However, there is a need for further guidance on their reporting and analysis.

Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

Laura Belmon, Anouk Middelweerd, Saskia J Te Velde, Johannes Brug

JMIR mHealth and uHealth [3:e103] (2015)

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Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. This study aimed to explore young adults' opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants' gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: "goal setting and goal reviewing," "feedback and self-monitoring," and "social support and social comparison." Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase "goal setting and goal reviewing" and "feedback and self-monitoring," but not for BCTs addressing "social support and social comparison." Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality characteristics and BCTs were observed: "agreeableness" was related to more positive ratings of BCTs addressing "goal setting and goal reviewing" (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06-2.41), "neuroticism" was related to BCTs addressing "feedback and self-monitoring" (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-1.00), and "exercise self-efficacy" was related to a high rating of BCTs addressing "feedback and self-monitoring" (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11). No associations were observed between personality characteristics (ie, personality, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity) and participants' ratings of BCTs addressing "social support and social comparison." Young Dutch physically active adults rate self-regulation techniques as most positive and techniques addressing social support as less positive among mobile phone apps that aim to promote physical activity. Such ratings of BCTs differ according to personality traits and exercise self-efficacy. Future research should focus on which behavior change techniques in app-based interventions are most effective to increase physical activity.

Structured goal planning and supportive telephone followup in rheumatology care: results from a pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial.

Gunnhild Berdal, Ingvild Bø, Turid Dager, Anne Dingsør, Siv Eppeland, Jon Hagfors, Bente Hamnes, Petter Mowinckel, Merete Nielsen, Anne-Lene Sand-Svartrud, Bente Slungaard, Sigrid Wigers, Kåre Hagen, Hanne Dagfinrud, Ingvild Kjeken

Arthritis care & research (2018)

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To evaluate patient-reported health effects of an add-on structured goal planning and supportive telephone followup rehabilitation program compared with traditional rehabilitation programs in patients with rheumatic diseases. In this pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial 389 patients with rheumatic diseases recruited from six rehabilitation centres received either traditional rehabilitation or traditional rehabilitation extended with an add-on program tailored to individual needs. The add-on program comprised a self-management booklet and usage of motivational interviewing in structured individualized goal planning and four supportive followup phone-calls after discharge. Data were collected by questionnaires on admission and discharge from rehabilitation stay, and 6 months and 12 months after discharge. Primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) measured by the Patient Generated Index (PGI, 0-100, 0=low). Secondary outcomes included patient-reported health status, self-efficacy, pain, fatigue, global disease activity and motivation for change. The main statistical analysis was a linear repeated measures mixed model performed on the intention to treat population using all available data. A significant treatment effect of the add-on intervention on HR-QoL was found on discharge (mean difference = 3.32 [95% CI: 0.27, 6.37], p=0.03). No significant between-group differences were found after 6 or 12 months. Both groups showed positive changes in HR-QoL following rehabilitation which gradually declined, although the values remained at higher levels after 6 and 12 months compared with baseline values. The add-on program enhanced the short-term effect of rehabilitation with respect to patient-specific HR-QoL, but it did not prolong the effect as intended. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Evaluation of a tailored, multi-component intervention for implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in primary care physical therapy: a non-randomized controlled trial.

Susanne Bernhardsson, Maria EH Larsson, Robert Eggertsen, Monika Fagevik Olsén, Kajsa Johansson, Per Nilsen, Lena Nordeman, Maurits van Tulder, Birgitta Öberg

BMC health services research [14:105] (2014)

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Clinical practice guidelines are important for transmitting research findings into practice and facilitating the application of evidence-based practice (EBP). There is a paucity of knowledge about the impact of guideline implementation strategies in primary care physical therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a guideline implementation intervention in primary care physical therapy in western Sweden. An implementation strategy based on theory and current evidence was developed. A tailored, multi-component implementation intervention, addressing earlier identified determinants, was carried out in three areas comprising 28 physical therapy practices including 277 physical therapists (PTs) (intervention group). In two adjacent areas, 171 PTs at 32 practices received no intervention (control group). The core component of the intervention was an implementation seminar with group discussions. Among other components were a website and email reminders. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up with a web-based questionnaire. Primary outcomes were the self-reported awareness of, knowledge of, access to, and use of guidelines. Secondary outcomes were self-reported attitudes toward EBP and guidelines. Analyses were performed using Pearson's χ2 test and approximative z-test. 168 PTs (60.6%) in the intervention group and 88 PTs (51.5%) in the control group responded to the follow-up questionnaire. 186/277 PTs (67.1%) participated in the implementation seminars, of which 97 (52.2%) responded. The proportions of PTs reporting awareness of (absolute difference in change 20.6%, p = 0.023), knowledge where to find (20.4%, p = 0.007), access to (21.7%, p < 0.001), and frequent use of (9.5%, NS) guidelines increased more in the intervention group than in the control group. The proportion of PTs reporting frequent guideline use after participation in the implementation seminar was 15.2% (p = 0.043) higher than the proportion in the control group. A higher proportion considered EBP helpful in decision making (p = 0.018). There were no other significant differences in secondary outcomes. A tailored, theory- and evidence-informed, multi-component intervention for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines had a modest, positive effect on awareness of, knowledge of, access to, and use of guidelines, among PTs in primary care in western Sweden. In general, attitudes to EBP and guidelines were not affected.

Effectiveness of a Web-based alcohol-misuse and harm-prevention course among high- and low-risk students.

Melina Bersamin, Mallie Paschall, Melodie Fearnow-Kenney, David Wyrick

Journal of American college health : J of ACH [55:247-54] ()

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In the current study, the authors assessed whether a new online alcohol-misuse prevention course (College Alc) is more effective at reducing alcohol use and related consequences among drinkers and nondrinkers. The authors compared incoming college freshmen who reported any past 30-day alcohol use before the beginning of the semester with those who did not. The authors randomly assigned students who completed a precollege baseline survey to either complete a 3-hour noncredit version of College Alc or serve as members of a control group. The authors conducted a follow-up survey 3 months later. Findings indicated that among freshmen who were regular drinkers before college, College Alc appeared to reduce the frequency of heavy drinking, drunkenness, and negative alcohol-related consequences. Among freshmen who did not report any past-30-day alcohol use before college, College Alc did not appear to have any beneficial effects. Results suggest that College Alc may be an effective program for students with a history of alcohol use.

Demonstration of an E-mailed worksite nutrition intervention program.

Gladys Block, Torin Block, Patricia Wakimoto, Clifford Block

Preventing chronic disease [1:A06] (2004)

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Dietary fat and low fruit and vegetable intake are linked to many chronic diseases, and U.S. population intake does not meet recommendations. Interventions are needed that incorporate effective behavior-change principles and that can be delivered inexpensively to large segments of the population. Employees at a corporate worksite were invited to participate in a program, delivered entirely by e-mail, to reduce dietary fat and increase fruit and vegetable intake. Behavior-change principles underlying the intervention included tailoring to the participant's dietary lifestyle, baseline assessment and feedback about dietary intake, family participation, and goal setting. Assessment, tailoring, and delivery was fully automated. The program was delivered weekly to participants' e-mail inboxes for 12 weeks. Each e-mail included information on nutrition or on the relationship between diet and health, dietary tips tailored to the individual, and small goals to try for the next week. In this nonrandomized pilot study, we assessed technical feasibility, acceptability to employees, improvement in Stage of Change, increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, and decrease in fat intake. Approximately one third (n = 84) of employees who were offered the 12-week program signed up for it, and satisfaction was high. There was significant improvement in Stage of Change: 74% of those not already at the top had forward movement (P < .001). In addition, results suggest significant increase in fruit and vegetable consumption (0.73 times/day, P < .001) and significant decrease in intake of fat sources (-0.39 times/day, P < .001). This inexpensive program is feasible and appears to be effective. A randomized controlled trial is needed.

Computerized cognitive training for older diabetic adults at risk of dementia: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Rachel Bloom, Michal Schnaider-Beeri, Ramit Ravona-Springer, Anthony Heymann, Hai Dabush, Lior Bar, Shirel Slater, Yuri Rassovsky, Alex Bahar-Fuchs

Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.) [3:636-650] (2017)

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Older adults with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of cognitive decline and dementia and form an important target group for dementia risk reduction studies. Despite evidence that computerized cognitive training (CCT) may benefit cognitive performance in cognitively healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment, whether CCT may benefit cognitive performance or improve disease self-management in older diabetic adults has not been studied to date. In addition, whether adaptive difficulty levels and tailoring of interventions to individuals' cognitive profile are superior to generic training remains to be established. Ninety community-dwelling older (age ≥ 65) diabetic adults are recruited and randomized into a tailored and adaptive computerized cognitive training condition or to a generic, nontailored, or adaptive CCT condition. Both groups complete an 8-week training program using the commercially available CogniFit program. The intervention is augmented by a range of behavior-change techniques, and participants in each condition are further randomized into a global or cognition-specific phone-based self-efficacy (SE) condition, or a no-SE condition. The primary outcome is global cognitive performance immediately after the intervention. Secondary outcomes include diabetes self-management, meta-memory, mood, and SE. This pilot study is the first trial evaluating the potential benefits of home-based tailored and adaptive CCT in relation to cognitive and disease self-management in older diabetic adults. Methodological strengths of this trial include the double-blind design, the clear identification of the proposed active ingredients of the intervention, and the use of evidence-based behavior-change techniques. Results from this study will indicate whether CCT has the potential to lower the risk of diabetes-related cognitive decline. The outcomes of the trial will also advance our understanding of essential intervention parameters required to improve or maintain cognitive function and enhance disease self-management in this at-risk group.

Using the Medical Research Council framework for development and evaluation of complex interventions in a low resource setting to develop a theory-based treatment support intervention delivered via SMS text message to improve blood pressure control.

Kirsten Bobrow, Andrew Farmer, Nomazizi Cishe, Ntobeko Nwagi, Mosedi Namane, Thomas Brennan, David Springer, Lionel Tarassenko, Naomi Levitt

BMC health services research [18:33] (2018)

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Several frameworks now exist to guide intervention development but there remains only limited evidence of their application to health interventions based around use of mobile phones or devices, particularly in a low-resource setting. We aimed to describe our experience of using the Medical Research Council (MRC) Framework on complex interventions to develop and evaluate an adherence support intervention for high blood pressure delivered by SMS text message. We further aimed to describe the developed intervention in line with reporting guidelines for a structured and systematic description. We used a non-sequential and flexible approach guided by the 2008 MRC Framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions. We reviewed published literature and established a multi-disciplinary expert group to guide the development process. We selected health psychology theory and behaviour change techniques that have been shown to be important in adherence and persistence with chronic medications. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with various stakeholders identified ways in which treatment adherence could be supported and also identified key features of well-regarded messages: polite tone, credible information, contextualised, and endorsed by identifiable member of primary care facility staff. Direct and indirect user testing enabled us to refine the intervention including refining use of language and testing of interactive components. Our experience shows that using a formal intervention development process is feasible in a low-resource multi-lingual setting. The process enabled us to pre-test assumptions about the intervention and the evaluation process, allowing the improvement of both. Describing how a multi-component intervention was developed including standardised descriptions of content aimed to support behaviour change will enable comparison with other similar interventions and support development of new interventions. Even in low-resource settings, funders and policy-makers should provide researchers with time and resources for intervention development work and encourage evaluation of the entire design and testing process. The trial of the intervention is registered with South African National Clinical Trials Register number (SANCTR DOH-27-1212-386; 28/12/2012); Pan Africa Trial Register (PACTR201411000724141; 14/12/2013); ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02019823 ; 24/12/2013).

Pilot study of a brief intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour and self-identity to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas.

Amy Booth, Paul Norman, Elizabeth Goyder, Peter Harris, Michael Campbell

British journal of health psychology [19:636-51] (2014)

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This study sought to estimate the effects of a novel intervention, compared with usual chlamydia testing promotion, on chlamydia test uptake and intentions among young people living in deprived areas. The intervention was based on the theory of planned behaviour, augmented with self-identity, and targeted the significant predictors of chlamydia testing intentions identified in the previous research. Cluster randomization was used to allocate college tutor groups (intervention n = 10; control n = 11) to the intervention or control group. The sample comprised 253 participants (intervention n = 145, control n = 108). The primary outcome was test offer uptake at the end of the session. Other outcomes measured at immediate follow-up were intention, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and self-identity. Generalized estimating equations, controlling for cluster effects and sexual activity, found a small but non-significant effect of condition on test offer uptake, OR = 1.65 (95% CI 0.70, 3.88) p = .25, with 57.5% of intervention participants accepting the offer of a test compared with 40.2% of control participants. Using the same analysis procedure, small-to-medium intervention effects were found on other outcome variables, including a significant effect on attitudes towards chlamydia testing, OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.00, 1.87), p = .05. The results provide encouraging initial evidence that this theory-based intervention, targeting the key determinants of chlamydia testing, may help to improve chlamydia testing uptake in a high-risk group. They support the conduct of a larger trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. What is already known on this subject? Young people living in areas of increased socio-economic deprivation have been identified as a high-risk group for chlamydia. Previous research within an extended model of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) found that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and self-identity all significantly predicted chlamydia testing intentions in this high-risk group. What does this study add? Development and testing of a novel, TPB-based intervention targeting predictors of chlamydia testing intentions. The intervention led to significantly more positive attitudes towards chlamydia testing. Preliminary indication that a TPB-based intervention may help to improve chlamydia testing in a high-risk group.

Effects of a brief motivational intervention with college student drinkers.

B Borsari, K Carey

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology [68:728-33] (2000)

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This study consisted of a randomized controlled trial of a 1-session motivational intervention for college student binge drinkers. Sixty students who reported binge drinking 2 or more times in the past 30 days were randomly assigned to either a no-treatment control or a brief intervention group. The intervention provided students with feedback regarding personal consumption, perceived drinking norms, alcohol-related problems, situations associated with heavy drinking, and alcohol expectancies. At 6-week follow-up, the brief intervention group exhibited significant reductions on number of drinks consumed per week, number of times drinking alcohol in the past month, and frequency of binge drinking in the past month. Estimates of typical student drinking mediated these reductions. This study replicates earlier research on the efficacy of brief interventions with college students and extends previous work regarding potential mechanisms of change.

My Interventional Drug-Eluting Stent Educational App (MyIDEA): Patient-Centered Design Methodology.

Andrew Dallas Boyd, Kaitlin Moores, Vicki Shah, Eugene Sadhu, Adhir Shroff, Vicki Groo, Carolyn Dickens, Jerry Field, Matthew Baumann, Betty Welland, Gerry Gutowski, Jose Flores, Zhongsheng Zhao, Neil Bahroos, Denise Hynes, Diana Wilkie

JMIR mHealth and uHealth [3:e74] (2015)

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Patient adherence to medication regimens is critical in most chronic disease treatment plans. This study uses a patient-centered tablet app, "My Interventional Drug-Eluting Stent Educational App (MyIDEA)." This is an educational program designed to improve patient medication adherence. Our goal is to describe the design, methodology, limitations, and results of the MyIDEA tablet app. We created a mobile technology-based patient education app to improve dual antiplatelet therapy adherence in patients who underwent a percutaneous coronary intervention and received a drug-eluting stent. Patient advisers were involved in the development process of MyIDEA from the initial wireframe to the final launch of the product. The program was restructured and redesigned based on the patient advisers' suggestions as well as those from multidisciplinary team members. To accommodate those with low health literacy, we modified the language and employed attractive color schemes to improve ease of use. We assumed that the target patient population may have little to no experience with electronic tablets, and therefore, we designed the interface to be as intuitive as possible. The MyIDEA app has been successfully deployed to a low-health-literate elderly patient population in the hospital setting. A total of 6 patients have interacted with MyIDEA for an average of 17.6 minutes/session. Including patient advisers in the early phases of a mobile patient education development process is critical. A number of changes in text order, language, and color schemes occurred to improve ease of use. The MyIDEA program has been successfully deployed to a low-health-literate elderly patient population. Leveraging patient advisers throughout the development process helps to ensure implementation success. Our goal is to describe the design, methodology, limitations, and results of the MyIDEA tablet app. We created a mobile technology-based patient education app to improve dual antiplatelet therapy adherence in patients who underwent a percutaneous coronary intervention and received a drug-eluting stent.

Maintaining abstinence from smoking after a period of enforced abstinence - systematic review, meta-analysis and analysis of behaviour change techniques with a focus on mental health.

L Brose, E Simonavicius, A McNeill

Psychological medicine (2017)

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Smoking prevalence is doubled among people with mental health problems and reaches 80% in inpatient, substance misuse and prison settings, widening inequalities in morbidity and mortality. As more institutions become smoke-free but most smokers relapse immediately post-discharge, we aimed to review interventions to maintain abstinence post-discharge. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched from inception to May 2016 and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies conducted with adult smokers in prison, inpatient mental health or substance use treatment included. Risk of bias (study quality) was rated using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool. Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were coded from published papers and manuals using a published taxonomy. Mantel-Haenszel random effects meta-analyses of RCTs used biochemically verified point-prevalence smoking abstinence at (a) longest and (b) 6-month follow-up. Five RCTs (n = 416 intervention, n = 415 control) and five cohort studies (n = 471) included. Regarding study quality, four RCTs were rated strong, one moderate; one cohort study was rated strong, one moderate and three weak. Most common BCTs were pharmacotherapy (n = 8 nicotine replacement therapy, n = 1 clonidine), problem solving, social support, and elicitation of pros and cons (each n = 6); papers reported fewer techniques than manuals. Meta-analyses found effects in favour of intervention [(a) risk ratio (RR) = 2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-3.27; (b) RR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.04-3.31]. Medication and/or behavioural support can help maintain smoking abstinence beyond discharge from smoke-free institutions with high mental health comorbidity. However, the small evidence base tested few different interventions and reporting of behavioural interventions is often imprecise.

The impact of a computer-tailored nutrition intervention.

J Brug, I Steenhuis, Assema van, Hein De Vries

Preventive medicine [25:236-42] ()

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Nutrition education tailored to individual characteristics of people might be more effective than general nutrition education. Nowadays, the use of computers makes individualized feedback available for larger groups. The impact of tailored nutrition information on changes in fat, vegetable, and fruit consumption was tested in a randomized trial among 347 employees of a major oil company. Respondents in the experimental group received computer-generated feedback letters tailored to their personal dietary behavior, attitudes, perceived social influences, self-efficacy expectations, and awareness levels. Respondents in the control group received general nutrition information. Respondents in the experimental group decreased their fat consumption significantly more than the control group between baseline and posttest. A significant effect of tailoring was also found for changes in attitudes and intentions toward reducing fat intake and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Furthermore, respondents in the experimental group were more satisfied with the nutrition information they received and more often reported changing their diet or intention as a result of the information. It is concluded that computer-tailored nutrition information is a promising means of stimulating people to change their diet toward dietary recommendations.

Randomized trial testing a worksite sun protection program in an outdoor recreation industry.

David Buller, Peter Andersen, Barbara Walkosz, Michael Scott, Gary Cutter, Mark Dignan, Elizabeth Zarlengo, Jenifer Voeks, Aimee Giese

Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education [32:514-35] (2005)

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Health communication campaigns intended to reduce chronic and severe exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and prevent skin cancer are a national priority. Outdoor workers represent an unaddressed, high-risk population. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a worksite sun safety program largely based on the diffusion-of-innovations theory, was evaluated in a pair-matched, group-randomized, pretest-posttest controlled design enrolling employees at 26 ski areas in Western North America. Employees at the intervention ski areas were more aware of GSS (odds ratio [OR] = 8.27, p < .05) and reported less sunburning (adjusted OR = 1.63, p < .05) at posttest than employees at the control areas. A dose response was evident (OR = 1.46, p < .05) with greater observed program implementation associated with fewer sunburns among employees. Program awareness per se was not predictive (p > .05) of reduced sunburning in a mediational analysis. Analyses of nonrespondents, including intent-to-treat analyses, further supported the success of GSS.

Healthy whole-grain choices for children and parents: a multi-component school-based pilot intervention.

Teri Burgess-Champoux, Hing Wan Chan, Renee Rosen, Len Marquart, Marla Reicks

Public health nutrition [11:849-59] (2008)

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The aim of the present study was to pilot-test a school-based intervention designed to increase consumption of whole grains by 4th and 5th grade children. This multi-component school-based pilot intervention utilised a quasi-experimental study design (intervention and comparison schools) that consisted of a five-lesson classroom curriculum based on Social Cognitive Theory, school cafeteria menu modifications to increase the availability of whole-grain foods and family-oriented activities. Meal observations of children estimated intake of whole grains at lunch. Children and parents completed questionnaires to assess changes in knowledge, availability, self-efficacy, usual food choice and role modelling. Parent/child pairs from two schools in the Minneapolis metropolitan area; 67 in the intervention and 83 in the comparison school. Whole-grain consumption at the lunch meal increased by 1 serving (P < 0.0001) and refined-grain consumption decreased by 1 serving for children in the intervention school compared with the comparison school post-intervention (P < 0.001). Whole-grain foods were more available in the lunches served to children in the intervention school compared with the comparison school post-intervention (P < 0.0001). The ability to identify whole-grain foods by children in both schools increased, with a trend towards a greater increase in the intervention school (P = 0.06). Parenting scores for scales for role modelling (P < 0.001) and enabling behaviours (P < 0.05) were significantly greater for parents in the intervention school compared with the comparison school post-intervention. The multi-component school-based programme implemented in the current study successfully increased the intake of whole-grain foods by children.

A systematic review of randomised control trials of sexual health interventions delivered by mobile technologies.

Kara Burns, Patrick Keating, Caroline Free

BMC public health [16:778] (2016)

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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) pose a serious public health problem globally. The rapid spread of mobile technology creates an opportunity to use innovative methods to reduce the burden of STIs. This systematic review identified recent randomised controlled trials that employed mobile technology to improve sexual health outcomes. The following databases were searched for randomised controlled trials of mobile technology based sexual health interventions with any outcome measures and all patient populations: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, NHS Health Technology Assessment Database, and Web of Science (science and social science citation index) (Jan 1999-July 2014). Interventions designed to increase adherence to HIV medication were not included. Two authors independently extracted data on the following elements: interventions, allocation concealment, allocation sequence, blinding, completeness of follow-up, and measures of effect. Trials were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We calculated effect estimates using intention to treat analysis. A total of ten randomised trials were identified with nine separate study groups. No trials had a low risk of bias. The trials targeted: 1) promotion of uptake of sexual health services, 2) reduction of risky sexual behaviours and 3) reduction of recall bias in reporting sexual activity. Interventions employed up to five behaviour change techniques. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity in trial assessment and reporting. Two trials reported statistically significant improvements in the uptake of sexual health services using SMS reminders compared to controls. One trial increased knowledge. One trial reported promising results in increasing condom use but no trial reported statistically significant increases in condom use. Finally, one trial showed that collection of sexual health information using mobile technology was acceptable. The findings suggest interventions delivered by SMS interventions can increase uptake of sexual health services and STI testing. High quality trials of interventions using standardised objective measures and employing a wider range of behavioural change techniques are needed to assess if interventions delivered by mobile phone can alter safer sex behaviours carried out between couples and reduce STIs.

General practitioner views on the determinants of test ordering: a theory-based qualitative approach to the development of an intervention to improve immunoglobulin requests in primary care.

S Cadogan, S McHugh, C Bradley, J Browne, M Cahill

Implementation science : IS [11:102] (2016)

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Research suggests that variation in laboratory requesting patterns may indicate unnecessary test use. Requesting patterns for serum immunoglobulins vary significantly between general practitioners (GPs). This study aims to explore GP's views on testing to identify the determinants of behaviour and recommend feasible intervention strategies for improving immunoglobulin test use in primary care. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs requesting laboratory tests at Cork University Hospital or University Hospital Kerry in the South of Ireland. GPs were identified using a Health Service Executive laboratory list of GPs in the Cork-Kerry region. A random sample of GPs (stratified by GP requesting patterns) was generated from this list. GPs were purposively sampled based on the criteria of location (urban/rural); length of time qualified; and practice size (single-handed/group). Interviews were carried out between December 2014 and February 2015. Interviews were transcribed verbatim using NVivo 10 software and analysed using the framework analysis method. Emerging themes were mapped to the theoretical domains framework (TDF), which outlines 12 domains that can enable or inhibit behaviour change. The behaviour change wheel and behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy were then used to identify potential intervention strategies. Sixteen GPs were interviewed (ten males and six females). Findings suggest that intervention strategies should specifically target the key barriers to effective test ordering, while considering the context of primary care practice. Seven domains from the TDF were perceived to influence immunoglobulin test ordering behaviours and were identified as 'mechanisms for change' (knowledge, environmental context and resources, social/professional role and identity, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, memory, attention and decision-making processes and behavioural regulation). Using these TDF domains, seven BCTs emerged as feasible 'intervention content' for targeting GPs' ordering behaviour. These included instructions on how to effectively request the test (how to perform behaviour), information on GPs' use of the test (feedback on behaviour), information about patient consequences resulting from not doing the test (information about health consequences), laboratory/consultant-based advice/education (credible source), altering the test ordering form (restructuring the physical environment), providing guidelines (prompts/cues) and adding interpretive comments to the results (adding objects to the environment). These BCTs aligned to four intervention functions: education, persuasion, environmental restructuring and enablement. This study has effectively applied behaviour change theory to identify feasible strategies for improving immunoglobulin test use in primary care using the TDF, 'behaviour change wheel' and BCT taxonomy. The identified BCTs will form the basis of a theory-based intervention to improve the use of immunoglobulin tests among GPs. Future research will involve the development and evaluation of this intervention.

Development of an intervention to improve appropriate polypharmacy in older people in primary care using a theory-based method.

Cathal Cadogan, Cristín Ryan, Jill Francis, Gerard Gormley, Peter Passmore, Ngaire Kerse, Carmel Hughes

BMC health services research [16:661] (2016)

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It is advocated that interventions to improve clinical practice should be developed using a systematic approach and intervention development methods should be reported. However, previous interventions aimed at ensuring that older people receive appropriate polypharmacy have lacked details on their development. This study formed part of a multiphase research project which aimed to develop an intervention to improve appropriate polypharmacy in older people in primary care. The target behaviours for the intervention were prescribing and dispensing of appropriate polypharmacy to older patients by general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists. Intervention development followed a systematic approach, including previous mapping of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to key domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework that were perceived by GPs and pharmacists to influence the target behaviours. Draft interventions were developed to operationalise selected BCTs through team discussion. Selection of an intervention for feasibility testing was guided by a subset of the APEASE (Affordability, Practicability, Effectiveness/cost-effectiveness, Acceptability, Side-effects/safety, Equity) criteria. Three draft interventions comprising selected BCTs were developed, targeting patients, pharmacists and GPs, respectively. Following assessment of each intervention using a subset of the APEASE criteria (affordability, practicability, acceptability), the GP-targeted intervention was selected for feasibility testing. This intervention will involve a demonstration of the behaviour and will be delivered as an online video. The video demonstrating how GPs can prescribe appropriate polypharmacy during a typical consultation with an older patient will also demonstrate salience of consequences (feedback emphasising the positive outcomes of performing the behaviour). Action plans and prompts/cues will be used as complementary intervention components. The intervention is designed to facilitate the prescribing of appropriate polypharmacy in routine practice. A GP-targeted intervention to improve appropriate polypharmacy in older people has been developed using a systematic approach. Intervention content has been specified using an established taxonomy of BCTs and selected to maximise feasibility. The results of a future feasibility study will help to determine if the theory-based intervention requires further refinement before progressing to a larger scale randomised evaluation.

Effects of a tailored health promotion program for female blue-collar workers: health works for women.

Marci Campbell, Irene Tessaro, Brenda DeVellis, Salli Benedict, Kristine Kelsey, Leigh Belton, Antonio Sanhueza

Preventive medicine [34:313-23] (2002)

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This study assessed the effects of the Health Works for Women (HWW) intervention on improving multiple behaviors including nutrition and physical activity among rural female blue-collar employees in North Carolina. Nine small to mid-size workplaces were randomly assigned to either intervention or delayed intervention conditions. After a baseline survey, an intervention consisting of two computer-tailored magazines and a natural helpers program was conducted over 18 months. Delayed worksites received one tailored magazine. Approximately 77 and 76% of baseline respondents completed follow-up surveys at 6 and 18 months, respectively, and 538 women (63%) completed all three surveys. At the 18-month follow-up, the intervention group had increased fruit and vegetable consumption by 0.7 daily servings compared to no change in the delayed group (P < 0.05). Significant differences in fat intake were observed at 6 months (P < 0.05) but not at 18 months. The intervention group also demonstrated improvements in strengthening and flexibility exercise compared to the delayed group. The rates of smoking cessation and cancer screening did not differ between study groups. The HWW project was a successful model for achieving certain health behavior changes among blue-collar women.

Improving Behavioral Support for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: What Are the Barriers to Stopping and Which Behavior Change Techniques Can Influence These? Application of Theoretical Domains Framework.

Katarzyna Campbell, Libby Fergie, Tom Coleman-Haynes, Sue Cooper, Fabiana Lorencatto, Michael Ussher, Jane Dyas, Tim Coleman

International journal of environmental research and public health [15:] (2018)

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Behavioral support interventions are used to help pregnant smokers stop; however, of those tested, few are proven effective. Systematic research developing effective pregnancy-specific behavior change techniques (BCTs) is ongoing. This paper reports contributory work identifying potentially-effective BCTs relative to known important barriers and facilitators (B&amp;Fs) to smoking cessation in pregnancy; to detect priority areas for BCTs development. A Nominal Group Technique with cessation experts ( = 12) elicited an expert consensus on B&amp;Fs most influencing women's smoking cessation and those most modifiable through behavioral support. Effective cessation interventions in randomized trials from a recent Cochrane review were coded into component BCTs using existing taxonomies. B&amp;Fs were categorized using Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) domains. Matrices, mapping BCT taxonomies against TDF domains, were consulted to investigate the extent to which BCTs in existing interventions target key B&amp;Fs. Experts ranked "smoking a social norm" and "quitting not a priority" as most important barriers and "desire to protect baby" an important facilitator to quitting. From 14 trials, 23 potentially-effective BCTs were identified (e.g., information about consequences). Most B&amp;Fs fell into "Social Influences", "Knowledge", "Emotions" and "Intentions" TDF domains; few potentially-effective BCTs mapped onto every TDF domain. B&amp;Fs identified by experts as important to cessation, are not sufficiently targeted by BCT's currently within interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy.

Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women through a lifestyle change intervention.

Robert Carels, Lynn Darby, Holly Cacciapaglia, Olivia Douglass

Journal of women's health (2002) [13:412-26] (2004)

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The impact of a 6-month lifestyle change intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in obese, sedentary, postmenopausal women was examined. A secondary aim of this investigation was to determine whether the addition of self-control skills training to an empirically supported lifestyle change intervention would result in greater cardiovascular risk reduction. Forty-four women were randomly assigned to receive either a lifestyle change or a lifestyle change with self-control skills intervention. Pretreatment and posttreatment weight loss, body composition, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, diet, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and psychosocial functioning were assessed. Also, at 1-year posttreatment, weight loss, body composition, self-reported physical activity, and psychosocial functioning were assessed. The women significantly increased their physical activity (+39.6%) and cardiorespiratory fitness (+13.5%) and reduced their body weight (-6.5%), fat mass (-7.4%), body fat (-2.4%), BP (SBP -6.2%, DBP -9.2%), total cholesterol (-7.4%), triglycerides (-16.5%), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (9.1%) and improved their diet (p < 0.05). At the 1-year follow-up, women had regained approximately 63% of their posttreatment weight loss (p < 0.05), but had maintained their previous increases in physical activity. Additionally, there were no significant changes in fat free mass, body fat, anxiety, or depression between the end of treatment and 1-year posttreatment. The addition of self-control skills training did not significantly improve cardiovascular risk reduction. Lifestyle change interventions may be an effective means for reducing cardiovascular risk in obese, sedentary, postmenopausal women. However, greater attention should be devoted to the maintenance of these positive lifestyle changes.

Brief motivational interventions for heavy college drinkers: A randomized controlled trial.

Kate Carey, Michael Carey, Stephen Maisto, James Henson

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology [74:943-54] (2006)

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In this randomized controlled trial, the authors evaluated brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for at-risk college drinkers. Heavy drinking students (N = 509; 65% women, 35% men) were randomized into 1 of 6 intervention conditions formed by crossing the baseline Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview (present versus absent) and intervention type (basic BMI, BMI enhanced with a decisional balance module, or none). Assessments completed at baseline, 1, 6, and 12 months measured typical and risky drinking as well as drinking-related problems. Relative to controls, the TLFB interview reduced consumption but not problems at 1 month. The basic BMI improved all drinking outcomes beyond the effects of the TLFB interview at 1 month, whereas the enhanced BMI did not. Risk reduction achieved by brief interventions maintained throughout the follow-up year.

Perceived Norms Mediate Effects of a Brief Motivational Intervention for Sanctioned College Drinkers.

Kate Carey, James Henson, Michael Carey, Stephen Maisto

Clinical psychology : a publication of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association [17:58-71] (2010)

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The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for 198 college students sanctioned for alcohol-related violations of school policy (Carey, Henson, Carey, & Maisto, 2009). Using multivariate latent growth curve models, we evaluated theoretically-derived mediators of the observed BMI effect: motivation to change (readiness-to-change, costs and benefits of drinking), and drinking norms (injunctive norms for peers, and descriptive norms for friends, local peers, and national peers). Results provided partial support for mediation by changes in perceptions of descriptive but not injunctive norms, a pattern that varied by gender and norm type. We found no evidence of a mediating role for any of the motivational variables.

Correlational study and randomised controlled trial for understanding and changing red meat consumption: The role of eating identities.

V Carfora, D Caso, M Conner

Social science & medicine (1982) [175:244-252] (2017)

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The present studies aimed to contribute to the literature on psychological variables involved in reducing red meat consumption (RMC). Study 1 investigated whether the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), plus healthy-eating and meat-eating identities, could explain intentions to reduce RMC. Study 2 evaluated the effectiveness of an SMS text message intervention on self-monitoring to reduce RMC. In Study 1, data were collected daily using online food diaries for one week and a TPB questionnaire. Study 2 was a randomised controlled trial assessing pre- and post-RMC and TPB constructs by online food diaries and questionnaires over a one-week period. Participants were Italian undergraduates in each study (Study 1: N = 405; Study 2: N = 244). In Study 2, participants were randomly allocated to control and message condition groups. Participants in the message condition group received a daily SMS, which reminded them to monitor RMC, while participants in the control group did not receive any message. Only students who completed all measures were considered in the analyses (Study 1: N = 342; Study 2: N = 228). Study 1 showed that affective and instrumental attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and meat-eating identity explained intentions to reduce RMC, while subjective norm, past behaviour, and healthy-eating identity did not. Study 2 showed that an SMS intervention was effective in increasing intentions and reducing RMC. Mediation analyses indicated partial serial mediation through healthy-eating and meat-eating identities and intentions. The present studies provide support for the predictive validity of TPB in explaining intentions to reduce RMC and for the efficacy of an SMS intervention targeting self-monitoring in reducing RMC. Findings confirmed the important role of eating identities in explaining intentions to reduce RMC and in changing this behaviour.

Randomised controlled trial of a text messaging intervention for reducing processed meat consumption: The mediating roles of anticipated regret and intention.

V Carfora, D Caso, M Conner

Appetite [117:152-160] (2017)

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The present study aimed to extend the literature on text messaging interventions involved in promoting healthy eating behaviours. The theoretical framework was the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A randomized controlled trial was used to test the impact of daily text messages compared to no message (groups) for reducing processed meat consumption (PMC) over a 2 week period, testing the sequential mediation role of anticipated regret and intention on the relationship between groups and PMC reduction. PMC and TPB variables were assessed both at Time 1 and Time 2. Participants were Italian undergraduates (at Time 1 N = 124) randomly allocated to control and message condition groups. Undergraduates in the message condition group received a daily SMS, which focused on anticipated regret and urged them to self-monitor PMC. Participants in the control group did not receive any message. Those who completed all measures at both time points were included in the analyses (N = 112). Findings showed that a daily messaging intervention, controlling for participants' past behaviour, reduced self-reported consumption of PMC. Mediation analyses indicated partial serial mediation via anticipated regret and intentions. The current study provided support for the efficacy of a daily messaging intervention targeting anticipated regret and encouraging self-monitoring in decreasing PMC. Outcomes showed the important mediating role of anticipated regret and intentions for reducing PMC.

Active for Life After Cancer: a randomized trial examining a lifestyle physical activity program for prostate cancer patients.

Taylor Carmack, L Cindy, Carl Demoor, Murray Smith, Andrea Dunn, Karen Basen-Engquist, Ingrid Nielsen, Curtis Pettaway, Rena Sellin, Pamela Massey, Ellen Gritz

Psycho-oncology [15:847-62] (2006)

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Active for Life After Cancer is a randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of a 6-month group-based lifestyle physical activity program (Lifestyle) for prostate cancer patients to improve quality of life (QOL) including physical and emotional functioning compared to a group-based Educational Support Program and a Standard Care Program (no group). A total of 134 prostate cancer patients receiving continuous androgen-ablation were randomly assigned to one of the three study conditions. Results indicated no significant improvements in QOL at 6 or 12 months. Both group-based programs were positively received and yielded good attendance and retention. Lifestyle participants demonstrated significant improvements in most theoretical mediators proposed by the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory to affect physical activity. Despite these improvements, no significant changes were found for most physical activity measures. Results suggest a lifestyle program focusing on cognitive-behavioral skills training alone is insufficient for promoting routine physical activity in these patients.

Randomized controlled trial testing an internet physical activity intervention for sedentary adults.

Lucas Carr, Shira Dunsiger, Beth Lewis, Joseph Ciccolo, Sheri Hartman, Beth Bock, Gregory Dominick, Bess Marcus

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association [32:328-36] (2013)

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Internet-based physical activity (PA) interventions have shown promise, although findings remain equivocal. We used formative research to enhance a previously demonstrated program (Step into Motion) with the goal of developing an Internet program poised for dissemination. We conducted focus groups to identify Internet features targeted to theoretical constructs (social cognitive theory) predictive of PA behavior and rated as "useful for increasing PA." We identified 5 theory-targeted Internet features as useful for increasing PA: (1) a PA tracking/logging calendar targeting self-monitoring and goal setting; (2) geographic mapping tools targeting perceived environment; (3) a discussion forum targeting social support; (4) exercise videos targeting observational learning; and (5) regular updates of peer PA progress targeting situation. We then tested the efficacy of the enhanced program (enhanced Internet, EI; N = 25) in relation to publicly available PA Websites (standard Internet, SI; N = 28) among 53 participants in a randomized controlled trial. The EI arm increased PA in relation to the SI arm at 3 months (18.4 to 186.0 min/wk vs. 20.9 to 57.3 min/wk; p = .03) but between-groups differences were not observed at 6 months (176.8 vs. 133.5 min/wk; p = .44). EI participants maintained PA from 3 to 6 months (186.0 to 176.8 min/wk), and the SI group increased PA (57.3 to 133.5 min/wk). The EI program was efficacious at improving PA levels in relation to publicly available Websites initially, but differences in PA levels were not maintained at 6 months. Future research should identify Internet features that promote long-term maintenance.

Integrating psychological theory into the design of an online intervention for sexual health: the sexunzipped website.

Kenneth Carswell, Ona McCarthy, Elizabeth Murray, Julia Bailey

JMIR research protocols [1:e16] (2012)

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The Internet can provide a confidential and convenient medium for sexual health promotion for young people. This paper describes the development of an interactive, theory-based website (Sexunzipped) aimed at increasing safe sexual behavior of young people, as well as an outline of the evaluation protocol. The website focuses on safer sex, relationships, and sexual pleasure. An overview of the site is provided, including a description of the theoretical constructs which form the basis of the site development. An integrated behavioral model was chosen as the guiding theory for the Sexunzipped intervention. A randomized trial design will be used to evaluate the site quantitatively. The content of the site is described in detail with examples of the main content types: information pages, quizzes, and decision-making activities. We describe the protocol for quantitative evaluation of the website using a randomized trial design and discuss the principal challenges involved in developing the site, including the challenge of balancing the requirements of theory with young people's views on website content and design. Considerations for future interventions are discussed. Developing an online behavior-change intervention is costly and time consuming. Given the large public health potential, the cost involved in developing online interventions, and the need for attractive design, future interventions may benefit from collaborating with established sites that already have a user base, a brand, and a strong Internet presence. It is vital to involve users in decisions about intervention content, design, and features, paying attention to aspects that will attract and retain users' interest. A central challenge in developing effective Internet-based interventions for young people is to find effective ways to operationalize theory in ways that address the views and perspectives of young people.

A scoping review on interventions to promote physical activity among adults with disabilities.

Oscar Castro, Kwok Ng, Elizaveta Novoradovskaya, Grégoire Bosselut, Mary Hassandra

Disability and health journal [11:174-183] (2018)

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Despite the strong evidence that physical activity (PA) is a key determinant of health, there is limited knowledge on the content and outcomes of PA promotion interventions among individuals with disabilities. To conduct a scoping review in order to examine the published literature on PA promotion interventions among adults with disabilities. A scoping review following the methodological framework provided by Arksey and O'Malley used electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL), reference lists, and journals to locate studies. Inclusion criteria were based on study aim, outcome measures, and a disability definition by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy version 1 and Furlan and collaborators' risk of bias assessment were utilized during the data charting stage. Thirty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies (70%) reported a significant increase in PA behavior immediately following intervention. However, less than half of the studies (46%) examined the maintenance of pre-/post-test differences. The number of identified behavior change techniques was significantly higher for successful PA promotion interventions than for interventions with no effects on PA. Approximately one-third of studies (32%) were rated as having a high risk of bias. Although findings support the idea that PA promotion interventions produce positive changes in PA behavior for a variety of disability conditions, risk of bias assessment calls for prudence. There are opportunities for continued development of the area of PA promotion among individuals with disabilities through systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Community-level HIV intervention in 5 cities: final outcome data from the CDC AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.

CDC US

American journal of public health [89:336-45] (1999)

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This study evaluated a theory-based community-level intervention to promote progress toward consistent condom and bleach use among selected populations at increased risk for HIV infection in 5 US cities. Role-model stories were distributed, along with condoms and bleach, by community members who encouraged behavior change among injection drug users, their female sex partners, sex workers, non-gay-identified men who have sex with men, high-risk youth, and residents in areas with high sexually transmitted disease rates. Over a 3-year period, cross-sectional interviews (n = 15,205) were conducted in 10 intervention and comparison community pairs. Outcomes were measured on a stage-of-change scale. Observed condom carrying and intervention exposure were also measured. At the community level, movement toward consistent condom use with main (P < .05) and nonmain (P < .05) partners, as well as increased condom carrying (P < .0001), was greater in intervention than in comparison communities. At the individual level, respondents recently exposed to the intervention were more likely to carry condoms and to have higher stage-of-change scores for condom and bleach use. The intervention led to significant communitywide progress toward consistent HIV risk reduction.

The impact of an innovative web-based school nutrition intervention to increase fruits and vegetables and milk and alternatives in adolescents: a clustered randomized trial.

Karine Chamberland, Marina Sanchez, Shirin Panahi, Véronique Provencher, Jocelyn Gagnon, Vicky Drapeau

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [14:140] (2017)

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The increase in overweight and obesity in adolescents and its health-related consequences highlight the need to develop strategies, which could help them adopt healthy eating habits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an innovative web-based school nutrition intervention (Team Nutriathlon) aimed at promoting the consumption of vegetables and fruit (V/F) and milk and alternatives (M/A) in high school students and to identify facilitators and/or barriers influencing its success. Ten classes of first and second year secondary students (grades 7 and 8) from the Québec City region were randomized into two groups (control n = 89 and intervention n = 193). Participants in the intervention (Team Nutriathlon) were to increase their consumption of V/F and M/A using an innovative web-based platform, developed for this study, over 6 weeks. The control group followed the regular school curriculum. The number of servings of V/F and M/A consumed by students per day was compared between the two groups before, during, immediately after and 10 weeks after the intervention using a web-based platform. Main outcome measures included V/F and M/A servings and facilitators and/or barriers of program success. Repeated measures linear fixed effects models were used to assess the impact of Team Nutriathlon on V/F and M/A consumption. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Students in the intervention reported a significant increase of 3 servings and 1.8 servings per day of V/F and M/A, respectively, compared to the control group (P < 0.05); however, this was only observed in the short-term. Some factors contributing to the success of Team Nutriathlon included the team aspect of the program, use of the technology and recording results outside of classroom hours. Team Nutriathlon represents an innovative web-based nutrition program which positively impacts V/F and M/A consumption among high school students. Using web-based or technological platforms may help youth adopt healthy eating habits that will have implications later in adulthood; however, further studies are needed to determine their long-term effects. NCT03117374 (retrospectively registered).

Comparisons of tailored mammography interventions at two months postintervention.

Victoria Champion, Celette Skinner, Usha Menon, Roopa Seshadri, Deborah Anzalone, Susan Rawl

Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine [24:211-8] (2002)

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The recent decrease in breast cancer mortality has been linked in part to increased breast cancer screening. Although the percentage of women screened once is rising, rate of continued adherence is poor. The purpose of this article is to assess the effects of tailored mammography interventions implemented prospectively in a factorial design contrasting groups receiving either (a) usual care (no intervention), (b) tailored telephone counseling for mammography, (c) tailored mailed materials promoting mammography, or (d) a combination of tailored mail and telephone counseling. This prospective, randomized study with a 2 x 2 factorial design included women 51 years and older (N = 1,367) who were not adherent with mammography at baseline. The intervention is based on integration of the Transtheoretical and Health Belief Models. Participants were enrolled in one of two health maintenance organizations or seen in a university-related primary care clinic. Baseline data were collected on mammography history and beliefs and knowledge related to mammography. Data were collected via telephone interviews using previously developed scales. The follow-up interviewers were conducted with 976 women. The sample was 41% White, 56% African American, and 3% other. Mean age at baseline was 66.5. Logistic regression indicates that postintervention mammography status in all three intervention groups was significantly better than usual care, with odds ratios ranging from 1.66 (telephone only) to 2.16 (telephone plus mail).

Design and outcomes of a Mothers In Motion behavioral intervention pilot study.

M Chang, S Nitzke, R Brown

Journal of nutrition education and behavior [42:S11-21] ()

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This paper describes the design and findings of a pilot Mothers In Motion (P-MIM) program. A randomized controlled trial that collected data via telephone interviews and finger stick at 3 time points: baseline and 2 and 8 months post-intervention. Three Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) sites in southern Michigan. One hundred and twenty nine overweight and obese African-American and white mothers, 18-34 years old. The 10-week, theory-based, culturally sensitive intervention messages were delivered via a series of 5 chapters on a DVD and complemented by 5 peer support group teleconferences. Dietary fat, fruit, and vegetable intake; physical activity; stress; feelings; body weight; and blood glucose. General linear mixed model was applied to assess treatment effects across 2 and 8 months post-intervention. No significant effect sizes were found in primary and secondary outcome variables at 2 and 8 months post-intervention. However, changes in body weight and blood glucose showed apparent trends consistent with the study's hypotheses. The P-MIM showed promise for preventing weight gain in low-income overweight and obese women. However, a larger experimental trial is warranted to determine the effectiveness of this intervention.

Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health of Korean older adults with hypertension: effect of an empowerment intervention.

Ae Kyung Chang, Cynthia Fritschi, Mi Kim

Research in gerontological nursing [6:81-8] (2013)

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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week empowerment intervention on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Using a quasi-experimental design, older adults participated in either an experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 21). The experimental group received an empowerment intervention including lifestyle modification education, group discussion, and exercise training for 8 weeks, and the control group received standard hypertension education. After 8 weeks, participants in the experimental group had significantly decreased sedentary behavior, increased physical activity, increased self-efficacy for physical activity, and increased perceived health (p < 0.05). However, no significant group difference was found for depression. Findings from this study suggest that empowerment interventions may be more effective than standard education in decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and perceived health in Korean older adults with hypertension.

Effects of an intervention based on self-determination theory on self-reported leisure-time physical activity participation.

NLD Chatzisarantis, Martin Hagger

Psychology & health [24:29-48] (2009)

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Based on self-determination theory, the present study developed and evaluated the utility a school-based intervention to change pupils' physical activity intentions and self-reported leisure-time physical activity behaviour. The study evaluated utility of the intervention to promote physical activity participation over a 5-week interval of time. A cluster randomised design targeting 215 pupils from 10 schools with schools as the unit of randomisation was adopted (Male = 106, Female = 109, Age = 14.84, SD = 0.48). Results indicated that pupils who were taught by autonomy-supportive teachers reported stronger intentions to exercise during leisure time and participated more frequently in leisure-time physical activities than pupils in the control condition. Autonomous motivation and intentions mediated the effects of the intervention on self-reported physical activity behaviour. It is concluded that self-determination theory provides a useful framework for the development of school-based interventions that ultimately affect leisure-time physical activity participation.

Why did soft drink consumption decrease but screen time not? Mediating mechanisms in a school-based obesity prevention program.

AP Chin, JM Marijke, AS Singh, J Brug, W van Mechelen

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [5:41] (2008)

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This paper aims to identify the mediating mechanisms of a school-based obesity prevention program (DOiT). The DOiT-program was implemented in Dutch prevocational secondary schools and evaluated using a controlled, cluster-randomised trial (September 2003 to May 2004). We examined mediators of effects regarding (1) consumption of sugar containing beverages (SCB); (2) consumption of high caloric snacks; (3) screen-viewing behaviour; and (4) active commuting to school. To improve these behaviours the DOiT-program tried to influence the following potentially mediating variables: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and habit-strength. Both in boys (n = 418) and girls (n = 436) the DOiT-intervention reduced SCB consumption (between group difference in boys = -303.5 ml/day, 95% CI: -502.4;-104.5, between group difference in girls = -222.3 ml/day, 95% CI: -371.3;-73.2). The intervention did not affect the other examined behaviours. In girls, no intervention effect on hypothetical mediators was found nor evidence of any mediating mechanisms. Boys in intervention schools improved their attitude towards decreasing SCB consumption, while this behaviour became less of a habit. Indeed, attitude and habit strength were significant mediators of the DOiT-intervention's effect (4.5 and 3.8%, respectively) on SCB consumption among boys. Our findings imply that interventions aimed at EBRB-change should be gender-specific. Future studies aimed at reducing SCB consumption among boys should target attitude and habit strength as mediating mechanisms. Our study did not resolve the mediating mechanisms in girls. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN87127361.

Theories Applied to m-Health Interventions for Behavior Change in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

Yoon-Min Cho, Seohyun Lee, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Sun-Young Kim

Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association (2018)

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Recently there has been dramatic increase in the use of mobile technologies for health (m-Health) in both high and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, little is known whether m-Health interventions in LMICs are based on relevant theories critical for effective implementation of such interventions. This review aimed to systematically identify m-Health studies on health behavioral changes in LMICs and to examine how each study applied behavior change theories. A systematic review was conducted using the standard method from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. By searching electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [CENTRAL]), we identified eligible studies published in English from inception to June 30, 2017. For the identified m-Health studies in LMICs, we examined their theoretical bases, use of behavior change techniques (BCTs), and modes of delivery. A total of 14 m-Health studies on behavioral changes were identified and, among them, only 5 studies adopted behavior change theory. The most frequently cited theory was the health belief model, which was adopted in three studies. Likewise, studies have applied only a limited number of BCTs. Among the seven BCTs identified, the most frequently used one was the social support (practical) technique for medication reminder and medical appointment. m-Health studies in LMICs most commonly used short messaging services and phone calls as modes of delivery for behavior change interventions. m-Health studies in LMICs are suboptimally based on behavior change theory yet. To maximize effectiveness of m-Health, rigorous delivery methods as well as theory-based intervention designs will be needed.

Assessing the effectiveness of peer-facilitated interventions addressing high-risk drinking among judicially mandated college students.

M Dolores Cimini, Matthew Martens, Mary Larimer, Jason Kilmer, Clayton Neighbors, Joseph Monserrat

Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs. Supplement (2009)

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This study examined the effectiveness of three peer-facilitated brief alcohol interventions-small group motivational interviewing, motivationally enhanced peer theater, and an interactive alcohol-education program-with students engaging in high-risk drinking who were referred for alcohol policy violations. Undergraduate students referred for alcohol policy violations (N = 695) at a large northeastern public university were randomized to one of the three conditions. Six-month follow-up data were collected on drinking frequency and quantity, negative consequences, use of protective behaviors, and perceptions of peers' drinking norms. There were no statistically significant overall pre-post effects or treatment effects. However, exploratory analyses indicated that decreases in perceived norms and increases in use of protective behavioral strategies were associated with reductions in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at follow-up (p < .01). The presence of nonsignificant pre-post or main effects is, in part, consistent with recent research indicating that sanctioned college students may immediately reduce drinking in response to citation and that brief interventions may not contribute to additional behavioral change. The presence of statistically significant correlations between alcohol use and related problems with corrections in norms misperceptions and increased use of protective behaviors at the individual level holds promise for both research and practice. The integration of elements addressing social norms and use of protective behaviors within brief cognitive-behavioral intervention protocols delivered by trained peer facilitators warrants further study using randomized clinical trials.

Developing a Complex Educational-Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

Danielle Clarkesmith, Helen Pattison, Christian Xuereb Borg, Deirdre Lane

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland) [4:] (2016)

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This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several "active theoretical ingredients" were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools.

Development of a behaviour change intervention to increase upper limb exercise in stroke rehabilitation.

Louise Connell, Naoimh McMahon, Judith Redfern, Caroline Watkins, Janice Eng

Implementation science : IS [10:34] (2015)

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Two thirds of survivors will achieve independent ambulation after a stroke, but less than half will recover upper limb function. There is strong evidence to support intensive repetitive task-oriented training for recovery after stroke. The number of repetitions needed is suggested to be in the order of hundreds, but this is not currently being achieved in clinical practice. In an effort to bridge this evidence-practice gap, we have developed a behaviour change intervention that aims to increase provision of upper limb repetitive task-oriented training in stroke rehabilitation. This paper aims to describe the systematic processes that took place in collaboratively developing the behaviour change intervention. The methods used in this study were not defined a priori but were guided by the Behaviour Change Wheel. The process was collaborative and iterative with four stages of development emerging (i) establishing an intervention development group; (ii) structured discussions to understand the problem, prioritise target behaviours and analyse target behaviours; (iii) collaborative design of theoretically underpinned intervention components and (iv) piloting and refining of intervention components. The intervention development group consisted of the research team and stroke therapy team at a local stroke rehabilitation unit. The group prioritised four target behaviours at the therapist level: (i) identifying suitable patients for exercises, (ii) provision of exercises, (iii) communicating exercises to family/visitors and (iv) monitoring and reviewing exercises. It also provides a method for self-monitoring performance in order to measure fidelity. The developed intervention, PRACTISE (Promoting Recovery of the Arm: Clinical Tools for Intensive Stroke Exercise), consists of team meetings and the PRACTISE Toolkit (screening tool and upper limb exercise plan, PRACTISE exercise pack and an audit tool). This paper provides an example of how the Behaviour Change Wheel may be applied in the collaborative development of a behaviour change intervention for health professionals. The process involved was resource-intensive, and the iterative process was difficult to capture. The use of a published behaviour change framework and taxonomy will assist replication in future research and clinical use. The feasibility and acceptability of PRACTISE is currently being explored in two other stroke rehabilitation units.

Mechanisms of action of an implementation intervention in stroke rehabilitation: a qualitative interview study.

Louise Connell, Naoimh McMahon, Sarah Tyson, Caroline Watkins, Janice Eng

BMC health services research [16:534] (2016)

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Despite best evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of increased intensity of exercise after stroke, current levels of therapy continue to be below those required to optimise motor recovery. We developed and tested an implementation intervention that aims to increase arm exercise in stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to illustrate the use of a behaviour change framework, the Behaviour Change Wheel, to identify the mechanisms of action that explain how the intervention produced change. We implemented the intervention at three stroke rehabilitation units in the United Kingdom. A purposive sample of therapy team members were recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews to explore their perceptions of how the intervention produced change at their work place. Audio recordings were transcribed and imported into NVivo 10 for content analysis. Two coders separately analysed the transcripts and coded emergent mechanisms. Mechanisms were categorised using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) (an extension of the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behaviour model (COM-B) at the hub of the Behaviour Change Wheel). We identified five main mechanisms of action: 'social/professional role and identity', 'intentions', 'reinforcement', 'behavioural regulation' and 'beliefs about consequences'. At the outset, participants viewed the research team as an external influence for whom they endeavoured to complete the study activities. The study design, with a focus on implementation in real world settings, influenced participants' intentions to implement the intervention components. Monthly meetings between the research and therapy teams were central to the intervention and acted as prompt or reminder to sustain implementation. The phased approach to introducing and implementing intervention components influenced participants' beliefs about the feasibility of implementation. The Behaviour Change Wheel, and in particular the Theoretical Domains Framework, were used to investigate mechanisms of action of an implementation intervention. This approach allowed for consideration of a range of possible mechanisms, and allowed us to categorise these mechanisms using an established behaviour change framework. Identification of the mechanisms of action, following testing of the intervention in a number of settings, has resulted in a refined and more robust intervention programme theory for future testing.

Changing exercise through targeting affective or cognitive attitudes.

Mark Conner, Ryan Rhodes, Ben Morris, Rosemary McEachan, Rebecca Lawton

Psychology & health [26:133-49] (2011)

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Two studies investigated the impact of affective and cognitive messages compared to a no-message control on self-reported exercise. Students (Study 1, N = 383 and Study 2, N = 197) were randomly allocated to one of the three conditions (control - no message, affective message or cognitive message). Participants completed questionnaire measures tapping components of the theory of planned behaviour in relation to exercise and reported their level of exercise (3 weeks later). In Study 2, measures of need for affect (NFA) and need for cognition (NFC) were also completed. Results showed that affective messages consistently produced greater increases in self-reported level of exercise than the other conditions. In both studies, this effect was partly mediated by affective attitude change. Study 2 indicated these effects to be significantly stronger among those high in NFA or low in NFC. These findings indicate the value of affective messages that target affective attitudes in changing exercise behaviour.

Guided, internet-based, rumination-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (i-RFCBT) versus a no-intervention control to prevent depression in high-ruminating young adults, along with an adjunct assessment of the feasibility of unguided i-RFCBT, in the REducing Stress and Preventing Depression trial (RESPOND): study protocol for a phase III randomised controlled trial.

L Cook, E Watkins

Trials [17:1] (2016)

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Depression is a global health challenge. Prevention is highlighted as a priority to reduce its prevalence. Although effective preventive interventions exist, the efficacy and coverage can be improved. One proposed means to increase efficacy is by using interventions to target specific risk factors, such as rumination. Rumination-focused CBT (RFCBT) was developed to specifically target depressive rumination and reduces acute depressive symptoms and relapse for patients with residual depression in a randomised controlled trial. Preliminary findings from a Dutch randomised prevention trial in 251 high-risk 15- to 22-year-old subjects selected with elevated worry and rumination found that both supported internet-RFBCT and group-delivered RFCBT equally reduced depressive symptoms and the onset of depressive cases over a period of 1 year, relative to the no-intervention control. A phase III randomised controlled trial following the Medical Research Council (MRC) Complex Interventions Framework will extend a Dutch trial to the United Kingdom, with the addition of diagnostic interviews, primarily to test whether guided internet-RFCBT reduces the onset of depression relative to a no-intervention control. High-risk young adults (aged 18 to 24 years), selected with elevated worry/rumination and recruited through university and internet advertisement, will be randomised to receive either guided internet-RFCBT, supported by clinical psychologists or mental health paraprofessionals, or a no-intervention control. As an adjunct arm, participants are also randomised to unguided internet-RFCBT self-help to provide an initial test of the feasibility and effect size of this intervention. While participants are also randomised to unguided internet-RFCBT, the trial was designed and powered as a phase III trial comparing guided internet-RFCBT versus a no-intervention control. In the comparison between these two arms, the primary outcomes are as follows: a) onset of major depressive episode over a 12-month period, assessed with a Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis at 3 months (post-intervention), 6 months and 15 months after randomisation. The following secondary outcomes will be recorded: the incidence of generalized anxiety disorder, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and levels of worry and rumination, measured at baseline and at the same follow-up intervals. In relation to the pilot investigation of unguided internet-RFCBT (the adjunct intervention arm), we will assess the feasibility and acceptability of the data-collection procedures, levels of attrition, effect size and acceptability of the unguided internet-RFCBT intervention. Widespread implementation is necessary for effective prevention, suggesting that the internet may be a valuable mode of delivery. Previous research suggests that guided internet-RFCBT reduces incidence rates relative to controls. We are also interested in developing and evaluating an unguided version to potentially increase the availability and reduce the costs. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12683436 . Date of registration: 27 October 2014.

Development of the SALdável programme to reduce salt intake among hypertensive Brazilian women: an intervention mapping approach.

Marilia Cornélio, Gaston Godin, Roberta Rodrigues, Rúbia Agondi, Thaís Spana, Maria-Cecilia Gallani

European journal of cardiovascular nursing : journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology [12:385-92] (2013)

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Despite strong evidence for a relationship between high salt intake and hypertension, plus the widespread recommendations for dietary salt restriction among hypertensive subjects, there are no nursing studies describing effective theory-based interventions. To describe a systematic process for development of a theory-based nursing intervention that is aimed at reducing salt intake among hypertensive women, by applying the 'intervention mapping' protocol. We developed our intervention following the six steps of the 'intervention mapping' protocol: assessing needs, creating a matrix of change objectives, selecting theoretical methods and practical applications, defining the intervention programme, organizing the adoption and implementation plan, and defining the evaluation plan. Addition of salt during cooking is identified as the main source for salt consumption, plus women are identified as the people responsible for cooking meals at home. In our study, the motivational predictors of this behaviour were self-efficacy and habit. Guided practice, verbal persuasion, coping barriers, consciousness-raising and counter-conditioning were the theoretical methods we selected for enhancing self-efficacy and promoting habit change, respectively. Brainstorming, role-playing, cookbook use, measuring spoon use, label reading, hands-on skill-building activities and reinforcement phone calls were the chosen practical applications. We designed our intervention programme, and then organized the adoption and implementation plans. Finally, we generated a plan to evaluate our intervention. 'Intervention mapping' was a feasible methodological framework to guide the development of a theory-based nursing intervention for dietary salt reduction among hypertensive women.

Incorporating self-efficacy and interpersonal support in an intervention to increase physical activity in older women.

C Costanzo, SN Walker

Women & health [47:91-108] (2008)

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To compare the efficacy of five versus one session of Behavioral Counseling in a 12-week intervention to increase self-efficacy and family and friend support for activity, and examine self-efficacy and support as mediators of activity among 46 urban women. A randomized, controlled trial conducted during 2004 in Omaha, Nebraska. Outcomes were analyzed with Repeated Measures-ANOVA and path analysis. No significant change was observed in self-efficacy in the five-session group, but a significant decrease was observed in the one-session group (p = .005). Family and friend support increased significantly in the five-session group (p < .001, p = .019). The intervention effect on activity was mediated through change in self-efficacy and family support. Five behavioral counseling sessions maintained self-efficacy and increased family and friend support although the intervention did not directly affect activity. The intervention can be replicated within various community settings.

All4You! A randomized trial of an HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy prevention intervention for alternative school students.

Karin Coyle, Douglas Kirby, Leah Robin, Stephen Banspach, Elizabeth Baumler, Jill Glassman

AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education [18:187-203] (2006)

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This study evaluated All4You!, a theoretically based curriculum designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors associated with HIV, other STDs, and unintended pregnancy among students in alternative schools. The study featured a randomized controlled trial involving 24 community day schools in northern California. A cohort of 988 students was assessed four times during an 18-month period using a self report questionnaire. At the 6-month follow-up, the intervention reduced the frequency of intercourse without a condom during the previous 3 months, the frequency of intercourse without a condom with steady partners, and the number of times students reported having intercourse in the previous 3 months. It also increased condom use at last intercourse. These behavioral effects were no longer statistically significant at the 12- and 18-month follow-ups. The All4You! intervention was effective in reducing selected sexual risk behaviors among students in alternative school settings; however, the effects were modest and short term.

Behaviour change techniques targeting both diet and physical activity in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Kevin Cradock, Gearóid ÓLaighin, Francis Finucane, Heather Gainforth, Leo Quinlan, Kathleen A Martin Ginis

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [14:18] (2017)

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Changing diet and physical activity behaviour is one of the cornerstones of type 2 diabetes treatment, but changing behaviour is challenging. The objective of this study was to identify behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and intervention features of dietary and physical activity interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes that are associated with changes in HbA1c and body weight. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1975-2015 describing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that focused exclusively on both diet and physical activity. The constituent BCTs, intervention features and methodological rigour of these interventions were evaluated. Changes in HbA1c and body weight were meta-analysed and examined in relation to use of BCTs. Thirteen RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses revealed reductions in HbA1c at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of -1.11 % (12 mmol/mol), -0.67 % (7 mmol/mol), -0.28 % (3 mmol/mol) and -0.26 % (2 mmol/mol) with an overall reduction of -0.53 % (6 mmol/mol [95 % CI -0.74 to -0.32, P < 0.00001]) in intervention groups compared to control groups. Meta-analyses also showed a reduction in body weight of -2.7 kg, -3.64 kg, -3.77 kg and -3.18 kg at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, overall reduction was -3.73 kg (95 % CI -6.09 to -1.37 kg, P = 0.002). Four of 46 BCTs identified were associated with >0.3 % reduction in HbA1c: 'instruction on how to perform a behaviour', 'behavioural practice/rehearsal', 'demonstration of the behaviour' and 'action planning', as were intervention features 'supervised physical activity', 'group sessions', 'contact with an exercise physiologist', 'contact with an exercise physiologist and a dietitian', 'baseline HbA1c >8 %' and interventions of greater frequency and intensity. Diet and physical activity interventions achieved clinically significant reductions in HbA1c at three and six months, but not at 12 and 24 months. Specific BCTs and intervention features identified may inform more effective structured lifestyle intervention treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes.

Diet Behavior Change Techniques in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Kevin Cradock, Gearóid ÓLaighin, Francis Finucane, Rhyann McKay, Leo Quinlan, Kathleen A Martin Ginis, Heather Gainforth

Diabetes care [40:1800-1810] (2017)

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Dietary behavior is closely connected to type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify behavior change techniques (BCTs) and specific components of dietary interventions for patients with type 2 diabetes associated with changes in HbA and body weight. The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched. Reports of randomized controlled trials published during 1975-2017 that focused on changing dietary behavior were selected, and methodological rigor, use of BCTs, and fidelity and intervention features were evaluated. In total, 54 studies were included, with 42 different BCTs applied and an average of 7 BCTs used per study. Four BCTs-"problem solving," "feedback on behavior," "adding objects to the environment," and "social comparison"-and the intervention feature "use of theory" were associated with >0.3% (3.3 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA. Meta-analysis revealed that studies that aimed to control or change the environment showed a greater reduction in HbA of 0.5% (5.5 mmol/mol) (95% CI -0.65, -0.34), compared with 0.32% (3.5 mmol/mol) (95% CI -0.40, -0.23) for studies that aimed to change behavior. Limitations of our study were the heterogeneity of dietary interventions and poor quality of reporting of BCTs. This study provides evidence that changing the dietary environment may have more of an effect on HbA in adults with type 2 diabetes than changing dietary behavior. Diet interventions achieved clinically significant reductions in HbA, although initial reductions in body weight diminished over time. If appropriate BCTs and theory are applied, dietary interventions may result in better glucose control.

Identifying the barriers and enablers for a triage, treatment, and transfer clinical intervention to manage acute stroke patients in the emergency department: a systematic review using the theoretical domains framework (TDF).

Louise Craig, Elizabeth McInnes, Natalie Taylor, Rohan Grimley, Dominique Cadilhac, Julie Considine, Sandy Middleton

Implementation science : IS [11:157] (2016)

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Clinical guidelines recommend that assessment and management of patients with stroke commences early including in emergency departments (ED). To inform the development of an implementation intervention targeted in ED, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies to identify relevant barriers and enablers to six key clinical behaviours in acute stroke care: appropriate triage, thrombolysis administration, monitoring and management of temperature, blood glucose levels, and of swallowing difficulties and transfer of stroke patients in ED. Studies of any design, conducted in ED, where barriers or enablers based on primary data were identified for one or more of these six clinical behaviours. Major biomedical databases (CINAHL, OVID SP EMBASE, OVID SP MEDLINE) were searched using comprehensive search strategies. The barriers and enablers were categorised using the theoretical domains framework (TDF). The behaviour change technique (BCT) that best aligned to the strategy each enabler represented was selected for each of the reported enablers using a standard taxonomy. Five qualitative studies and four surveys out of the 44 studies identified met the selection criteria. The majority of barriers reported corresponded with the TDF domains of "environmental, context and resources" (such as stressful working conditions or lack of resources) and "knowledge" (such as lack of guideline awareness or familiarity). The majority of enablers corresponded with the domains of "knowledge" (such as education for physicians on the calculated risk of haemorrhage following intravenous thrombolysis [tPA]) and "skills" (such as providing opportunity to treat stroke cases of varying complexity). The total number of BCTs assigned was 18. The BCTs most frequently assigned to the reported enablers were "focus on past success" and "information about health consequences." Barriers and enablers for the delivery of key evidence-based protocols in an emergency setting have been identified and interpreted within a relevant theoretical framework. This new knowledge has since been used to select specific BCTs to implement evidence-based care in an ED setting. It is recommended that findings from similar future reviews adopt a similar theoretical approach. In particular, the use of existing matrices to assist the selection of relevant BCTs.

Development of a theory-informed implementation intervention to improve the triage, treatment and transfer of stroke patients in emergency departments using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF): the T(3) Trial.

Louise Craig, Natalie Taylor, Rohan Grimley, Dominique Cadilhac, Elizabeth McInnes, Rosemary Phillips, Simeon Dale, Denise O'Connor, Chris Levi, Mark Fitzgerald, Julie Considine, Jeremy Grimshaw, Richard Gerraty, N Wah Cheung, Jeanette Ward, Sandy Middleton

Implementation science : IS [12:88] (2017)

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Theoretical frameworks and models based on behaviour change theories are increasingly used in the development of implementation interventions. Development of an implementation intervention is often based on the available evidence base and practical issues, i.e. feasibility and acceptability. The aim of this study was to describe the development of an implementation intervention for the T(3) Trial (Triage, Treatment and Transfer of patients with stroke in emergency departments (EDs)) using theory to recommend behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and drawing on the research evidence base and practical issues of feasibility and acceptability. A stepped method for developing complex interventions based on theory, evidence and practical issues was adapted using the following steps: (1) Who needs to do what, differently? (2) Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? (3) Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? A researcher panel was convened to review the list of BCTs recommended for use and to identify the most feasible and acceptable techniques to adopt. Seventy-six barriers were reported by hospital staff who attended the workshops (step 1: thirteen TDF domains likely to influence the implementation of the T(3) Trial clinical intervention were identified by the researchers; step 2: the researcher panellists then selected one third of the BCTs recommended for use as appropriate for the clinical context of the ED and, using the enabler workshop data, devised enabling strategies for each of the selected BCTs; and step 3: the final implementation intervention consisted of 27 BCTs). The TDF was successfully applied in all steps of developing an implementation intervention for the T(3) Trial clinical intervention. The use of researcher panel opinion was an essential part of the BCT selection process to incorporate both research evidence and expert judgment. It is recommended that this stepped approach (theory, evidence and practical issues of feasibility and acceptability) is used to develop highly reportable implementation interventions. The classifying of BCTs using recognised implementation intervention components will facilitate generalisability and sharing across different conditions and clinical settings.

Moms in motion: a group-mediated cognitive-behavioral physical activity intervention.

Anita Cramp, Lawrence Brawley

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [3:23] (2006)

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When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and psychological outcomes, however few physical activity interventions have been theory-driven and tailored to post natal exercise initiates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention based upon social-cognitive theory and group dynamics (GMCB) to a standard care postnatal exercise program (SE). A randomized, two-arm intervention design was used. Fifty-seven post natal women were randomized to one of two conditions: (1) a standard exercise treatment (SE) and (2) a standard exercise treatment plus group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention (GMCB). Participants in both conditions participated in a four-week intensive phase where participants received standard exercise training. In addition, GMCB participants received self-regulatory behavioral skills training via six group-mediated counseling sessions. Following the intensive phase, participants engaged in a four-week home-based phase of self-structured exercise. Measures of physical activity, barrier efficacy, and proximal outcome expectations were administered and data were analyzed using ANCOVA procedures. ANCOVA of change scores for frequency, minutes, and volume of physical activity revealed significant treatment effects over the intensive and home-based phases (p's < 0.01). In addition, ANCOVA of change in mean barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations at the conclusion of the intensive phase demonstrated that GMCB participants increased their initial level of barrier efficacy and outcome expectations while SE participants decreased (p < 0.05). While both exercise programs resulted in improvements to exercise participation, the GMCB intervention produced greater improvement in overall physical activity, barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations.

Healthcare provider-led interventions to support medication adherence following ACS: a meta-analysis.

Jacob Crawshaw, Vivian Auyeung, Lucy Ashworth, Sam Norton, John Weinman

Open heart [4:e000685] (2017)

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We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of healthcare provider-led (HCPs) interventions to support medication adherence in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A systematic search of Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, IPA, CINAHL, ASSIA, OpenGrey, EthOS, WorldCat and PQDT was undertaken. Interventions were deemed eligible if they included adult ACS patients, were HCP-led, measured medication adherence and randomised participants to parallel groups. Intervention content was coded using the Behaviour Change Technique (BCT) Taxonomy and data were pooled for analysis using random-effects models. Our search identified 8870 records, of which 27 were eligible (23 primary studies). A meta-analysis (n=9735) revealed HCP-led interventions increased the odds of medication adherence by 54% compared to control interventions (k=23, OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.88, I=57.5%). After removing outliers, there was a 41% increase in the odds of medication adherence with moderate heterogeneity (k=21, OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.65, I=35.3%). Interventions that included phone contact yielded (k=12, OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.12, I=32.0%) a larger effect compared to those delivered exclusively in person. A total of 32/93 BCTs were identified across interventions (mean=4.7, SD=2.2) with 'information about health consequences' (BCT 5.1) (19/23) the most common. HCP-led interventions for ACS patients appear to have a small positive impact on medication adherence. While we were able to identify BCTs among interventions, data were insufficient to determine the impact of particular BCTs on study effectiveness. CRD42016037706.

Health care workers' hand decontamination practices: an Irish study.

SA Creedon

Clinical nursing research [15:6-26] (2006)

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The primary purpose of this quasi-experimental research is to observe health care workers' compliance with hand-hygiene guidelines during patient care in an intensive care unit in Ireland before (pretest) and after (posttest) implementation of a multifaceted hand-hygiene program. Health care workers' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge in relation to compliance with handwashing guidelines were also investigated. A convenience sample of nurses, doctors, physiotherapists, and care assistants (n = 73 observational participants, n = 62 questionnaire respondents) was used. Data (N = 314 observations, 62 questionnaires) were analyzed descriptively and cross-tabulated using chi-square (Pearson's) and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Results revealed that a significant shift (32%) occurred in health care workers' compliance with handwashing guidelines (pretest 51%, posttest 83%, p < .001) following the interventional hand-hygiene program. Significant changes were also found in relation to health care workers' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge (p < .05).

A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol.

Henricus-Paul Cremers, Liesbeth Mercken, Anke Oenema, Hein De Vries

BMC public health [12:277] (2012)

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Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled 'Fun without Smokes'. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils' smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the 'Fun without Smokes' website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the 'Fun without Smokes' website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. The present study protocol describes the purpose, intervention design and study protocol of 'Fun without Smokes'. Expectations are that pupils receiving tailored advice will be less likely to smoke after 24 months in contrast to pupils in the control condition. Furthermore, tailored feedback letters and prompting is expected to be more effective than providing tailored feedback letters only. Dutch Trial Register NTR3116.

A mobile phone intervention to reduce binge drinking among disadvantaged men: study protocol for a randomised controlled cost-effectiveness trial.

Iain Crombie, Linda Irvine, Brian Williams, Falko Sniehotta, Dennis Petrie, Josie Evans, Carol Emslie, Claire Jones, Ian Ricketts, Gerry Humphris, John Norrie, Peter Rice, Peter Slane

Trials [15:494] (2014)

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Socially disadvantaged men are at a substantially higher risk of developing alcohol-related problems. The frequency of heavy drinking in a single session is high among disadvantaged men. Brief alcohol interventions were developed for, and are usually delivered in, healthcare settings. The group who binge drink most frequently, young to middle-aged disadvantaged men, have less contact with health services and there is a need for an alternative method of intervention delivery. Text messaging has been used successfully to modify other adverse health behaviours. This study will test whether text messages can reduce the frequency of binge drinking by disadvantaged men. Disadvantaged men aged 25 to 44 years who drank >8 units of alcohol at least twice in the preceding month will be recruited from the community. Two recruitment strategies will be used: contacting men listed in primary care registers, and a community outreach method (time-space sampling). The intended sample of 798 men will be randomised to intervention or control, stratifying by recruitment method. The intervention group will receive a series of text messages designed to reduce the frequency of binge drinking through the formation of specific action plans. The control group will receive behaviourally neutral text messages intended to promote retention in the study. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of men consuming >8 units on at least three occasions in the previous 30 days. Secondary outcomes include total alcohol consumption and the frequency of consuming more than 16 units of alcohol in one session in the previous month. Process measures, developed during a previous feasibility study, will monitor engagement with the key behaviour change components of the intervention. The study will incorporate an economic evaluation comparing the costs of recruitment and intervention delivery with the benefits of reduced alcohol-related harm. This study will assess the effectiveness of a brief intervention, delivered by text messages, aimed at reducing the frequency of binge drinking in disadvantaged men. The process measures will identify components of the intervention which contribute to effectiveness. The study will also determine whether any benefit of the intervention is justified by the costs of intervening. ISRCTN07695192. Date assigned: 14 August 2013.

Evaluation of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation interventions with a self-help smoking cessation program.

S Curry, E Wagner, L Grothaus

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology [59:318-24] (1991)

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Personalized feedback and a financial incentive, developed from an intrinsic/extrinsic motivation framework, were evaluated as adjuncts to self-help materials for smoking cessation. Ss (N = 1,217) were randomized to 4 treatment groups and were followed up at 3 and 12 months. Consistent with hypotheses derived from the motivation framework, the financial incentive increased the use of self-help materials, did not increase cessation rates among program users, and was associated with higher relapse rates among those who did manage to quit. The personalized feedback increased both smoking cessation and use of the materials 3 months after distribution of the materials. Continuous abstinence (abstinence at 3 and 12 months) in the group that received the personalized feedback alone was twice the rate of the other groups.

Targeting Parents for Childhood Weight Management: Development of a Theory-Driven and User-Centered Healthy Eating App.

Kristina Curtis, Sudakshina Lahiri, Katherine Brown

JMIR mHealth and uHealth [3:e69] (2015)

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The proliferation of health promotion apps along with mobile phones' array of features supporting health behavior change offers a new and innovative approach to childhood weight management. However, despite the critical role parents play in children's weight related behaviors, few industry-led apps aimed at childhood weight management target parents. Furthermore, industry-led apps have been shown to lack a basis in behavior change theory and evidence. Equally important remains the issue of how to maximize users' engagement with mobile health (mHealth) interventions where there is growing consensus that inputs from the commercial app industry and the target population should be an integral part of the development process. The aim of this study is to systematically design and develop a theory and evidence-driven, user-centered healthy eating app targeting parents for childhood weight management, and clearly document this for the research and app development community. The Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) framework, a theoretically-based approach for intervention development, along with a user-centered design (UCD) philosophy and collaboration with the commercial app industry, guided the development process. Current evidence, along with a series of 9 focus groups (total of 46 participants) comprised of family weight management case workers, parents with overweight and healthy weight children aged 5-11 years, and consultation with experts, provided data to inform the app development. Thematic analysis of focus groups helped to extract information related to relevant theoretical, user-centered, and technological components to underpin the design and development of the app. Inputs from parents and experts working in the area of childhood weight management helped to identify the main target behavior: to help parents provide appropriate food portion sizes for their children. To achieve this target behavior, the behavioral diagnosis revealed the need for eliciting change in parents' capability, motivation, and opportunity in 10-associated Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) domains. Of the 9 possible intervention functions, 6 were selected to bring about this change which guided the selection of 21 behavior change techniques. Parents' preferences for healthy eating app features revolved around four main themes (app features, time saving and convenience, aesthetics, and gamification) whereupon a criterion was applied to guide the selection on which preferences should be integrated into the design of the app. Collaboration with the app company helped to build on users' preferences for elements of gamification such as points, quizzes, and levels to optimize user engagement. Feedback from parents on interactive mock-ups helped to inform the final development of the prototype app. Here, we fully explicate a systematic approach applied in the development of a family-oriented, healthy eating health promotion app grounded in theory and evidence, and balanced with users' preferences to help maximize its engagement with the target population.

Improving coronary heart disease self-management using mobile technologies (Text4Heart): a randomised controlled trial protocol.

Leila Pfaeffli Dale, Robyn Whittaker, Yannan Jiang, Ralph Stewart, Anna Rolleston, Ralph Maddison

Trials [15:71] (2014)

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Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a secondary prevention program that offers education and support to assist patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) make lifestyle changes. Despite the benefits of CR, attendance at centre-based sessions remains low. Mobile technology (mHealth) has potential to reach more patients by delivering CR directly to mobile phones, thus providing an alternative to centre-based CR. The aim of this trial is to evaluate if a mHealth comprehensive CR program can improve adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviours (for example, physically active, fruit and vegetable intake, not smoking, low alcohol consumption) over and above usual CR services in New Zealand adults diagnosed with CHD. A two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial will be conducted at two Auckland hospitals in New Zealand. One hundred twenty participants will be randomised to receive a 24-week evidence- and theory-based personalised text message program and access to a supporting website in addition to usual CR care or usual CR care alone (control). The primary outcome is the proportion of participants adhering to healthy behaviours at 6 months, measured using a composite health behaviour score. Secondary outcomes include overall cardiovascular disease risk, body composition, illness perceptions, self-efficacy, hospital anxiety/depression and medication adherence. This study is one of the first to examine an mHealth-delivered comprehensive CR program. Strengths of the trial include quality research design and in-depth description of the intervention to aid replication. If effective, the trial has potential to augment standard CR practices and to be used as a model for other disease prevention or self-management programs. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000901707.

Safe Drive Stay Alive: exploring effectiveness of a real-world driving intervention for predrivers and the utility of the health action process approach.

H Dale, C Scott, G Ozakinci

Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention (2016)

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Young drivers are greatly over-represented in road traffic collisions (RTCs) worldwide. Interventions attempt to change driving-related behaviours to reduce injuries and deaths from RTCs. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the well-established Fife Safe Drive Stay Alive (SDSA) practice-based intervention on determinants of driving behaviour using the health action process approach (HAPA) model. Adolescent participants (predominantly predrivers) attending the SDSA intervention from schools and colleges in Fife, Scotland, were invited to complete an evaluation at baseline and at 3 months exploring motivational determinants of driving behaviour (eg, risk perception). Intervention content was examined for behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Eighty-seven participants completed both baseline and follow-up evaluations. The motivational HAPA model variables predicted driving intentions. There was no significant overall effect of the SDSA intervention between baseline and 3-month follow-up. Seven negatively framed BCTs were used in the intervention. The effectiveness of SDSA is questioned; however, the study supports the use of the HAPA model in explaining driving intentions, and therefore, may usefully inform driving interventions.

An intervention to promote walking amongst the general population based on an "extended" theory of planned behaviour: a waiting list randomised controlled trial.

C Darker, D French, F Eves, F Sniehotta

Psychology & health [25:71-88] (2010)

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Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) studies have identified perceived behavioural control (PBC) as the key determinant of walking intentions. The present study investigated whether an intervention designed to alter PBC and create walking plans increased TPB measures concerning walking more, planning and objectively measured walking. One hundred and thirty UK adults participated in a waiting-list randomised controlled trial. The intervention consisted of strategies to boost PBC, plus volitional strategies to enact walking intentions. All TPB constructs were measured, along with self-reported measures of action planning and walking, and an objective pedometer measure of time spent walking. The intervention increased PBC, attitudes, intentions and objectively measured walking from 20 to 32 min a day. The effects of the intervention on intentions and behaviour were mediated by PBC, although the effects on PBC were not mediated by control beliefs. At 6 weeks follow-up, participants maintained their increases in walking. The findings of this study partially support the proposed causal nature of the extended TPB as a framework for developing and evaluating health behaviour change interventions. This is the first study using the TPB to develop, design and evaluate the components of an intervention which increased objectively measured behaviour, with effects mediated by TPB variables.

The Fear Reduction Exercised Early (FREE) approach to low back pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Ben Darlow, James Stanley, Sarah Dean, J Haxby Abbott, Sue Garrett, Fiona Mathieson, Anthony Dowell

Trials [18:484] (2017)

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Low back pain (LBP) is a major health issue associated with considerable health loss and societal costs. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in the management of LBP; however, GP care has not been shown to be the most cost-effective approach unless exercise and behavioural counselling are added to usual care. The Fear Reduction Exercised Early (FREE) approach to LBP has been developed to assist GPs to manage LBP by empowering exploration and management of psychosocial barriers to recovery and provision of evidence-based care and information. The aim of the Low Back Pain in General Practice (LBPinGP) trial is to explore whether patients with LBP who receive care from GPs trained in the FREE approach have better outcomes than those who receive usual care. This is a cluster randomised controlled superiority trial comparing the FREE approach with usual care for LBP management with investigator-blinded assessment of outcomes. GPs will be recruited and then cluster randomised (in practice groups) to the intervention or control arm. Intervention arm GPs will receive training in the FREE approach, and control arm GPs will continue to practice as usual. Patients presenting to their GP with a primary complaint of LBP will be allocated on the basis of allocation of the GP they consult. We aim to recruit 60 GPs and 275 patients (assuming patients are recruited from 75% of GPs and an average of 5 patients per GP complete the study, accounting for 20% patient participant dropout). Patient participants and the trial statistician will be blind to group allocation throughout the study. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary outcome will be back-related functional impairment 6 months post-initial LBP consultation (interim data at 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 3 months), measured with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Secondary patient outcomes include pain, satisfaction, quality of life, days off from work and costs of care. Secondary GP outcomes include beliefs about pain and impairment, GP confidence, and actual and reported clinical behaviour. Health economic and process evaluations will be conducted. In the LBPinGP trial, we will investigate providing an intervention during the first interaction a person with back pain has with their GP. Because the FREE approach is used within a normal GP consultation, if effective, it may be a cost-effective means of improving LBP care. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616000888460 . Registered on 6 July 2016.

Time for action-Improving the design and reporting of behaviour change interventions for antimicrobial stewardship in hospitals: Early findings from a systematic review.

Peter Davey, Claire Peden, Esmita Charani, Charis Marwick, Susan Michie

International journal of antimicrobial agents [45:203-12] (2015)

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There is strong evidence that self-monitoring and feedback are effective behaviour change techniques (BCTs) across a range of healthcare interventions and that their effectiveness is enhanced by goal setting and action planning. Here we report a summary of the update of a systematic review assessing the application of these BCTs to improving hospital antibiotic prescribing. This paper includes studies with valid prescribing outcomes published before the end of December 2012. We used a structured method for reporting these BCTs in terms of specific characteristics and contacted study authors to request additional intervention information. We identified 116 studies reporting 123 interventions. Reporting of BCTs was poor, with little detail of BCT characteristics. Feedback was only reported for 17 (13.8%) of the interventions, and self-monitoring was used in only 1 intervention. Goals were reported for all interventions but were poorly specified, with only three of the nine characteristics reported for ≥50% of interventions. A goal threshold and timescale were specified for just 1 of the 123 interventions. Only 29 authors (25.0%) responded to the request for additional information. In conclusion, both the content and reporting of interventions for antimicrobial stewardship fell short of scientific principles and practices. There is a strong evidence base regarding BCTs in other contexts that should be applied to antimicrobial stewardship now if we are to further our understanding of what works, for whom, why and in what contexts.

The effects of smoking cessation counseling by midwives on Dutch pregnant women and their partners.

Hein De Vries, Martijntje Bakker, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Gerard van Breukelen

Patient education and counseling [63:177-87] (2006)

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Smoking during pregnancy is an important problem in the Netherlands. We tested the effectiveness of a health counseling method by midwives using a RCT. Four provinces with 42 practices including 118 midwives were randomly assigned to the experimental or control condition. Midwives in the experimental group provided brief health counseling, self-help materials on smoking cessation during pregnancy and early postpartum, and a partner booklet. Controls received routine care. The main outcome measures were 7-day abstinence, continuous abstinence, and partner smoking at 6 weeks post-intervention (T1) and 6 weeks postpartum (T2). Multi-level analysis revealed significant differences between both conditions at T1 and T2 using intention-to-treat analysis. Nineteen percent of the experimental group reported 7-day abstinence compared to 7% of the control group at T1, and 21 and 12%, respectively, at T2. For continuous abstinence these percentages were 12% in the experimental group and 3% in the control group. The partner intervention was not successful. The intervention resulted in significant effects on smoking behavior for pregnant women, but not for partner smoking. The program realized short-term effects. An important precondition is that midwives need a proper training.

Applying the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify barriers and targeted interventions to enhance nurses' use of electronic medication management systems in two Australian hospitals.

Deborah Debono, Natalie Taylor, Wendy Lipworth, David Greenfield, Joanne Travaglia, Deborah Black, Jeffrey Braithwaite

Implementation science : IS [12:42] (2017)

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Medication errors harm hospitalised patients and increase health care costs. Electronic Medication Management Systems (EMMS) have been shown to reduce medication errors. However, nurses do not always use EMMS as intended, largely because implementation of such patient safety strategies requires clinicians to change their existing practices, routines and behaviour. This study uses the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify barriers and targeted interventions to enhance nurses' appropriate use of EMMS in two Australian hospitals. This qualitative study draws on in-depth interviews with 19 acute care nurses who used EMMS. A convenience sampling approach was used. Nurses working on the study units (N = 6) in two hospitals were invited to participate if available during the data collection period. Interviews inductively explored nurses' experiences of using EMMS (step 1). Data were analysed using the TDF to identify theory-derived barriers to nurses' appropriate use of EMMS (step 2). Relevant behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were identified to overcome key barriers to using EMMS (step 3) followed by the identification of potential literature-informed targeted intervention strategies to operationalise the identified BCTs (step 4). Barriers to nurses' use of EMMS in acute care were represented by nine domains of the TDF. Two closely linked domains emerged as major barriers to EMMS use: Environmental Context and Resources (availability and properties of computers on wheels (COWs); technology characteristics; specific contexts; competing demands and time pressure) and Social/Professional Role and Identity (conflict between using EMMS appropriately and executing behaviours critical to nurses' professional role and identity). The study identified three potential BCTs to address the Environmental Context and Resources domain barrier: adding objects to the environment; restructuring the physical environment; and prompts and cues. Seven BCTs to address Social/Professional Role and Identity were identified: social process of encouragement; pressure or support; information about others' approval; incompatible beliefs; identification of self as role model; framing/reframing; social comparison; and demonstration of behaviour. It proposes several targeted interventions to deliver these BCTs. The TDF provides a useful approach to identify barriers to nurses' prescribed use of EMMS, and can inform the design of targeted theory-based interventions to improve EMMS implementation.

Leading the Way in Exercise and Diet (Project LEAD): intervening to improve function among older breast and prostate cancer survivors.

Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Miriam Morey, Elizabeth Clipp, Carl Pieper, Denise Snyder, Richard Sloane, Harvey Cohen

Controlled clinical trials [24:206-23] (2003)

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The U.S. population is aging, bringing with it an increased prevalence of chronic disease and concomitant declines in physical function. The risk of developing cancer increases significantly with age, and functional decline is much more likely once a cancer diagnosis is rendered. Thus, functional status in later life is a key concern, one that is heightened among elders who have been diagnosed with cancer. To date, however, there have been few trials that have exclusively addressed issues related to cancer survivorship among older cancer patients, and to our knowledge, none has focused on preserving or enhancing physical functioning. This paper describes the study design and methodological considerations of a randomized controlled trial to determine if a personally tailored workbook and telephone counseling program can positively affect physical activity and dietary behaviors and ultimately the physical functioning of up to 420 older men and women newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. This trial is unique because the cancer diagnosis is used not only as a marker of risk for functional decline, but also as a "teachable moment" - an opportune time when elders may be more receptive to making beneficial lifestyle changes. Undoubtedly, as cure rates for cancer increase and intersect with ever-growing numbers of elderly, there will be numerous opportunities to provide and test interventions within this vulnerable population and to target functional status as a primary outcome. In reporting our methods, we hope to give others "a leg up," so that they can hurdle with greater ease the barriers we experienced, and thus advance the field more rapidly.

A web-based program improves physical activity outcomes in a primary care angina population: randomized controlled trial.

R Devi, J Powell, S Singh

Journal of medical Internet research [16:e186] (2014)

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Angina affects more than 50 million people worldwide. Secondary prevention interventions such as cardiac rehabilitation are not widely available for this population. An Internet-based version could offer a feasible alternative. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of a Web-based cardiac rehabilitation program for those with angina. We conducted a randomized controlled trial, recruiting those diagnosed with angina from general practitioners (GPs) in primary care to an intervention or control group. Intervention group participants were offered a 6-week Web-based rehabilitation program ("ActivateYourHeart"). The program was introduced during a face-to-face appointment and then delivered via the Internet (no further face-to-face contact). The program contained information about the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) and set each user goals around physical activity, diet, managing emotions, and smoking. Performance against goals was reviewed throughout the program and goals were then reset/modified. Participants completed an online exercise diary and communicated with rehabilitation specialists through an email link/synchronized chat room. Participants in the control group continued with GP treatment as usual, which consisted of being placed on a CHD register and attending an annual review. Outcomes were measured at 6-week and 6-month follow-ups during face-to-face assessments. The primary outcome measure was change in daily steps at 6 weeks, measured using an accelerometer. Secondary outcome measures were energy expenditure (EE), duration of sedentary activity (DSA), duration of moderate activity (DMA), weight, diastolic/systolic blood pressure, and body fat percentage. Self-assessed questionnaire outcomes included fat/fiber intake, anxiety/depression, self-efficacy, and quality of life (QOL). A total of 94 participants were recruited and randomized to the intervention (n=48) or the usual care (n=46) group; 84 and 73 participants completed the 6-week and 6-month follow-ups, respectively. The mean number of log-ins to the program was 18.68 (SD 13.13, range 1-51), an average of 3 log-ins per week per participant. Change in daily steps walked at the 6-week follow-up was +497 (SD 2171) in the intervention group and -861 (SD 2534) in the control group (95% CI 263-2451, P=.02). Significant intervention effects were observed at the 6-week follow-up in EE (+43.94 kcal, 95% CI 43.93-309.98, P=.01), DSA (-7.79 minutes, 95% CI -55.01 to -7.01, P=.01), DMA (+6.31 minutes, 95% CI 6.01-51.20, P=.01), weight (-0.56 kg, 95% CI -1.78 to -0.15, P=.02), self-efficacy (95% CI 0.30-4.79, P=.03), emotional QOL score (95% CI 0.01-0.54, P=.04), and angina frequency (95% CI 8.57-35.05, P=.002). Significant benefits in angina frequency (95% CI 1.89-29.41, P=.02) and social QOL score (95% CI 0.05-0.54, P=.02) were also observed at the 6-month follow-up. An Internet-based secondary prevention intervention could be offered to those with angina. A larger pragmatic trial is required to provide definitive evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

Tailored interventions to communicate stage-matched information to smokers in different motivational stages.

A Dijkstra, Hein De Vries, J Roijackers, G van Breukelen

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology [66:549-57] (1998)

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Smokers in stages of low readiness to quit (immotives and precontemplators) and smokers in stages of high readiness to quit (contemplators and preparers) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 tailored intervention conditions offering outcome information, self-efficacy-enhancing information, both sorts of information, or no information. Data on 1,540 smokers, stratified by stage, were analyzed. The primary outcome measure was stage transition. The hypotheses with regard to stage-matched information for immotives and precontemplators were not verified. With regard to contemplators and preparers, the following was found: Compared with the control group, contemplators benefited the most from both sorts of information, whereas preparers benefited the most from self-efficacy-enhancing information only. Comparisons between contemplators and preparers who were assigned to the matched treatment and contemplators and preparers who were assigned to the mismatched treatment supported these findings.

Feasibility of a minimal contact intervention to promote walking among insufficiently active women.

Mary Dinger, Kristiann Heesch, Kristi McClary

American journal of health promotion : AJHP [20:2-6] ()

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To examine the impact of a 6-week minimal contact intervention on walking behavior, the 10 processes of change of the transtheoretical model (TTM), and self-efficacy among insufficiently active women. This study used a pre-experimental design. Of the 43 women who began the study, 36 (84%) completed questionnaires at baseline and postintervention. They were given brochures and pedometers and were sent e-mails that contained messages designed to positively affect TTM constructs. Changes in time spent walking, use of the 10 processes of change, and self-efficacy were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and paired t-tests. Participants significantly increased their total walking minutes (p = .001) and use of counterconditioning, dramatic relief reinforcement management, self-liberation, stimulus control, and social liberation (p < .05). The findings of this feasibility study provide preliminary evidence that this theoretically based, minimal contact lifestyle intervention may be an effective, low-cost approach to increase walking among insufficiently active women.

mHealth Technologies to Influence Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors: Behavior Change Techniques, Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Artur Direito, Eliana Carraça, Jonathan Rawstorn, Robyn Whittaker, Ralph Maddison

Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (2016)

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mHealth programs offer potential for practical and cost-effective delivery of interventions capable of reaching many individuals. To (1) compare the effectiveness of mHealth interventions to promote physical activity (PA) and reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in free-living young people and adults with a comparator exposed to usual care/minimal intervention; (2) determine whether, and to what extent, such interventions affect PA and SB levels and (3) use the taxonomy of behavior change techniques (BCTs) to describe intervention characteristics. A systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA guidelines was undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing mHealth interventions with usual or minimal care among individuals free from conditions that could limit PA. Total PA, moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA), walking and SB outcomes were extracted. Intervention content was independently coded following the 93-item taxonomy of BCTs. Twenty-one RCTs (1701 participants-700 with objectively measured PA) met eligibility criteria. SB decreased more following mHealth interventions than after usual care (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.26, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.53 to -0.00). Summary effects across studies were small to moderate and non-significant for total PA (SMD 0.14, 95 % CI -0.12 to 0.41); MVPA (SMD 0.37, 95 % CI -0.03 to 0.77); and walking (SMD 0.14, 95 % CI -0.01 to 0.29). BCTs were employed more frequently in intervention (mean = 6.9, range 2 to 12) than in comparator conditions (mean = 3.1, range 0 to 10). Of all BCTs, only 31 were employed in intervention conditions. Current mHealth interventions have small effects on PA/SB. Technological advancements will enable more comprehensive, interactive and responsive intervention delivery. Future mHealth PA studies should ensure that all the active ingredients of the intervention are reported in sufficient detail.

Self-efficacy partially mediates the effect of a school-based physical-activity intervention among adolescent girls.

Rod Dishman, Robert Motl, Ruth Saunders, Gwen Felton, Dianne Ward, Marsha Dowda, Russell Pate

Preventive medicine [38:628-36] (2004)

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This study evaluated the effects of the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP), a comprehensive school-based intervention emphasizing changes in instruction and school environment, on variables derived from social-cognitive theory (SCT) as mediators of change in physical activity among black and white adolescent girls. Twenty-four high schools paired on enrollment size, racial composition, urban, suburban, or rural location, and class structure were randomized into control (n = 12) or experimental (n = 12) groups. There were 1038 girls in the control group and 1049 girls in the experimental group. The multicomponent intervention emphasized the enhancement of self-efficacy and development of behavioral skills by using curricular activities within physical education classes and health education instruction. The primary outcomes were self-efficacy, outcome-expectancy value, goal setting, satisfaction, and physical activity. Latent variable structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) self-efficacy and satisfaction exhibited synchronous, cross-sectional relationships with physical activity; (2) the intervention had direct effects on self-efficacy, goal setting, and physical activity; and (3) self-efficacy partially mediated the effect of intervention on physical activity. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence from a randomized controlled trial that manipulation of self-efficacy results in increased physical activity among black and white adolescent girls. The results encourage the use of self-efficacy as a targeted, mediator variable in interventions designed to increase physical activity among girls.

Brief fruit and vegetable messages integrated within a community physical activity program successfully change behaviour.

Shawna Doerksen, Paul Estabrooks

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [4:12] (2007)

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Consumption of the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables is associated with several health benefits. Currently less than 25% of the American population meets the minimum recommendation of five servings a day. In order to change this health behaviour, interventions should be based on theory and include community-wide social support. A low intensity intervention was developed in which participants (n = 86) were randomly assigned to either the fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI) or standard control condition. The intervention was integrated into an ongoing community physical activity program and study participants were drawn from the sample of community members enrolled in the program. The FVI consisted of brief social cognitive theory-based messages delivered in nine weekly newsletters designed to improve participant outcome and self-efficacy expectations related to fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants in the FVI condition increased in their fruit and vegetable consumption by approximately one to one and one-third servings per day. The control condition showed no change in consumption. The effect of the intervention was enhanced when examined by the extent to which it was adopted by participants (i.e., the number of newsletters read). Those participants who read seven or more newsletters showed an increase of two servings per day. This intervention was effective at improving fruit and vegetable consumption among adults. Minimal interventions, such as newsletters, have the ability to reach large audiences and can be integrated into ongoing health promotion programs. As such, they have potential for a strong public health impact.

Reducing high-risk drinking in mandated college students: evaluation of two personalized normative feedback interventions.

Diana Doumas, Camille Workman, Diana Smith, Anabel Navarro

Journal of substance abuse treatment [40:376-85] (2011)

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This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized normative feedback interventions aimed at reducing heavy drinking among mandated college students (N = 135). Students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: Web-based assessment with self-guided personalized normative feedback (SWF) or Web-based assessment with counselor-guided personalized normative feedback (CWF). Results indicated that students in the CWF condition reported significantly greater reductions in weekly drinking quantity and binge drinking frequency than those in the SWF group at follow-up (M = 8 months). Students in the CWF group also reported significantly greater reductions in estimates of peer drinking from baseline to the follow-up assessment than students in the SWF group. In addition, changes in estimates of peer drinking partially mediated the effect of the intervention on changes in drinking. Results suggest that counselor-guided feedback may be more effective in reducing drinking among mandated students relative to self-guided feedback in the long term.

Interactive video behavioral intervention to reduce adolescent females' STD risk: a randomized controlled trial.

Julie Downs, Pamela Murray, Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Joyce Penrose, Claire Palmgren, Baruch Fischhoff

Social science & medicine (1982) [59:1561-72] (2004)

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A longitudinal randomized design was used to evaluate the impact of a theoretically based, stand-alone interactive video intervention on 300 urban adolescent girls' (a) knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), (b) self-reported sexual risk behavior, and (c) STD acquisition. It was compared to two controls, representing high-quality informational interventions. One used the same content in book form; the other used commercially available brochures. Following randomization, the interventions were administered at baseline, with booster sessions at 1, 3, and 6 months. Self-reports revealed that those assigned to the interactive video were significantly more likely to be abstinent in the first 3 months following initial exposure to the intervention, and experienced fewer condom failures in the following 3 months, compared to controls. Six months after enrollment, participants in the video condition were significantly less likely to report having been diagnosed with an STD. A non-significant trend in data from a clinical PCR assay of Chlamydia trachomatis was consistent with that finding.

Application of Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based health promotion pre-pregnancy intervention for adolescent girls in rural South Africa: Project Ntshembo (Hope).

Catherine Draper, Lisa Micklesfield, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, John Pettifor, David Dunger, Shane Norris

BMC public health [14 Suppl 2:S5] (2014)

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South Africa (SA) is undergoing multiple transitions with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and high levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls and women. Adolescence is key to addressing trans-generational risk and a window of opportunity to intervene and positively impact on individuals' health trajectories into adulthood. Using Intervention Mapping (IM), this paper describes the development of the Ntshembo intervention, which is intended to improve the health and well-being of adolescent girls in order to limit the inter-generational transfer of risk of metabolic disease, in particular diabetes risk. This paper describes the application of the first four steps of IM. Evidence is provided to support the selection of four key behavioural objectives: viz. to eat a healthy, balanced diet, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and promote reproductive health. Appropriate behaviour change techniques are suggested and a theoretical framework outlining components of relevant behaviour change theories is presented. It is proposed that the Ntshembo intervention will be community-based, including specialist adolescent community health workers who will deliver a complex intervention comprising of individual, peer, family and community mobilisation components. The Ntshembo intervention is novel, both in SA and globally, as it is: (1) based on strong evidence, extensive formative work and best practice from evaluated interventions; (2) combines theory with evidence to inform intervention components; (3) includes multiple domains of influence (community through to the individual); (4) focuses on an at-risk target group; and (5) embeds within existing and planned health service priorities in SA.

Health education to improve repeat participation in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme: evaluation of a leaflet tailored to previous participants.

C Drossaert, H Boer, E Seydel

Patient education and counseling [28:121-31] (1996)

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Participation in breast cancer screening programmes often declines in the course of the programme. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether health education could diminish the amount of drop-outs between two screening rounds. The health education was tailored to women who previously underwent mammography. Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model two versions of the tailored leaflet were made: a simple version and a version with additional peripheral cues. In an experimental study among 2961 women the effects of the tailored leaflets on reparticipation were tested against a standard leaflet. Re-participation rates were high (> 90%) and did not differ between the 3 groups. No significant differences regarding beliefs about re-participating were found between the 3 groups. Results indicate that the tailored information leaflets did not enhance re-participation. Therefore, the required additional efforts and costs do not seem to be justified. The results of the study provide indications that less painful mammograms and friendly staff might improve re-participation.

Behavior Change Techniques in Physical Activity eHealth Interventions for People With Cardiovascular Disease: Systematic Review.

Orlaith Mairead Duff, Deirdre Walsh, Bróna Furlong, Noel O'Connor, Kieran Moran, Catherine Woods

Journal of medical Internet research [19:e281] (2017)

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of premature death and disability in Europe, accounting for 4 million deaths per year and costing the European Union economy almost €196 billion annually. There is strong evidence to suggest that exercise-based secondary rehabilitation programs can decrease the mortality risk and improve health among patients with CVD. Theory-informed use of behavior change techniques (BCTs) is important in the design of cardiac rehabilitation programs aimed at changing cardiovascular risk factors. Electronic health (eHealth) is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health. This emerging area of health care has the ability to enhance self-management of chronic disease by making health care more accessible, affordable, and available to the public. However, evidence-based information on the use of BCTs in eHealth interventions is limited, and particularly so, for individuals living with CVD. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the application of BCTs in eHealth interventions designed to increase physical activity (PA) in CVD populations. A total of 7 electronic databases, including EBSCOhost (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, and CINAHL Complete), Scopus, and Web of Science (Core Collection) were searched. Two authors independently reviewed references using the software package Covidence (Veritas Health Innovation). The reviewers met to resolve any discrepancies, with a third independent reviewer acting as an arbitrator when required. Following this, data were extracted from the papers that met the inclusion criteria. Bias assessment of the studies was carried out using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias within Covidence; this was followed by a narrative synthesis. Out of the 987 studies that were identified, 14 were included in the review. An additional 9 studies were added following a hand search of review paper references. The average number of BCTs used across the 23 studies was 7.2 (range 1-19). The top three most frequently used BCTs included information about health consequences (78%, 18/23), goal setting (behavior; 74%, 17/23), and joint third, self-monitoring of behavior and social support (practical) were included in 11 studies (48%, 11/23) each. This systematic review is the first to investigate the use of BCTs in PA eHealth interventions specifically designed for people with CVD. This research will have clear implications for health care policy and research by outlining the BCTs used in eHealth interventions for chronic illnesses, in particular CVD, thereby providing clear foundations for further research and developments in the area.

Using the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 to conceptualize the clinical content of Breaking Free Online: a computer-assisted therapy program for substance use disorders.

Stephanie Dugdale, Jonathan Ward, Jan Hernen, Sarah Elison, Glyn Davies, Daniel Donkor

Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy [11:26] (2016)

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In recent years, research within the field of health psychology has made significant progress in terms of advancing and standardizing the science of developing, evaluating and reporting complex behavioral change interventions. A major part of this work has involved the development of an evidence-based Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1), as a means of describing the active components contained within such complex interventions. To date, however, this standardized approach derived from health psychology research has not been applied to the development of complex interventions for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD). Therefore, this paper uses Breaking Free Online (BFO), a computer-assisted therapy program for SUD, as an example of how the clinical techniques contained within such an intervention might be mapped onto the BCTTv1. The developers of BFO were able to produce a full list of the clinical techniques contained within BFO. Exploratory mapping of the BCTTv1 onto the clinical content of the BFO program was conducted separately by the authors of the paper. This included the developers of the BFO program and psychology professionals working within the SUD field. These coded techniques were reviewed by the authors and any discrepancies in the coding were discussed between all authors until an agreement was reached. The BCTTv1 was mapped onto the clinical content of the BFO program. At least one behavioral change technique was found in 12 out of 16 grouping categories within the BCTTv1. A total of 26 out of 93 behavior change techniques were identified across the clinical content of the program. This exploratory mapping exercise has identified the specific behavior change techniques contained within BFO, and has provided a means of describing these techniques in a standardized way using the BCTTv1 terminology. It has also provided an opportunity for the BCTTv1 mapping process to be reported to the wider SUD treatment community, as it may have real utility in the development and evaluation of other psychosocial and behavioral change interventions within this field.

Development of an Evidence-Informed Blog to Promote Healthy Eating Among Mothers: Use of the Intervention Mapping Protocol.

Audrée-Anne Dumas, Simone Lemieux, Annie Lapointe, Véronique Provencher, Julie Robitaille, Sophie Desroches

JMIR research protocols [6:e92] (2017)

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Low adherence to dietary guidelines and a concurrent rise of obesity-related chronic diseases emphasize the need for effective interventions to promote healthy eating. There is growing recognition that behavior change interventions should draw on theories of behavior change. Online interventions grounded in theory lead to increased effectiveness for health behavior change; however, few theory-driven social media-based health promotion interventions have been described in the literature. The objective of this study was to describe the application of the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol to develop an evidence-informed blog to promote healthy eating among French-Canadian mothers of preschool and school-aged children. The following six steps of the IM protocol were performed. In Step 1, a preliminary needs assessment included a literature search on theoretical domains predicting Vegetables and Fruits intakes and Milk and Alternatives intakes in adults (ie, knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, intention/goals) and a qualitative study including focus groups to identify female Internet users' perceptions of their use of healthy eating blogs. In Step 2, two behavioral outcomes were selected (ie, increase daily intakes of Vegetables and Fruits and Milk and Alternatives of mothers to reach Canadian dietary recommendations) and subsequently divided into six performance objectives inspired by national and international dietary recommendations such as planning for healthy meals. A matrix of change objectives was then created by crossing performance objectives with theoretical domains predicting Vegetables and Fruits intakes and Milk and Alternatives intakes in adults. Step 3 consisted of selecting theory-based intervention methods (eg, modeling and goal setting) and translating them into practical applications for the context of a dietary intervention delivered through a blog. A 6-month intervention was developed in Step 4 in which we aimed to address one performance objective per month in weekly blog publications written by a registered dietitian. For Step 5, we sought to include engagement-promoting methods (eg, peer and counselor support) to promote mothers' use of the blog and adherence to the intervention. Finally in Step 6, a randomized controlled trial has been launched to evaluate the effects of the blog on dietary behaviors of French-Canadian mothers. The intervention study is expected to be completed in March 2018. An intervention mapping protocol allowed for effective decision making in the development of a novel knowledge translation tool to increase adherence to dietary recommendations among mothers of preschool and school-aged children.

Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study.

Scott Duncan, Julia McPhee, Philip Schluter, Caryn Zinn, Richard Smith, Grant Schofield

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [8:127] (2011)

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Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.

The Logan Healthy Living Program: a cluster randomized trial of a telephone-delivered physical activity and dietary behavior intervention for primary care patients with type 2 diabetes or hypertension from a socially disadvantaged community--rationale, design and recruitment.

Elizabeth Eakin, Marina Reeves, Sheleigh Lawler, Brian Oldenburg, Chris Del Mar, Ken Wilkie, Adele Spencer, Diana Battistutta, Nicholas Graves

Contemporary clinical trials [29:439-54] (2008)

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Physical activity and dietary behavior changes are important to both the primary prevention and secondary management of the majority of our most prevalent chronic conditions (i.e., cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, breast and colon cancer). With over 85% of Australian adults visiting a general practitioner each year, the general practice setting has enormous potential to facilitate wide scale delivery of health behaviour interventions. However, there are also many barriers to delivery in such settings, including lack of time, training, resources and remuneration. Thus there is an important need to evaluate other feasible and effective means of delivering evidence-based physical activity and dietary behaviour programs to patients in primary care, including telephone counseling interventions. Using a cluster randomized design with practice as the unit of randomization, this study evaluated a telephone-delivered intervention for physical activity and dietary change targeting patients with chronic conditions (type 2 diabetes or hypertension) recruited from primary care practices in a socially disadvantaged community in Queensland, Australia. Ten practices were randomly assigned to the telephone intervention or to usual care, and 434 patients were recruited. Patients in intervention practices received a workbook and 18 calls over 12 months. Assessment at baseline, 4-, 12- and 18-months allows for assessment of initial change and maintenance of primary outcomes (physical activity and dietary behavior change) and secondary outcomes (quality of life, cost-effectiveness, support for health behavior change). This effectiveness trial adds to the currently limited number of telephone-delivered intervention studies targeting both physical activity and dietary change. It also addresses some of the shortcomings of previous trials by targeting patients from a disadvantaged community, and by including detailed reporting on participant representativeness, intervention implementation and cost-effectiveness, as well as an evaluation of maintenance of health behavior change.

Talking parents, healthy teens: a worksite-based program for parents to promote adolescent sexual health.

Karen Eastman, Rosalie Corona, Mark Schuster

Preventing chronic disease [3:A126] (2006)

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Parents play an important role in the sexual health of their adolescent children. Based on previous research, formative research, and theories of behavioral change, we developed Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, an intervention designed to help parents improve communication with their adolescent children, promote healthy adolescent sexual development, and reduce adolescent sexual risk behaviors. We conduct the parenting program at worksites to facilitate recruitment and retention of participants. The program consists of 8 weekly 1-hour sessions during the lunch hour. In this article, we review the literature that identifies parental influences on adolescent sexual behavior, summarize our formative research, present the theoretical framework we used to develop Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, describe the program's components and intervention strategies, and offer recommendations based on our experiences developing the program. By targeting parents at their worksites, this program represents an innovative approach to promoting adolescent sexual health. This article is intended to be helpful to health educators and clinicians designing programs for parents, employers implementing health-related programs, and researchers who may consider designing and evaluating such worksite-based programs.

Gamification for health promotion: systematic review of behaviour change techniques in smartphone apps.

E Edwards, J Lumsden, C Rivas, L Steed, L Edwards, A Thiyagarajan, R Sohanpal, H Caton, C Griffiths, M Munafò, S Taylor, R Walton

BMJ open [6:e012447] (2016)

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Smartphone games that aim to alter health behaviours are common, but there is uncertainty about how to achieve this. We systematically reviewed health apps containing gaming elements analysing their embedded behaviour change techniques. Two trained researchers independently coded apps for behaviour change techniques using a standard taxonomy. We explored associations with user ratings and price. We screened the National Health Service (NHS) Health Apps Library and all top-rated medical, health and wellness and health and fitness apps (defined by Apple and Google Play stores based on revenue and downloads). We included free and paid English language apps using 'gamification' (rewards, prizes, avatars, badges, leaderboards, competitions, levelling-up or health-related challenges). We excluded apps targeting health professionals. 64 of 1680 (4%) health apps included gamification and met inclusion criteria; only 3 of these were in the NHS Library. Behaviour change categories used were: feedback and monitoring (n=60, 94% of apps), reward and threat (n=52, 81%), and goals and planning (n=52, 81%). Individual techniques were: self-monitoring of behaviour (n=55, 86%), non-specific reward (n=49, 82%), social support unspecified (n=48, 75%), non-specific incentive (n=49, 82%) and focus on past success (n=47, 73%). Median number of techniques per app was 14 (range: 5-22). Common combinations were: goal setting, self-monitoring, non-specific reward and non-specific incentive (n=35, 55%); goal setting, self-monitoring and focus on past success (n=33, 52%). There was no correlation between number of techniques and user ratings (p=0.07; rs=0.23) or price (p=0.45; rs=0.10). Few health apps currently employ gamification and there is a wide variation in the use of behaviour change techniques, which may limit potential to improve health outcomes. We found no correlation between user rating (a possible proxy for health benefits) and game content or price. Further research is required to evaluate effective behaviour change techniques and to assess clinical outcomes. CRD42015029841.

A pilot study evaluating a peer led and professional led physical activity intervention with blue-collar employees.

Russ Elbel, Steve Aldana, Don Bloswick, Joseph Lyon

Work (Reading, Mass.) [21:199-210] (2003)

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To measure the effect of a physical activity intervention, based on social cognitive theory, delivered by a peer and a professional leader. Quasi-experimental. Three locations at a large Mid-Western railroad. One hundred and forty-eight skilled labor employees participated: one hundred and twenty completed the study. Self-reported energy expenditure, self-efficacy and stages of change. ANOVA and categorical analysis using rates and proportions were used for evaluation. The peer group had a non-significant short-term increase in energy expenditure of 3%, which returned to baseline post intervention. The professional and control groups showed a non-significant decrease in energy expenditure of 5% and 9%, respectively. The peer (p < 0.002) and professional groups (p < 0.004) showed significant increases in average stages scores. The peer group maintained increases over time (p < 0.001). The peer and professional led groups showed a 54% and 24% increase in the number of employees reporting regular physical activity over time, respectively. The peer group also showed positive trends in self-efficacy. The peer intervention enhanced self-efficacy and self-reported physical activity. A job layoff at the professional led site confounded comparisons between locations. Employees reported high energy expenditure and high BMI values, suggesting that a weight management intervention may be more appropriate and appealing in this population.

An Audit and Feedback Intervention for Reducing Antibiotic Prescribing in General Dental Practice: The RAPiD Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

Paula Elouafkaoui, Linda Young, Rumana Newlands, Eilidh Duncan, Andrew Elders, Jan Clarkson, Craig Ramsay

PLoS medicine [13:e1002115] (2016)

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Dentists prescribe approximately 10% of antibiotics dispensed in UK community pharmacies. Despite clear clinical guidance, dentists often prescribe antibiotics inappropriately. This cluster-randomised controlled trial used routinely collected National Health Service (NHS) dental prescribing and treatment claim data to compare the impact of individualised audit and feedback (A&F) interventions on dentists' antibiotic prescribing rates. All 795 antibiotic prescribing NHS general dental practices in Scotland were included. Practices were randomised to the control (practices = 163; dentists = 567) or A&F intervention group (practices = 632; dentists = 1,999). A&F intervention practices were allocated to one of two A&F groups: (1) individualised graphical A&F comprising a line graph plotting an individual dentist's monthly antibiotic prescribing rate (practices = 316; dentists = 1,001); or (2) individualised graphical A&F plus a written behaviour change message synthesising and reiterating national guidance recommendations for dental antibiotic prescribing (practices = 316; dentists = 998). Intervention practices were also simultaneously randomised to receive A&F: (i) with or without a health board comparator comprising the addition of a line to the graphical A&F plotting the monthly antibiotic prescribing rate of all dentists in the health board; and (ii) delivered at 0 and 6 mo or at 0, 6, and 9 mo, giving a total of eight intervention groups. The primary outcome, measured by the trial statistician who was blinded to allocation, was the total number of antibiotic items dispensed per 100 NHS treatment claims over the 12 mo post-delivery of the baseline A&F. Primary outcome data was available for 152 control practices (dentists = 438) and 609 intervention practices (dentists = 1,550). At baseline, the number of antibiotic items prescribed per 100 NHS treatment claims was 8.3 in the control group and 8.5 in the intervention group. At follow-up, antibiotic prescribing had decreased by 0.4 antibiotic items per 100 NHS treatment claims in control practices and by 1.0 in intervention practices. This represents a significant reduction (-5.7%; 95% CI -10.2% to -1.1%; p = 0.01) in dentists' prescribing rate in the intervention group relative to the control group. Intervention subgroup analyses found a 6.1% reduction in the antibiotic prescribing rate of dentists who had received the written behaviour change message relative to dentists who had not (95% CI -10.4% to -1.9%; p = 0.01). There was no significant between-group difference in the prescribing rate of dentists who received a health board comparator relative to those who did not (-4.3%; 95% CI -8.6% to 0.1%; p = 0.06), nor between dentists who received A&F at 0 and 6 mo relative to those who received A&F at 0, 6, and 9 mo (0.02%; 95% CI -4.2% to 4.2%; p = 0.99). The key limitations relate to the use of routinely collected datasets which did not allow evaluation of any effects on inappropriate prescribing. A&F derived from routinely collected datasets led to a significant reduction in the antibiotic prescribing rate of dentists. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN49204710.

Cancer prevention for working class, multi-ethnic populations through health centers: the healthy directions study.

Karen Emmons, Anne Stoddard, Caitlin Gutheil, Elizabeth Suarez, Rebecca Lobb, Robert Fletcher

Cancer causes & control : CCC [14:727-37] (2003)

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This paper presents the study design and baseline data from Healthy Directions-Health Centers (HCs), a study designed to address social contextual factors in cancer prevention interventions for working class, multi-ethnic populations. This study is part of the Harvard Cancer Prevention Program Project. Ten community HCs were paired and randomly assigned to intervention or control. Patients who resided in low income, multi-ethnic neighborhoods were identified and approached for participation. This study targeted fruit and vegetable consumption, red meat consumption, multi-vitamin intake, and physical activity. The intervention components consisted of: (1) a brief in-person study endorsement from the participant's clinician at a scheduled routine care visit; (2) an initial in-person counseling session with a health advisor; (3) four follow-up telephone counseling sessions; (4) multiple mailings of tailored materials; and (5) linkages to relevant activities in the local community. Fifteen percent of the sample smoked, 86% reported eating fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, 50% reported eating more than the recommended amounts of red meat, 40% did not meet recommended physical activity levels, and 63% did not take a multi-vitamin on a daily basis. Although overall social support was high, participants reported low levels of social norms for the target prevention behaviors. Other social contextual mediators and modifying factors are reported. By examining the relationships between social contextual factors and health behaviors, it may be possible to enhance the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing social inequalities in risk behaviors.

Project PREVENT: a randomized trial to reduce multiple behavioral risk factors for colon cancer.

Karen Emmons, Colleen McBride, Elaine Puleo, Kathryn Pollak, Elizabeth Clipp, Karen Kuntz, Bess Marcus, Melissa Napolitano, Jane Onken, Frank Farraye, Robert Fletcher

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology [14:1453-9] (2005)

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This report examines the outcome data for Project PREVENT, a two-site randomized control trial designed to reduce behavioral risk factors for colorectal cancer among individuals who have been diagnosed with adenomatous colon polyps. The study sample included 1,247 patients with recent diagnosis of adenomatous colorectal polyps. Within 4 weeks following the polypectomy, participants completed a baseline survey by telephone, and were randomized to either Usual Care (UC) or the PREVENT intervention, which was designed to target multiple risk factors. The intervention consisted of a telephone-delivered intervention plus tailored materials, and focused on the six primary behavioral risk factors for colorectal cancer, including red meat consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, multivitamin intake, alcohol, smoking, and physical inactivity. Participation in the PREVENT intervention was associated with a significantly greater reduction in prevalence of multiple risk factors for colorectal cancer compared with UC. Only about one third of UC participants dropped any risk factors during the study period, compared with almost half of the PREVENT participants. PREVENT participants were also significantly more likely to change more than one behavior than UC participants. The PREVENT intervention was effective in helping patients change multiple risk factors. These results provide further support that more comprehensive interventions that move beyond emphasis on a single risk factor are acceptable to patient populations, can result in improvements, and are cost effective.

Impact of school-based vegetable garden and physical activity coordinated health interventions on weight status and weight-related behaviors of ethnically diverse, low-income students: Study design and baseline data of the Texas, Grow! Eat! Go! (TGEG) cluster-randomized controlled trial.

A Evans, N Ranjit, D Hoelscher, C Jovanovic, M Lopez, A McIntosh, M Ory, L Whittlesey, L McKyer, A Kirk, C Smith, C Walton, N Heredia, J Warren

BMC public health [16:973] (2016)

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Coordinated, multi-component school-based interventions can improve health behaviors in children, as well as parents, and impact the weight status of students. By leveraging a unique collaboration between Texas AgriLife Extension (a federal, state and county funded educational outreach organization) and the University of Texas School of Public Health, the Texas Grow! Eat! Go! Study (TGEG) modeled the effectiveness of utilizing existing programs and volunteer infrastructure to disseminate an enhanced Coordinated School Health program. The five-year TGEG study was developed to assess the independent and combined impact of gardening, nutrition and physical activity intervention(s) on the prevalence of healthy eating, physical activity and weight status among low-income elementary students. The purpose of this paper is to report on study design, baseline characteristics, intervention approaches, data collection and baseline data. The study design for the TGEG study consisted of a factorial group randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which 28 schools were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: (1) Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) only (Comparison), (2) CATCH plus school garden intervention [Learn, Grow, Eat & Go! (LGEG)], (3) CATCH plus physical activity intervention [Walk Across Texas (WAT)], and (4) CATCH plus LGEG plus WAT (Combined). The outcome variables include student's weight status, vegetable and sugar sweetened beverage consumption, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Parents were assessed for home environmental variables including availability of certain foods, social support of student health behaviors, parent engagement and behavior modeling. Descriptive data are presented for students (n = 1369) and parents (n = 1206) at baseline. The sample consisted primarily of Hispanic and African American (53 % and 18 %, respectively) and low-income (i.e., 78 % eligible for Free and Reduced Price School Meals program and 43 % food insecure) students. On average, students did not meet national guidelines for vegetable consumption or physical activity. At baseline, no statistical differences for demographic or key outcome variables among the 4 treatment groups were observed. The TGEG study targets a population of students and parents at high risk of obesity and related chronic conditions, utilizing a novel and collaborative approach to program formulation and delivery, and a rigorous, randomized study design.

A multifactorial intervention for frail older people is more than twice as effective among those who are compliant: complier average causal effect analysis of a randomised trial.

Nicola Fairhall, Catherine Sherrington, Ian Cameron, Susan Kurrle, Stephen Lord, Keri Lockwood, Robert Herbert

Journal of physiotherapy [63:40-44] (2017)

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What is the effect of a multifactorial intervention on frailty and mobility in frail older people who comply with their allocated treatment? Secondary analysis of a randomised, controlled trial to derive an estimate of complier average causal effect (CACE) of treatment. A total of 241 frail community-dwelling people aged ≥ 70 years. Intervention participants received a 12-month multidisciplinary intervention targeting frailty, with home exercise as an important component. Control participants received usual care. Primary outcomes were frailty, assessed using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria (range 0 to 5 criteria), and mobility measured using the 12-point Short Physical Performance Battery. Outcomes were assessed 12 months after randomisation. The treating physiotherapist evaluated the amount of treatment received on a 5-point scale. 216 participants (90%) completed the study. The median amount of treatment received was 25 to 50% (range 0 to 100). The CACE (ie, the effect of treatment in participants compliant with allocation) was to reduce frailty by 1.0 frailty criterion (95% CI 0.4 to 1.5) and increase mobility by 3.2 points (95% CI 1.8 to 4.6) at 12 months. The mean CACE was substantially larger than the intention-to-treat effect, which was to reduce frailty by 0.4 frailty criteria (95% CI 0.1 to 0.7) and increase mobility by 1.4 points (95% CI 0.8 to 2.1) at 12 months. Overall, compliance was low in this group of frail people. The effect of the treatment on participants who comply with allocated treatment was substantially greater than the effect of allocation on all trial participants. Australian and New Zealand Trial Registry ANZCTRN12608000250336. [Fairhall N, Sherrington C, Cameron ID, Kurrle SE, Lord SR, Lockwood K, Herbert RD (2016) A multifactorial intervention for frail older people is more than twice as effective among those who are compliant: complier average causal effect analysis of a randomised trial.Journal of Physiotherapy63: 40-44].

Reducing patient delay in Acute Coronary Syndrome (RAPiD): research protocol for a web-based randomized controlled trial examining the effect of a behaviour change intervention.

Barbara Farquharson, Marie Johnston, Karen Smith, Brian Williams, Shaun Treweek, Stephan Dombrowski, Nadine Dougall, Purva Abhyankar

Journal of advanced nursing (2016)

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To evaluate the efficacy of a behaviour change technique-based intervention and compare two possible modes of delivery (text + visual and text-only) with usual care. Patient delay prevents many people from achieving optimal benefit of time-dependent treatments for acute coronary syndrome. Reducing delay would reduce mortality and morbidity, but interventions to change behaviour have had mixed results. Systematic inclusion of behaviour change techniques or a visual mode of delivery might improve the efficacy of interventions. A three-arm web-based, parallel randomized controlled trial of a theory-based intervention. The intervention comprises 12 behaviour change techniques systematically identified following systematic review and a consensus exercise undertaken with behaviour change experts. We aim to recruit n = 177 participants who have experienced acute coronary syndrome in the previous 6 months from a National Health Service Hospital. Consenting participants will be randomly allocated in equal numbers to one of three study groups: i) usual care, ii) usual care plus text-only behaviour change technique-based intervention or iii) usual care plus text + visual behaviour change technique-based intervention. The primary outcome will be the change in intention to phone an ambulance immediately with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome ≥15-minute duration, assessed using two randomized series of eight scenarios representing varied symptoms before and after delivery of the interventions or control condition (usual care). Funding granted January 2014. Positive results changing intentions would lead to a randomized controlled trial of the behaviour change intervention in clinical practice, assessing patient delay in the event of actual symptoms. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02820103.

Jigsaw Puzzles As Cognitive Enrichment (PACE) - the effect of solving jigsaw puzzles on global visuospatial cognition in adults 50 years of age and older: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Patrick Fissler, Olivia Küster, Laura Loy, Daria Laptinskaya, Martin Rosenfelder, Christine AF von Arnim, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa

Trials [18:415] (2017)

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Neurocognitive disorders are an important societal challenge and the need for early prevention is increasingly recognized. Meta-analyses show beneficial effects of cognitive activities on cognition. However, high financial costs, low intrinsic motivation, logistic challenges of group-based activities, or the need to operate digital devices prevent their widespread application in clinical practice. Solving jigsaw puzzles is a cognitive activity without these hindering characteristics, but cognitive effects have not been investigated yet. With this study, we aim to evaluate the effect of solving jigsaw puzzles on visuospatial cognition, daily functioning, and psychological outcomes. The pre-posttest, assessor-blinded study will include 100 cognitively healthy adults 50 years of age or older, who will be randomly assigned to a jigsaw puzzle group or a cognitive health counseling group. Within the 5-week intervention period, participants in the jigsaw puzzle group will engage in 30 days of solving jigsaw puzzles for at least 1 h per day and additionally receive cognitive health counseling. The cognitive health counseling group will receive the same counseling intervention but no jigsaw puzzles. The primary outcome, global visuospatial cognition, will depict the average of the z-standardized performance scores in visuospatial tests of perception, constructional praxis, mental rotation, processing speed, flexibility, working memory, reasoning, and episodic memory. As secondary outcomes, we will assess the eight cognitive abilities, objective and subjective visuospatial daily functioning, psychological well-being, general self-efficacy, and perceived stress. The primary data analysis will be based on mixed-effects models in an intention-to-treat approach. Solving jigsaw puzzles is a low-cost, intrinsically motivating, cognitive leisure activity, which can be executed alone or with others and without the need to operate a digital device. In the case of positive results, these characteristics allow an easy implementation of solving jigsaw puzzles in clinical practice as a way to improve visuospatial functioning. Whether cognitive impairment and loss of independence in everyday functioning might be prevented or delayed in the long run has to be examined in future studies. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02667314 . Registered on 27 January 2016.

Can existing mobile apps support healthier food purchasing behaviour? Content analysis of nutrition content, behaviour change theory and user quality integration.

Sarah-Jane Flaherty, Mary McCarthy, Alan Collins, Fionnuala McAuliffe

Public health nutrition [21:288-298] (2018)

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To assess the quality of nutrition content and the integration of user quality components and behaviour change theory relevant to food purchasing behaviour in a sample of existing mobile apps. Descriptive comparative analysis of eleven mobile apps comprising an assessment of their alignment with existing evidence on nutrition, behaviour change and user quality, and their potential ability to support healthier food purchasing behaviour. Mobile apps freely available for public use in GoogePlay were assessed and scored according to agreed criteria to assess nutrition content quality and integration of behaviour change theory and user quality components. A sample of eleven mobile apps that met predefined inclusion criteria to ensure relevance and good quality. The quality of the nutrition content varied. Improvements to the accuracy and appropriateness of nutrition content are needed to ensure mobile apps support a healthy behaviour change process and are accessible to a wider population. There appears to be a narrow focus towards behaviour change with an overemphasis on behavioural outcomes and a small number of behaviour change techniques, which may limit effectiveness. A significant effort from the user was required to use the mobile apps appropriately which may negatively influence user acceptability and subsequent utilisation. Existing mobile apps may offer a potentially effective approach to supporting healthier food purchasing behaviour but improvements in mobile app design are required to maximise their potential effectiveness. Engagement of mobile app users and nutrition professionals is recommended to support effective design.

A randomised controlled trial and mediation analysis of the 'Healthy Habits', telephone-based dietary intervention for preschool children.

Amanda Fletcher, Luke Wolfenden, Rebecca Wyse, Jenny Bowman, Patrick McElduff, Sarah Duncan

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [10:43] (2013)

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Consumption of non-core foods in childhood is associated with excessive weight gain in childhood. Parents play a vital role in establishing healthy diet behaviours in young children. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a telephone-based intervention in reducing child consumption of non-core foods, and to examine parent and home food environment mediators of change in child consumption. The 'Healthy Habits' trial utilised a clustered randomised controlled design. Parents were recruited from 30 preschools (N=394 participants, mean age 35.2±5.6 years). Parents randomized to the intervention group received four telephone contacts and print materials. Parents allocated to the control condition receive generic print materials only. Non-core food consumption was assessed using a validated child dietary questionnaire at baseline, 2 and 6 months post recruitment in 2010. The intervention was effective in reducing child consumption of non-core foods at 2 months (intention to treat analysis: z=-2.83, p<.01), however this effect was not maintained at 6 months. Structural equation modelling using 2 month data indicated that child access to non-core foods in the home and child feeding strategies mediated the effect of the intervention. The telephone-based intervention shows promise in improving short term dietary behaviour in preschool age children, however further development is needed to sustain the effect in the long-term. Australian Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000820202.

Managing fatigue after cancer treatment: development of RESTORE, a web-based resource to support self-management.

C Foster, L Calman, C Grimmett, M Breckons, P Cotterell, L Yardley, J Joseph, S Hughes, R Jones, C Leonidou, J Armes, L Batehup, J Corner, D Fenlon, E Lennan, C Morris, A Neylon, E Ream, L Turner, A Richardson

Psycho-oncology [24:940-9] (2015)

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The aim of this study is to co-create an evidence-based and theoretically informed web-based intervention (RESTORE) designed to enhance self-efficacy to live with cancer-related fatigue (CRF) following primary cancer treatment. A nine-step process informed the development of the intervention: (1) review of empirical literature; (2) review of existing patient resources; (3) establish theoretical framework; (4) establish design team with expertise in web-based interventions, CRF and people affected by cancer; (5) develop prototype intervention; (6) user testing phase 1; (7) refinement of prototype; (8) user testing phase 2; and (9) develop final intervention. Key stakeholders made a critical contribution at every step of intervention development, and user testing, which involved an iterative process and resulted in the final intervention. The RESTORE intervention has five sessions; sessions 1 and 2 include an introduction to CRF and goal setting. Sessions 3-5 can be tailored to user preference and are designed to cover areas of life where CRF may have an impact: home and work life, personal relationships and emotional adjustment. It is feasible to systematically 'co-create' an evidence-based and theory-driven web-based self-management intervention to support cancer survivors living with the consequences of cancer and its treatment. This is the first account of the development of a web-based intervention to support self-efficacy to manage CRF. An exploratory trial to test the feasibility and acceptability of RESTORE is now warranted.

A randomized controlled trial of Sweet Talk, a text-messaging system to support young people with diabetes.

V Franklin, A Waller, C Pagliari, S Greene

Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association [23:1332-8] (2006)

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To assess Sweet Talk, a text-messaging support system designed to enhance self-efficacy, facilitate uptake of intensive insulin therapy and improve glycaemic control in paediatric patients with Type 1 diabetes. One hundred and twenty-six patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria; Type 1 diabetes for > 1 year, on conventional insulin therapy, aged 8-18 years. Ninety-two patients were randomized to conventional insulin therapy (n = 28), conventional therapy and Sweet Talk (n = 33) or intensive insulin therapy and Sweet Talk (n = 31). Goal-setting at clinic visits was reinforced by daily text-messages from the Sweet Talk software system, containing personalized goal-specific prompts and messages tailored to patients' age, sex and insulin regimen. HbA(1c) did not change in patients on conventional therapy without or with Sweet Talk (10.3 +/- 1.7 vs. 10.1 +/- 1.7%), but improved in patients randomized to intensive therapy and Sweet Talk (9.2 +/- 2.2%, 95% CI -1.9, -0.5, P < 0.001). Sweet Talk was associated with improvement in diabetes self-efficacy (conventional therapy 56.0 +/- 13.7, conventional therapy plus Sweet Talk 62.1 +/- 6.6, 95% CI +2.6, +7.5, P = 0.003) and self-reported adherence (conventional therapy 70.4 +/- 20.0, conventional therapy plus Sweet Talk 77.2 +/- 16.1, 95% CI +0.4, +17.4, P = 0.042). When surveyed, 82% of patients felt that Sweet Talk had improved their diabetes self-management and 90% wanted to continue receiving messages. Sweet Talk was associated with improved self-efficacy and adherence; engaging a classically difficult to reach group of young people. While Sweet Talk alone did not improve glycaemic control, it may have had a role in supporting the introduction of intensive insulin therapy. Scheduled, tailored text messaging offers an innovative means of supporting adolescents with diabetes and could be adapted for other health-care settings and chronic diseases.

A cluster randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of a brief walking intervention delivered in primary care: study protocol.

David French, Stefanie Williams, Susan Michie, Claire Taylor, Ala Szczepura, Nigel Stallard, Jeremy Dale

BMC family practice [12:56] (2011)

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The aim of the present research is to conduct a fully powered explanatory trial to evaluate the efficacy of a brief self-regulation intervention to increase walking. The intervention will be delivered in primary care by practice nurses (PNs) and Healthcare Assistants (HCAs) to patients for whom increasing physical activity is a particular priority. The intervention has previously demonstrated efficacy with a volunteer population, and subsequently went through an iterative process of refinement in primary care, to maximise acceptability to both providers and recipients. This two arm cluster randomised controlled trial set in UK general practices will compare two strategies for increasing walking, assessed by pedometer, over six months. Patients attending practices randomised to the self-regulation intervention arm will receive an intervention consisting of behaviour change techniques designed to increase walking self-efficacy (confidence in ability to perform the behaviour), and to help people translate their "good" intentions into behaviour change by making plans. Patients attending practices randomised to the information provision arm will receive written materials promoting walking, and a short unstructured discussion about increasing their walking.The trial will recruit 20 PN/HCAs (10 per arm), who will be trained by the research team to deliver the self-regulation intervention or information provision control intervention, to 400 patients registered at their practices (20 patients per PN/HCA). This will provide 85% power to detect a mean difference of five minutes/day walking between the self-regulation intervention group and the information provision control group. Secondary outcomes include health services costs, and intervention effects in sub-groups defined by age, ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, and clinical condition. A mediation analysis will investigate the extent to which changes in constructs specified by the Theory of Planned Behaviour lead to changes in objectively assessed walking behaviour. This trial addresses the current lack of evidence for interventions that are effective at increasing walking and that can be offered to patients in primary care. The intervention being evaluated has demonstrated efficacy, and has been through an extensive process of adaptation to ensure acceptability to both provider and recipient, thus optimising fidelity of intervention delivery and treatment receipt. It therefore provides a strong test of the hypothesis that a self-regulation intervention can help primary care patients increase their walking. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN95932902.

Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

Simon French, Sally Green, Denise O'Connor, Joanne McKenzie, Jill Francis, Susan Michie, Rachelle Buchbinder, Peter Schattner, Neil Spike, Jeremy Grimshaw

Implementation science : IS [7:38] (2012)

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There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary framework to guide researchers through a comprehensive intervention development process.

The systematic development of a brief intervention to increase walking in the general public using an "extended theory of planned behavior.

David French, Catherine Darker, Frank Eves, Falko Sniehotta

Journal of physical activity & health [10:940-8] (2013)

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The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been extensively used in predictive studies, but there have been considerably fewer experimental tests of the theory. One reason for this is that the guidance on developing concrete intervention strategies from the abstract theory is vague, and there are few exemplars of how to do this. The aim of this article is to provide such an exemplar. The development of an intervention to increase walking in the general public is described, based on the TPB, extended to include postvolitional processes. Identification of target constructs, elicitation of key salient beliefs underpinning these constructs, selection of appropriate behavior change techniques, and technique refinement. Each step is based on available evidence and consistent with theory. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) was identified as the key determinant of walking intentions, with an "intention-behavior gap" noted. A brief intervention was developed, using techniques to increase PBC by rehearsal of previous successful performance of behavior, along with planning techniques to translate motivation into behavior. This systematic approach taken should provide a model for others. The intervention has demonstrated efficacy in producing large changes in objectively measured walking behavior, in 2 separate evaluations reported elsewhere.

Can Communicating Personalised Disease Risk Promote Healthy Behaviour Change? A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.

David French, Elaine Cameron, Jack Benton, Christi Deaton, Michelle Harvie

Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (2017)

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The assessment and communication of disease risk that is personalised to the individual is widespread in healthcare contexts. Despite several systematic reviews of RCTs, it is unclear under what circumstances that personalised risk estimates promotes change in four key health-related behaviours: smoking, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption. The present research aims to systematically identify, evaluate and synthesise the findings of existing systematic reviews. This systematic review of systematic reviews followed published guidance. A search of four databases and two-stage screening procedure with good reliability identified nine eligible systematic reviews. The nine reviews each included between three and 15 primary studies, containing 36 unique studies. Methods of personalising risk feedback included imaging/visual feedback, genetic testing, and numerical estimation from risk algorithms. The reviews were generally high quality. For a broad range of methods of estimating and communicating risk, the reviews found no evidence that risk information had strong or consistent effects on health-related behaviours. The most promising effects came from interventions using visual or imaging techniques and with smoking cessation and dietary behaviour as outcomes, but with inconsistent results. Few interventions explicitly used theory, few targeted self-efficacy or response efficacy, and a limited range of Behaviour Change Techniques were used. Presenting risk information on its own, even when highly personalised, does not produce strong effects on health-related behaviours or changes which are sustained. Future research in this area should build on the existing knowledge base about increasing the effects of risk communication on behaviour.

Psychosocial mediation of fruit and vegetable consumption in the body and soul effectiveness trial.

Bernard Fuemmeler, Louise Mâsse, Amy Yaroch, Ken Resnicow, Marci Campbell, Carol Carr, Terry Wang, Alexis Williams

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association [25:474-83] (2006)

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In this study the authors examined psychosocial variables as mediators for fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in a clustered, randomized effectiveness trial conducted in African American churches. The study sample included 14 churches (8 intervention and 6 control) with 470 participants from the intervention churches and 285 participants from the control churches. The outcome of FV intake and the proposed mediators were measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Structural equation modeling indicated that the intervention had direct effects on social support, self-efficacy, and autonomous motivation; these variables also had direct effects on FV intake. Applying the M. E. Sobel (1982) formula to test significant mediated effects, the authors confirmed that social support and self-efficacy were significant mediators but that autonomous motivation was not. Social support and self-efficacy partially mediated 20.9% of the total effect of the intervention on changes in FV intake. The results support the use of strategies to increase social support and self-efficacy in dietary intervention programs.

Design of a Mobile App for Nutrition Education (TreC-LifeStyle) and Formative Evaluation With Families of Overweight Children.

Silvia Gabrielli, Marco Dianti, Rosa Maimone, Marta Betta, Lorena Filippi, Monica Ghezzi, Stefano Forti

JMIR mHealth and uHealth [5:e48] (2017)

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Nutrition and diet apps represent today a popular area of mobile health (mHealth), offering the possibility of delivering behavior change (BC) interventions for healthy eating and weight management in a scalable and cost-effective way. However, if commercial apps for pediatric weight management fail to retain users because of a lack of theoretical background and evidence-based content, mHealth apps that are more evidence-based are found less engaging and popular among consumers. Approaching the apps development process from a multidisciplinary and user-centered design (UCD) perspective is likely to help overcome these limitations, raising the chances for an easier adoption and integration of nutrition education apps within primary care interventions. The aim of this study was to describe the design and development of the TreC-LifeStyle nutrition education app and the results of a formative evaluation with families. The design of the nutrition education intervention was based on a multidisciplinary UCD approach, involving a team of BC experts, working with 2 nutritionists and 3 pediatricians from a primary care center. The app content was derived from evidence-based knowledge founded on the Food Pyramid and Mediterranean Diet guidelines used by pediatricians in primary care. A formative evaluation of the TreC-LifeStyle app involved 6 families of overweight children (aged 7-12 years) self-reporting daily food intake of children for 6 weeks and providing feedback on the user experience with the mHealth intervention. Analysis of the app's usage patterns during the intervention and of participants' feedback informed the refinement of the app design and a tuning of the nutrition education strategies to improve user engagement and compliance with the intervention. Design sessions with the contribution of pediatricians and nutritionists helped define the nutrition education app and intervention, providing an effective human and virtual coaching approach to raise parents' awareness about children's eating behavior and lifestyle. The 6 families participating in the pilot study found the app usable and showed high compliance with the intervention over the 6 weeks, but analysis of their interaction and feedback showed the need for improving some of the app features related to the BC techniques "monitoring of the behavior" and "information provision." The UCD and formative evaluation of TreC-LifeStyle show that nutrition education apps are feasible and acceptable solutions to support health promotion interventions in primary care.

How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

Benjamin Gardner, Lee Smith, Fabiana Lorencatto, Mark Hamer, Stuart Biddle

Health psychology review [10:89-112] (2016)

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Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed.

Specifying the content of home-based health behaviour change interventions for older people with frailty or at risk of frailty: an exploratory systematic review.

Benjamin Gardner, Ana Jovicic, Celia Belk, Kalpa Kharicha, Steve Iliffe, Jill Manthorpe, Claire Goodman, Vari Drennan, Kate Walters

BMJ open [7:e014127] (2017)

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To identify trials of home-based health behaviour change interventions for frail older people, describe intervention content and explore its potential contribution to intervention effects. 15 bibliographic databases, and reference lists and citations of key papers, were searched for randomised controlled trials of home-based behavioural interventions reporting behavioural or health outcomes. Participants' homes. Community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years with frailty or at risk of frailty. Trials were coded for effects on thematically clustered behavioural, health and well-being outcomes. Intervention content was described using 96 behaviour change techniques, and 9 functions (eg, education, environmental restructuring). 19 eligible trials reported 22 interventions. Physical functioning was most commonly assessed (19 interventions). Behavioural outcomes were assessed for only 4 interventions. Effectiveness on most outcomes was limited, with at most 50% of interventions showing potential positive effects on behaviour, and 42% on physical functioning. 3 techniques (instruction on how to perform behaviour, adding objects to environment, restructuring physical environment) and 2 functions (education and enablement) were more commonly found in interventions showing potential than those showing no potential to improve physical function. Intervention content was not linked to effectiveness on other outcomes. Interventions appeared to have greatest impact on physical function where they included behavioural instructions, environmental modification and practical social support. Yet, mechanisms of effects are unclear, because impact on behavioural outcomes has rarely been considered. Moreover, the robustness of our findings is also unclear, because interventions have been poorly reported. Greater engagement with behavioural science is needed when developing and evaluating home-based health interventions. ID=CRD42014010370.

The ReSiT study (reducing sitting time): rationale and protocol for an exploratory pilot study of an intervention to reduce sitting time among office workers.

Benjamin Gardner, Stephen Dewitt, Lee Smith, John Buckley, Stuart Biddle, Louise Mansfield

Pilot and feasibility studies [3:47] (2017)

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Desk-based workers engage in long periods of uninterrupted sitting time, which has been associated with morbidity and premature mortality. Previous workplace intervention trials have demonstrated the potential of providing sit-stand workstations, and of administering motivational behaviour change techniques, for reducing sitting time. Yet, few studies have combined these approaches or explored the acceptability of discrete sitting-reduction behaviour change strategies. This paper describes the rationale for a sitting-reduction intervention that combines sit-stand workstations with motivational techniques, and procedures for a pilot study to explore the acceptability of core intervention components among university office workers. The intervention is based on a theory and evidence-based analysis of why office workers sit, and how best to reduce sitting time. It seeks to enhance motivation and capability, as well as identify opportunities, required to reduce sitting time. Thirty office workers will participate in the pilot study. They will complete an initial awareness-raising monitoring and feedback task and subsequently receive a sit-stand workstation for a 12-week period. They will also select from a 'menu' of behaviour change techniques tailored to self-declared barriers to sitting reduction, effectively co-producing and personally tailoring their intervention. Interviews at 1, 6, and 12 weeks post-intervention will explore intervention acceptability. To our knowledge, this will be the first study to explore direct feedback from office workers on the acceptability of discrete tailored sitting-reduction intervention components that they have received. Participants' choice of and reflections on intervention techniques will aid identification of strategies suitable for inclusion in the next iteration of the intervention, which will be delivered in a self-administered format to minimise resource burden. ISRCTN29395780 (registered 21 November 2016).

Using a combined protection motivation theory and health action process approach intervention to promote exercise during pregnancy.

A Gaston, H Prapavessis

Journal of behavioral medicine [37:173-84] (2014)

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Despite the benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many expectant mothers are inactive. This study examined whether augmenting a protection motivation theory (PMT) intervention with a Health Action Process Approach can enhance exercise behavior change among pregnant women. Sixty inactive pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: PMT-only, PMT + action-planning, and PMT + action-and-coping-planning. Week-long objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) exercise measures were collected at baseline, and at 1- and 4-weeks post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that while all participants reported increased exercise from baseline to 1-week post-intervention, participants in both planning groups were significantly more active (p < .001) than those in the PMT-only group by 4-weeks post-intervention (η (2) = .13 and .15 for accelerometer and self-report data, respectively). In conclusion, augmenting a PMT intervention with action or action-and-coping-planning can enhance exercise behavior change in pregnant women.

Evaluating personal alcohol feedback as a selective prevention for college students with depressed mood.

Irene Markman Geisner, Clayton Neighbors, Christine Lee, Mary Larimer

Addictive behaviors [32:2776-87] (2007)

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This research evaluated a brief mailed intervention for alcohol use as an adjunct to a brief treatment for college students with depression symptoms. The intervention aimed to correct normative misperceptions and reduce students' drinking and related consequences. One hundred seventy seven college students (70% Female) with elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention were mailed feedback and information detailing their reported alcohol use, moderation strategies, and accurate normative information regarding student drinking. Results indicated no main effects of the intervention on drinking or related problems but students receiving feedback showed significant reductions in their perception of drinking norms compared to the control group. Furthermore, students whose normative perceptions reduced showed significant reductions in total drinks per week and total alcohol related problems compared to those whose norms did not reduce. Results support the importance of correcting normative perceptions and provide direction for selective prevention of alcohol use and related problems among college students with depressed mood.

A Brief Self-Regulatory Intervention Increases Dental Flossing in Adolescent Girls.

Maryam Gholami, Nina Knoll, Ralf Schwarzer

International journal of behavioral medicine [22:645-51] (2015)

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Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss are a considerable public health problem. A review of the epidemiological data from many countries indicates that a global increase in dental caries prevalence affects children as well as adults. Despite the improvement in oral health of children in the last few decades, tooth decay remains one of the most common childhood diseases in both industrialized and developing countries. The study evaluates the effects of a self-regulatory intervention to increase dental flossing among adolescents and examines the mediating mechanisms underlying behavioral changes. A cluster randomized controlled trial compared a brief intervention arm with a control arm in 166 girls aged 11-15 years. Planning, self-efficacy, and behavioral intention were specified as mediators between treatment conditions and follow-up dental flossing frequency. At baseline, the intervention group received theory-guided materials on oral hygiene. Four weeks later, changes in behavior and social-cognitive variables were assessed. The brief self-regulatory intervention led to an increase in dental flossing and social-cognitive constructs. A sequential mediator model was identified in which first changes in intention and afterwards changes in self-efficacy mediated between treatment conditions and behavioral outcomes. Intention formation and self-efficacy seem to play an instrumental role in the mechanism that facilitates dental flossing among adolescent girls. Oral self-care interventions should consider the application of intention formation strategies combined with building confidence in one's ability to adhere to the regimen.

Evaluation of a theory of planned behaviour-based breastfeeding intervention in Northern Irish schools using a randomized cluster design.

Melanie Giles, Carol McClenahan, Cherie Armour, Samantha Millar, Gordon Rae, John Mallett, Barbara Stewart-Knox

British journal of health psychology [19:16-35] (2014)

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The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention designed to enhance young people's motivations to breastfeed. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 50 post-primary schools from across Northern Ireland. However, dropout and exclusion criteria utilized for the current study resulted in an effective sample size of 42 schools. The intervention was delivered in two 35-min classroom sessions targeting those beliefs identified by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as significant in predicting motivation to breastfeed. Questionnaires incorporating the key components of the TPB were administered to all intervention and control schools at baseline, 1 and 6 months post-intervention. Multi-level modelling was used to analyse the data. Findings suggest that the intervention was effective in that it increased females' intentions to breastfeed, expanded their knowledge and led to more favourable attitudes and perceptions of subjective norms. Notably, females' knowledge increased more in secondary schools than in grammar schools irrespective of whether they were control or intervention schools. The research has provided evidence to support the use of the TPB in the design and evaluation of an intervention to increase females' intentions to breastfeed.

Train the trainer? A randomized controlled trial of a multi-tiered oral health education programme in community-based residential services for adults with intellectual disability.

Giolla Mac, Caoimhin Phadraig, Suzanne Guerin, June Nunn

Community dentistry and oral epidemiology [41:182-92] (2013)

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To assess the impact of a multi-tiered oral health education programme on care staff caring for people with intellectual disability (ID). Postal questionnaires were sent to all care staff of a community-based residential care service for adults, randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. A specifically developed training programme was delivered to residential staff nominees, who then trained all staff within the intervention group. The control group received no training. Post-test questionnaires were sent to both groups. Paired-samples t-test was used to compare oral health-related knowledge (K) and behaviour, attitude and self-efficacy (BAS) scores. Of the initial 219 respondents, 154 (response rate between 40% and 35.8%, with attrition rate of 29.7% from baseline to repeat) returned completed questionnaires at post-test (M=8.5 months, range=6.5-11 months). Control and intervention groups were comparable for general training, employment and demographic variables. In the intervention group, mean Knowledge Index score rose from K=7.2 to K=7.9 (P<0.001) and mean BAS scale score rose from BAS=4.7 to BAS=5.4 (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant increase in mean scores from test (K=7.0, BAS=4.7) to post-test (K=7.2, BAS=4.9) for the control group. Mean scores regarding knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and reported behaviour increased significantly at 8.5 months in staff where training was provided. The results indicate that a multi-tiered training programme improved knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and reported behaviour amongst staff caring for people with ID.

The D-Net diabetes self-management program: long-term implementation, outcomes, and generalization results.

Russell Glasgow, Shawn Boles, H Garth McKay, Edward Feil, Manuel Barrera

Preventive medicine [36:410-9] (2003)

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A prerequisite to translating research findings into practice is information on consistency of implementation, maintenance of results, and generalization of effects. This follow-up report is one of the few experimental studies to provide such information on Internet-based health education. We present follow-up data 10 months following randomization on the "Diabetes Network (D-Net)" Internet-based self-management project, a randomized trial evaluating the incremental effects of adding (1) tailored self-management training or (2) peer support components to a basic Internet-based, information-focused comparison intervention. Participants were 320 adult type 2 diabetes patients from participating primary care offices, mean age 59 (SD = 9.2), who were relatively novice Internet users. All intervention components were consistently implemented by staff, but participant website usage decreased over time. All conditions were significantly improved from baseline on behavioral, psychosocial, and some biological outcomes; and there were few differences between conditions. Results were robust across on-line coaches, patient characteristics, and participating clinics. The basic D-Net intervention was implemented well and improvements were observed across a variety of patients, interventionists, and clinics. There were, however, difficulties in maintaining usage over time and additions of tailored self-management and peer support components generally did not significantly improve results.

Self-monitoring of physical activity: effects on self-efficacy and behavior in people with type 2 diabetes.

JM Gleeson-Kreig

The Diabetes educator [32:69-77] ()

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The purpose of this study was to test the effect of keeping daily activity records on physical activity levels and self-efficacy for physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes, and to examine the feasibility and acceptability of this intervention from the perspective of the participants. This intervention study included 58 individuals with type 2 diabetes aged 40 to 65 years. Participants were randomly assigned: individuals in the intervention group kept daily activity records for 6 weeks, mailed to the researcher every 2 weeks. Data collection was completed at the beginning of the study and 6 weeks later, using the habitual physical activity index and the self-efficacy for exercise scale. Participants in the intervention group also completed the perceived feasibility checklist. The intervention resulted in enhanced self-efficacy. Physical activity improved in both the intervention and control groups. Activity recording was judged to be acceptable and feasible. Daily activity recording can be used as part of a program to increase physical activity self-efficacy levels. Focused interactions between health care providers and patients may be enough to motivate people to higher levels of physical activity. The relationship between self-efficacy and behavior is complex and should be the subject of further research.

SafeTalk, a multicomponent, motivational interviewing-based, safer sex counseling program for people living with HIV/AIDS: a qualitative assessment of patients' views.

Carol Golin, Rebecca Davis, Sarahmona M Przybyla, Beth Fowler, Sharon Parker, Jo Anne Earp, E Byrd Quinlivan, Seth Kalichman, Shilpa Patel, Catherine Grodensky

AIDS patient care and STDs [24:237-45] (2010)

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With the continued transmission of HIV each year, novel approaches to HIV prevention are needed. Since 2003, the U.S. HIV prevention focus has shifted from primarily targeting HIV-negative at-risk persons to including safer sex programs for people already infected with HIV. At least 20-30% of people infected with HIV engage in risky sexual practices. Based on these data, policymakers have recommended that interventionists develop strategies to help HIV-infected people reduce their risky sexual behaviors. In the past, the few safer sex interventions that targeted HIV-infected people met with limited success because they basically adapted strategies previously used with HIV-uninfected individuals. In addition, often these adaptations did not address issues of serostatus disclosure, HIV stigma, or motivation to protect others from HIV. We had previously tested, in a demonstration project named the Start Talking About Risks (STAR) Program, a monthly three-session motivational interviewing (MI)-based intervention to help people living with HIV practice safer sex. In this study, we refined that program by enhancing its frequency and intensity and adding written and audio components to support the counseling. We theorized that an intervention such as MI, which is tailored to each individual's circumstances more than standardized prevention messages, would be more successful when supplemented with other components. We qualitatively assessed participants' perceptions, reactions, and preferences to the refined prevention with positives counseling program we called SafeTalk and learned that participants found the SafeTalk MI counseling and educational materials appealing, understandable, and relevant to their lives.

Development of an open-source web-based intervention for Brazilian smokers - Viva sem Tabaco.

H Gomide, H Bernardino, K Richter, L Martins, T Ronzani

BMC medical informatics and decision making [16:103] (2016)

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Web-based interventions for smoking cessation available in Portuguese do not adhere to evidence-based treatment guidelines. Besides, all existing web-based interventions are built on proprietary platforms that developing countries often cannot afford. We aimed to describe the development of "Viva sem Tabaco", an open-source web-based intervention. The development of the intervention included the selection of content from evidence-based guidelines for smoking cessation, the design of the first layout, conduction of 2 focus groups to identify potential features, refinement of the layout based on focus groups and correction of content based on feedback provided by specialists on smoking cessation. At the end, we released the source-code and intervention on the Internet and translated it into Spanish and English. The intervention developed fills gaps in the information available in Portuguese and the lack of open-source interventions for smoking cessation. The open-source licensing format and its translation system may help researchers from different countries deploying evidence-based interventions for smoking cessation.

Designing an implementation intervention with the Behaviour Change Wheel for health provider smoking cessation care for Australian Indigenous pregnant women.

Gillian Gould, Yael Bar-Zeev, Michelle Bovill, Lou Atkins, Maree Gruppetta, Marilyn Clarke, Billie Bonevski

Implementation science : IS [12:114] (2017)

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Indigenous smoking rates are up to 80% among pregnant women: prevalence among pregnant Australian Indigenous women was 45% in 2014, contributing significantly to the health gap for Indigenous Australians. We aimed to develop an implementation intervention to improve smoking cessation care (SCC) for pregnant Indigenous smokers, an outcome to be achieved by training health providers at Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS) in a culturally competent approach, developed collaboratively with AMS. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW), incorporating the COM-B model (capability, opportunity and motivation for behavioural interventions), provided a framework for the development of the Indigenous Counselling and Nicotine (ICAN) QUIT in Pregnancy implementation intervention at provider and patient levels. We identified evidence-practice gaps through (i) systematic literature reviews, (ii) a national survey of clinicians and (iii) a qualitative study of smoking and quitting with Aboriginal mothers. We followed the three stages recommended in Michie et al.'s "Behaviour Change Wheel" guide. Targets identified for health provider behaviour change included the following: capability (psychological capability, knowledge and skills) by training clinicians in pharmacotherapy to assist women to quit; motivation (optimism) by presenting evidence of effectiveness, and positive testimonials from patients and clinicians; and opportunity (environmental context and resources) by promoting a whole-of-service approach and structuring consultations using a flipchart and prompts. Education and training were selected as the main intervention functions. For health providers, the delivery mode was webinar, to accommodate time and location constraints, bringing the training to the services; for patients, face-to-face consultations were supported by a booklet embedded with videos to improve patients' capability, opportunity and motivation. The ICAN QUIT in Pregnancy was an intervention to train health providers at Aboriginal Medical Services in how to implement culturally competent evidence-based practice including counselling and nicotine replacement therapy for pregnant patients who smoke. The BCW aided in scientifically and systematically informing this targeted implementation intervention based on the identified gaps in SCC by health providers. Multiple factors impact at systemic, provider, community and individual levels. This process was therefore important for defining the design and intervention components, prior to a conducting a pilot feasibility trial, then leading on to a full clinical trial.

Motivational interviewing as a way to promote physical activity in obese adolescents: a randomised-controlled trial using self-determination theory as an explanatory framework.

Mathieu Gourlan, Philippe Sarrazin, David Trouilloud

Psychology & health [28:1265-86] (2013)

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Using self-determination theory (SDT) as an explanatory framework, this randomised-controlled study evaluates the effect of a motivational interviewing (MI)-based intervention as an addition to a standard weight loss programme (SWLP) on physical activity (PA) practice in obese adolescents over a six-month period. Fifty-four obese adolescents (mean age = 13 years, mean BMI = 29.57 kg/m²) were randomly assigned to an SWLP group (n = 28) or SWLP + MI group (n = 26). Both groups received two SWLP sessions, supplemented for the SWLP + MI group, by six MI sessions. Perceived autonomy support, perceived competence, motivational regulations, PA and BMI were assessed at baseline, three and six months (i.e. the end of the programme). MLM analyses revealed that compared to SWLP, the SWLP + MI group had a greater BMI decrease and a greater PA practice increase over time. Moreover, the SWLP + MI group reported greater autonomy support from medical staff at the end of the programme, greater increase in integrated and identified regulations and a stronger decrease in amotivation. MI appears as an efficient counselling method as an addition to an SWLP to promote PA in the context of pediatric obesity.

Swallowing interventions for the treatment of dysphagia after head and neck cancer: a systematic review of behavioural strategies used to promote patient adherence to swallowing exercises.

Roganie Govender, Christina Smith, Stuart Taylor, Helen Barratt, Benjamin Gardner

BMC cancer [17:43] (2017)

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Dysphagia is a significant side-effect following treatment for head and neck cancers, yet poor adherence to swallowing exercises is frequently reported in intervention studies. Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) can be used to improve adherence, but no review to date has described the techniques or indicated which may be more associated with improved swallowing outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to identify behavioural strategies in swallowing interventions, and to explore any relationships between these strategies and intervention effects. Randomised and quasi-randomised studies of head and neck cancer patients were included. Behavioural interventions to improve swallowing were eligible provided a valid measure of swallowing function was reported. A validated and comprehensive list of 93 discrete BCTs was used to code interventions. Analysis was conducted via a structured synthesis approach. Fifteen studies (8 randomised) were included, and 20 different BCTs were each identified in at least one intervention. The BCTs identified in almost all interventions were: instruction on how to perform the behavior, setting behavioural goals and action planning. The BCTs that occurred more frequently in effective interventions, were: practical social support, behavioural practice, self-monitoring of behaviour and credible source for example a skilled clinician delivering the intervention. The presence of identical BCTs in comparator groups may diminish effects. Swallowing interventions feature multiple components that may potentially impact outcomes. This review maps the behavioural components of reported interventions and provides a method to consistently describe these components going forward. Future work may seek to test the most effective BCTs, to inform optimisation of swallowing interventions.

Using intervention mapping to develop a home-based parental-supervised toothbrushing intervention for young children.

K Gray-Burrows, P Day, Z Marshman, E Aliakbari, S Prady, R McEachan

Implementation science : IS [11:61] (2016)

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Dental caries in young children is a major public health problem impacting on the child and their family in terms of pain, infection and substantial financial burden on healthcare funders. In the UK, national guidance on the prevention of dental caries advises parents to supervise their child's brushing with fluoride toothpaste until age 7. However, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to encourage this practice in parents. The current study used intervention mapping (IM) to develop a home-based parental-supervised toothbrushing intervention to reduce dental caries in young children. The intervention was developed using the six key stages of the IM protocol: (1) needs assessment, including a systematic review, qualitative interviews, and meetings with a multi-disciplinary intervention development group; (2) identification of outcomes and change objectives following identification of the barriers to parental-supervised toothbrushing (PSB), mapped alongside psychological determinants outlined in the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF); (3) selection of methods and practical strategies; (4) production of a programme plan; (5) adoption and implementation and (6) Evaluation. The comprehensive needs assessment highlighted key barriers to PSB, such as knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, routine setting and behaviour regulation and underlined the importance of individual, social and structural influences. Parenting skills (routine setting and the ability to manage the behaviour of a reluctant child) were emphasised as critical to the success of PSB. The multi-disciplinary intervention development group highlighted the need for both universal and targeted programmes, which could be implemented within current provision. Two intervention pathways were developed: a lower cost universal pathway utilising an existing national programme and an intensive targeted programme delivered via existing parenting programmes. A training manual was created to accompany each intervention to ensure knowledge and standardise implementation procedures. PSB is a complex behaviour and requires intervention across individual, social and structural levels. IM, although a time-consuming process, allowed us to capture this complexity and allowed us to develop two community-based intervention pathways covering both universal and targeted approaches, which can be integrated into current provision. Further research is needed to evaluate the acceptability and sustainability of these interventions.

A systematic review of techniques and effects of self-help interventions for tinnitus: Application of taxonomies from health psychology.

Kate Greenwell, Magdalena Sereda, Neil Coulson, Refaie Amr El, Derek Hoare

International journal of audiology (2016)

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Self-help interventions are followed by people independently with minimal or no therapist contact. This review aims to assess the effectiveness of self-help interventions for adults with chronic tinnitus and systematically identify the self-help techniques used. Systematic review and application of health psychology taxonomies. Electronic database searches were conducted, supplemented by citation searching and hand-searching of key journals. Prospective controlled trials, which used measures of tinnitus distress, functional management, anxiety, depression, and quality of life, were included. Michie et al's behaviour change techniques (BCTs) taxonomy and Taylor et al's PRISMS taxonomy of self-management components were applied to describe interventions. Five studies were included, providing low-to-moderate levels of evidence. Randomized controlled trial studies were too few and heterogeneous for meta-analysis to be performed. Studies comparing self-help interventions to therapist-guided interventions and assessing non tinnitus-specific psychosocial outcomes and functional management were lacking. Fifteen BCTs and eight self-management components were identified across interventions. A lack of high-quality and homogeneous studies meant that confident conclusions could not be drawn regarding the efficacy of self-help interventions for tinnitus. Better reporting and categorization of intervention techniques is needed for replication in research and practice and to facilitate understanding of intervention mechanisms.

The impact of self-efficacy and implementation intentions-based interventions on fruit and vegetable intake among adults.

Laurence Guillaumie, Gaston Godin, Jean-Claude Manderscheid, Elisabeth Spitz, Laurent Muller

Psychology & health [27:30-50] (2012)

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This study tested the effect of interventions designed for people who do not eat yet the recommended daily fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) but have a positive intention to do so. Adults (N = 163) aged 20-65 were randomised into four groups: implementation intentions (II group), self-efficacy (SE group), combination of II + SE group) and a control group receiving written information on nutrition. Study variables were measured at baseline, post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. At follow-up, compared to the control group, FVI increased significantly in the II and II + SE groups (1.5 and 1.9 servings per day, respectively). Most psychosocial variables significantly increased compared to the control group, with the exception of SE for vegetable intake (VI). Moreover, at 3-month follow-up, change in FVI was mediated by changes in fruit intake (FI) intention and VI action planning. In conclusion, II interventions were efficient to increase FVI, with or without consideration for the development of SE. Thus, future studies should favour the adoption of this approach to bridge the intention-behaviour gap for FVI.

A process evaluation of a Psychomotor Dance Therapy Intervention (DANCIN) for behavior change in dementia: attitudes and beliefs of participating residents and staff.

Azucena Guzmán, Lisa Robinson, Lynn Rochester, Ian James, Julian Hughes

International psychogeriatrics (2016)

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In a previous paper, we presented results from a 12-week study of a Psychomotor DANCe Therapy INtervention (DANCIN) based on Danzón Latin Ballroom that involves motor, emotional-affective, and cognitive domains, using a multiple-baseline single-case design in three care homes. This paper reports the results of a complementary process evaluation to elicit the attitudes and beliefs of home care staff, participating residents, and family members with the aim of refining the content of DANCIN in dementia care. An external researcher collected bespoke questionnaires from ten participating residents, 32 care home staff, and three participants' family members who provided impromptu feedback in one of the care homes. The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1) provided a methodological tool for identifying active components of the DANCIN approach warranting further exploration, development, and implementation. Ten residents found DANCIN beneficial in terms of mood and socialization in the care home. Overall, 78% of the staff thought DANCIN led to improvements in residents' mood; 75% agreed that there were improvements in behavior; 56% reported increased job satisfaction; 78% of staff were enthusiastic about receiving further training. Based on participants' responses, four BCTTv1 labels-Social support (emotional), Focus on past success and verbal persuasion to boost self-efficacy, Restructuring the social environment and Habit formation-were identified to describe the intervention. Residents and staff recommended including additional musical genres and extending the session length. Discussions of implementing a supervision system to sustain DANCIN regularly regardless of management or staff turnover were suggested. Care home residents with mild to moderate dementia wanted to continue DANCIN as part of their routine care and staff and family members were largely supportive of this approach. This study argues in favor of further dissemination of DANCIN in care homes. We provide recommendations for the future development of DANCIN based on the views of key stakeholder groups.

An intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in undergraduate students using implementation intentions and mental simulations: a cross-national study.

Martin Hagger, Adam Lonsdale, Andre Koka, Vello Hein, Heidi Pasi, Taru Lintunen, Nikos Chatzisarantis

International journal of behavioral medicine [19:82-96] (2012)

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Excessive alcohol consumption has been linked to deleterious health consequences among undergraduate students. There is a need to develop theory-based and cost-effective brief interventions to attenuate alcohol consumption in this population. The present study tested the effectiveness of an integrated theory-based intervention in reducing undergraduates' alcohol consumption in excess of guideline limits in national samples from Estonia, Finland, and the UK. A 2 (volitional: implementation intention vs. no implementation intention) × 2 (motivation: mental simulation vs. no mental simulation) × 3 (nationality: Estonia vs. Finland vs. UK) randomized-controlled design was adopted. Participants completed baseline psychological measures and self-reported number of alcohol units consumed and binge-drinking frequency followed by the intervention manipulation. One month later, participants completed follow-up measures of the psychological variables and alcohol consumption. Results revealed main effects for implementation intention and nationality on units of alcohol consumed at follow-up and an implementation intention × nationality interaction. Alcohol consumption was significantly reduced in the implementation intention condition for the Estonian and UK samples. There was a significant main effect for nationality and an implementation intention × nationality interaction on binge-drinking frequency. Follow-up tests revealed significant reductions in binge-drinking occasions in the implementation intention group for the UK sample only. Results support the implementation intention component of the intervention in reducing alcohol drinking in excess of guideline limits among Estonian and UK undergraduates. There was no support for the motivational intervention or the interaction between the strategies. Results are discussed with respect to intervention design based on motivational and volitional approaches.

The role of self-regulating abilities in long-term weight loss in severely obese children and adolescents undergoing intensive combined lifestyle interventions (HELIOS); rationale, design and methods.

Jutka Halberstadt, Sabine Makkes, Emely de Vet, Anita Jansen, Chantal Nederkoorn, Olga Hvan der Baan-Slootweg, Jacob Seidell

BMC pediatrics [13:41] (2013)

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Adequate treatment of severe childhood obesity is important given its serious social, psychological and physical consequences. Self-regulation may be a crucial determinant of treatment success. Yet, little is known about the role that self-regulation and other psychosocial factors play in the long-term outcome of obesity treatment in severely obese children and adolescents.In this paper, we describe the design of a study that aims to determine whether the ability to self-regulate predicts long-term weight loss in severely obese children and adolescents. An additional objective is to identify other psychosocial factors that may modify this relation. The study is designed as a prospective observational study of 120 severely obese children and adolescents (8-19 years) and their parents/caregivers undergoing an intensive combined lifestyle intervention during one year. The intervention uses behavior change techniques to improve the general ability to self-regulate.Measurements will be taken at three points in time: at baseline (start of treatment), at the end of treatment (1 year after baseline) and at follow-up (2 years after baseline). The primary outcome measurement is the gender and age-specific change in SDS-BMI.The children's general self-regulation abilities are evaluated by two behavioral computer tasks assessing two distinct aspects of self-regulation that are particularly relevant to controlling food intake: inhibitory control (Stop Signal Task) and sensitivity to reward (Balloon Analogue Risk Task). In addition to the computer tasks, a self-report measure of eating-specific self-regulation ability is used. Psychosocial factors related to competence, motivation, relatedness and outcome expectations are examined as moderating factors using several questionnaires for the patients and their parents/caregivers. This study will provide knowledge about the relation between self-regulation and long-term weight loss after intensive lifestyle interventions over a two-year period in severely obese children and adolescents, a growing but often overlooked patient group. We aim to investigate to what extent (changes in) the general ability to self-regulate predicts weight loss and weight loss maintenance. This study will also contribute to the knowledge on how this association is modified by other psychosocial factors. The results may contribute to the development of more successful interventions. Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1678, registered 20-Feb-2009).

Provision of social norm feedback to high prescribers of antibiotics in general practice: a pragmatic national randomised controlled trial.

Michael Hallsworth, Tim Chadborn, Anna Sallis, Michael Sanders, Daniel Berry, Felix Greaves, Lara Clements, Sally Davies

Lancet (London, England) [387:1743-52] (2016)

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Unnecessary antibiotic prescribing contributes to antimicrobial resistance. In this trial, we aimed to reduce unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics by general practitioners (GPs) in England. In this randomised, 2 × 2 factorial trial, publicly available databases were used to identify GP practices whose prescribing rate for antibiotics was in the top 20% for their National Health Service (NHS) Local Area Team. Eligible practices were randomly assigned (1:1) into two groups by computer-generated allocation sequence, stratified by NHS Local Area Team. Participants, but not investigators, were blinded to group assignment. On Sept 29, 2014, every GP in the feedback intervention group was sent a letter from England's Chief Medical Officer and a leaflet on antibiotics for use with patients. The letter stated that the practice was prescribing antibiotics at a higher rate than 80% of practices in its NHS Local Area Team. GPs in the control group received no communication. The sample was re-randomised into two groups, and in December, 2014, GP practices were either sent patient-focused information that promoted reduced use of antibiotics or received no communication. The primary outcome measure was the rate of antibiotic items dispensed per 1000 weighted population, controlling for past prescribing. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN32349954, and has been completed. Between Sept 8 and Sept 26, 2014, we recruited and assigned 1581 GP practices to feedback intervention (n=791) or control (n=790) groups. Letters were sent to 3227 GPs in the intervention group. Between October, 2014, and March, 2015, the rate of antibiotic items dispensed per 1000 population was 126.98 (95% CI 125.68-128.27) in the feedback intervention group and 131.25 (130.33-132.16) in the control group, a difference of 4.27 (3.3%; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.967 [95% CI 0.957-0.977]; p<0.0001), representing an estimated 73,406 fewer antibiotic items dispensed. In December, 2014, GP practices were re-assigned to patient-focused intervention (n=777) or control (n=804) groups. The patient-focused intervention did not significantly affect the primary outcome measure between December, 2014, and March, 2015 (antibiotic items dispensed per 1000 population: 135.00 [95% CI 133.77-136.22] in the patient-focused intervention group and 133.98 [133.06-134.90] in the control group; IRR for difference between groups 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02; p=0.105). Social norm feedback from a high-profile messenger can substantially reduce antibiotic prescribing at low cost and at national scale; this outcome makes it a worthwhile addition to antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Public Health England.

Behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for men with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

Laura Hallward, Nisha Patel, Lindsay Duncan

Journal of health psychology (2018)

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Physical activity interventions can improve prostate cancer survivors' health. Determining the behaviour change techniques used in physical activity interventions can help elucidate the mechanisms by which an intervention successfully changes behaviour. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors. A total of 7 databases were searched and 15 studies were retained. The studies included a mean 6.87 behaviour change techniques (range = 3-10), and similar behaviour change techniques were implemented in all studies. Consideration of how behaviour change techniques are implemented may help identify how behaviour change techniques enhance physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors.

A crossover trial evaluating an educational-behavioural joint protection programme for people with rheumatoid arthritis.

A Hammond, N Lincoln, L Sutcliffe

Patient education and counseling [37:19-32] (1999)

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Joint protection (JP) is a self-management technique widely taught to people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). JP education aims to enable people with RA to reduce pain, inflammation, joint stress and reduce risks of deformity through using assistive devices and alternative movement patterns of affected joints to perform everyday activities. Previous studies evaluating JP education methods common in the UK have identified JP adherence is poor. A group education programme was developed using the Health Belief Model and Self-efficacy Theory. Strategies used to maximise JP adherence included goal-setting, contracting, modelling, homework programmes, motor learning theory, recall enhancing methods and mental practice. A crossover trial (n = 35) was conducted. Adherence with JP was measured using an objective observational test (the Joint Protection Behaviour Assessment). Significant improvements in use of JP were recorded at 12 and 24 weeks post-education (P < 0.01). No significant changes in measures of pain, functional disability, grip strength, self-efficacy or helplessness occurred post-education, although this may have been due to the small sample size recruited. In conclusion, JP adherence can be facilitated through the use of educational-behavioural strategies, suggesting this approach should be more widely adopted in clinical practice.

MAP-IT: A Practical Tool for Planning Complex Behavior Modification Interventions.

Sylvia Hansen, Martina Kanning, Romy Lauer, Jürgen Steinacker, Wolfgang Schlicht

Health promotion practice (2017)

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Health research often aims to prevent noncommunicable diseases and to improve individual and public health by discovering intervention strategies that are effective in changing behavior and/or environments that are detrimental to one's health. Ideally, findings from original research support practitioners in planning and implementing effective interventions. Unfortunately, interventions often fail to overcome the translational block between science and practice. They often ignore theoretical knowledge, overlook empirical evidence, and underrate the impact of the environment. Accordingly, sustainable changes in individual behavior and/or the environment are difficult to achieve. Developing theory-driven and evidence-based interventions in the real world is a complex task. Existing implementation frameworks and theories often do not meet the needs of health practitioners. The purpose of this article is to synthesize existing frameworks and to provide a tool, the Matrix Assisting Practitioner's Intervention Planning Tool (MAP-IT), that links research to practice and helps practitioners to design multicomponent interventions. In this article, we use physical activity of older adults as an example to explain the rationale of MAP-IT. In MAP-IT, individual as well as environmental mechanisms are listed and behavior change techniques are linked to these mechanisms and to intervention components. MAP-IT is theory-driven and evidence-based. It is time-saving and helpful for practitioners when planning complex interventions.

Implementation of a nurse-led behaviour change intervention to support medication taking in type 2 diabetes: beyond hypothesised active ingredients (SAMS Consultation Study).

Wendy Hardeman, Laura Lamming, Ian Kellar, Anna De Simoni, Jonathan Graffy, Sue Boase, Stephen Sutton, Andrew Farmer, Ann Louise Kinmonth

Implementation science : IS [9:70] (2014)

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Implementation of trial interventions is rarely assessed, despite its effects on findings. We assessed the implementation of a nurse-led intervention to facilitate medication adherence in type 2 diabetes (SAMS) in a trial against standard care in general practice. The intervention increased adherence, but not through the hypothesised psychological mechanism. This study aimed to develop a reliable coding frame for tape-recorded consultations, assessing both a priori hypothesised and potential active ingredients observed during implementation, and to describe the delivery and receipt of intervention and standard care components to understand how the intervention might have worked. 211 patients were randomised to intervention or comparison groups and 194/211 consultations were tape-recorded. Practice nurses delivered standard care to all patients and motivational and action planning (implementation intention) techniques to intervention patients only. The coding frame was developed and piloted iteratively on selected tape recordings until a priori reliability thresholds were achieved. All tape-recorded consultations were coded and a random subsample double-coded. Nurse communication, nurse-patient relationship and patient responses were identified as potential active ingredients over and above the a priori hypothesised techniques. The coding frame proved reliable. Intervention and standard care were clearly differentiated. Nurse protocol adherence was good (M (SD) = 3.95 (0.91)) and competence of intervention delivery moderate (M (SD) = 3.15 (1.01)). Nurses frequently reinforced positive beliefs about taking medication (e.g., 65% for advantages) but rarely prompted problem solving of negative beliefs (e.g., 21% for barriers). Patients' action plans were virtually identical to current routines. Nurses showed significantly less patient-centred communication with the intervention than comparison group. It is feasible to reliably assess the implementation of behaviour change interventions in clinical practice. The main study results could not be explained by poor delivery of motivational and action planning components, definition of new action plans, improved problem solving or patient-centred communication. Possible mechanisms of increased medication adherence include spending more time discussing it and mental rehearsal of successful performance of current routines, combined with action planning. Delivery of a new behaviour change intervention may lead to less patient-centred communication and possible reduction in overall trial effects. ISRCTN30522359.

A user-centred approach to developing bWell, a mobile app for arm and shoulder exercises after breast cancer treatment.

Helena Harder, Patrick Holroyd, Lynn Burkinshaw, Phil Watten, Charles Zammit, Peter Harris, Anna Good, Val Jenkins

Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice (2017)

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The study aim was to develop a mobile application (app) supported by user preferences to optimise self-management of arm and shoulder exercises for upper-limb dysfunction (ULD) after breast cancer treatment. Focus groups with breast cancer patients were held to identify user needs and requirements. Behaviour change techniques were explored by researchers and discussed during the focus groups. Concepts for content were identified by thematic analysis. A rapid review was conducted to inform the exercise programme. Preliminary testing was carried out to obtain user feedback from breast cancer patients who used the app for 8 weeks post surgery. Breast cancer patients' experiences with ULD and exercise advice and routines varied widely. They identified and prioritised several app features: tailored information, video demonstrations of the exercises, push notifications, and tracking and progress features. An evidence-based programme was developed with a physiotherapist with progressive exercises for passive and active mobilisation, stretching and strengthening. The exercise demonstration videos were filmed with a breast cancer patient. Early user testing demonstrated ease of use, and clear and motivating app content. bWell, a novel app for arm and shoulder exercises, was developed by breast cancer patients, health care professionals and academics. Further research is warranted to confirm its clinical effectiveness. Mobile health has great potential to provide patients with information specific to their needs. bWell is a promising way to support breast cancer patients with exercise routines after treatment and may improve future self-management of clinical care.

The effects of an 'exercise and education' programme on exercise self-efficacy and levels of independent activity in adults with acquired neurological pathologies: an exploratory, randomized study.

Jo Haworth, Carolyn Young, Everard Thornton

Clinical rehabilitation [23:371-83] (2009)

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To evaluate the effects of an exercise and education programme on primary outcomes of exercise efficacy and activity levels; and on secondary outcomes including quality of life, mood and physical disability. Randomized, single blind trial. Specialist neurosciences centre. Forty-four patients with acquired neurological pathologies. Twenty-one participants undertook a four-week exercise and education programme alongside standard follow-up care. Twenty-three participants underwent standard follow-up care alone. Primary outcome measures included the Exercise Efficacy Scale and Human Activity Profile. Secondary outcomes were evaluated by the Short Form 36 Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist, Motricity Index, Frenchay Arm Test, Rivermead Mobility Index, 10-metre timed walk and a visual analogue scale. Data were collected at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. At six weeks, significant improvements in exercise efficacy were found following the treatment but not the control (P= 0.001). Moderate improvements in activity levels were noted for both study groups with no between-group differences. Short Form 36 'physical health' and 'general health' domains showed trends towards increased positive change following the intervention, but these did not reach significant levels. Mood, physical impairment and physical disability remained unchanged within either study group. Longer term follow-up revealed that the improvements noted in exercise self-efficacy, activity levels and quality of life were maintained. The intervention resulted in improved exercise efficacy and may positively influence the physical and general health dimensions of health-related quality of life.

Development and delivery of an exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis: strengthening and stretching for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand (SARAH) trial.

PJ Heine, MA Williams, E Williamson, C Bridle, J Adams, A O'Brien, D Evans, SE Lamb

Physiotherapy [98:121-30] (2012)

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This paper describes the development and implementation of a hand exercise intervention for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as part of a large multi-centred randomised controlled trial in a U.K. National Health Service (NHS) setting. Participants are eligible if diagnosed with RA according to American College of Rheumatology criteria, have a history of disease activity, functional deficit or impairment in the hand and/or wrist, and have been on a stable medication regime for at least 3 months. The intervention development was informed by the current evidence base, published guidelines, clinician and expert opinion, and a pilot study. The exercise programme targets known, potentially modifiable physical impairments of the hand with 5 exercise sessions and a home exercise component over a 12 week period. The intervention will be provided to 240 participants along with usual care. A further 240 will receive usual care only as part of the control arm. Specific details of the treatments delivered are described. [ISRCTN no: 89936343].

Effects of health risk assessment and counselling on physical activity in older people: A pragmatic randomised trial.

Anna Herghelegiu, André Moser, Gabriel Ioan Prada, Stephan Born, Matthias Wilhelm, Andreas Stuck

PloS one [12:e0181371] (2017)

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Interventions to increase physical activity (PA) among older community-dwelling adults may be enhanced by using multidimensional health risk assessment (HRA) as a basis for PA counselling. The study was conducted among nondisabled but mostly frail persons 65 years of age and older at an ambulatory geriatric clinic in Bucharest, Romania. From May to July 2014, 200 participants were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Intervention group participants completed an initial HRA questionnaire and then had monthly counselling sessions with a geriatrician over a period of six months that were aimed at increasing low or maintaining higher PA. Counselling also addressed the older persons' concomitant health risks and problems. The primary outcome was PA at six months (November 2014 to February 2015) evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. At baseline, PA levels were similar in intervention and control groups (median 1089.0, and 1053.0 MET [metabolic equivalent of task] minutes per week, interquartile ranges 606.0-1401.7, and 544.5-1512.7 MET minutes per week, respectively). Persons in the intervention group had an average of 11.2 concomitant health problems and risks (e.g., pain, depressive mood, hypertension). At six months, PA increased in the intervention group by a median of 180.0 MET minutes per week (95% confidence interval (CI) 43.4-316.6, p = 0.01) to 1248.8 MET minutes per week. In the control group, PA decreased by a median of 346.5 MET minutes per week (95% CI 178.4-514.6, p<0.001) to 693.0 MET minutes per week due to a seasonal effect, resulting in a difference of 420.0 MET minutes per week (95% CI 212.7-627.3, p< 0.001) between groups. The use of HRA to inform individualized PA counselling is a promising method for achieving improvements in PA, and ultimately health and longevity among large groups of community-dwelling older persons. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN11166046.

Behaviour change techniques in home-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review.

Neil Heron, Frank Kee, Michael Donnelly, Christopher Cardwell, Mark Tully, Margaret Cupples

The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners (2016)

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Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes offering secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) advise healthy lifestyle behaviours, with the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) of goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, and social support recommended. More information is needed about BCT use in home-based CR to support these programmes in practice. To identify and describe the use of BCTs in home-based CR programmes. Randomised controlled trials of home-based CR between 2005 and 2015 were identified by searching MEDLINE(®), Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database. Reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility. Relevant data, including BCTs, were extracted from included studies. A meta-analysis studied risk factor change in home-based and comparator programmes. From 2448 studies identified, 11 of good methodological quality (10 on post-myocardial infarction, one on heart failure, 1907 patients) were included. These reported the use of 20 different BCTs. Social support (unspecified) was used in all studies and goal setting (behaviour) in 10. Of the 11 studies, 10 reported effectiveness in reducing CVD risk factors, but one study showed no improvement compared to usual care. This study differed from effective programmes in that it didn't include BCTs that had instructions on how to perform the behaviour and monitoring, or a credible source. Social support and goal setting were frequently used BCTs in home-based CR programmes, with the BCTs related to monitoring, instruction on how to perform the behaviour, and credible source being included in effective programmes. Further robust trials are needed to determine the relative value of different BCTs within CR programmes.

Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or 'minor' stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes.

Neil Heron, Frank Kee, Christopher Cardwell, Mark Tully, Michael Donnelly, Margaret Cupples

The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners [67:e57-e66] (2017)

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Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or 'minor' stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed.

Can theory-based messages in combination with cognitive prompts promote exercise in classroom settings?

Chloe Hill, Charles Abraham, Daniel Wright

Social science & medicine (1982) [65:1049-58] (2007)

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A randomised control trial evaluated the effectiveness of a theory-based persuasive leaflet designed to encourage students to undertake at least one additional physical exercise session a week. Participants were 503 secondary school students attending a school in South-East England. The leaflet was written to target potentially modifiable cognitive antecedents of exercise specified by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. It was separately augmented with two cognitive change techniques, resulting in three intervention conditions, leaflet alone; leaflet plus motivational quiz, and leaflet plus implementation intention prompt, as well as a no-leaflet control condition. Cognitions and behaviour were measured immediately before and 3 weeks after intervention. The results showed that all three-leaflet interventions significantly increased reported exercise, intention to exercise and related cognitions, compared to the control condition, but did not differ in their impact. Mediation analysis showed that intervention effects on exercise were partially mediated by intentions and perceived behavioural control.

School-based, randomised controlled trial of an evidence-based condom promotion leaflet.

CA Hill, C Abraham

Psychology & health [23:41-56] (2008)

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A condom use promotion leaflet was designed for use with older teenagers in schools. The text targeted a series of cognitive and behavioural antecedents of condom use identified in the literature. Given previous evidence that motivational incentives can enhance the effectiveness of health promotion leaflets, the leaflet was presented in conjunction with a quiz and prize draw. Students were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a (no leaflet or incentive) control condition. Measures were taken immediately, pre-intervention and 4 weeks later from 404 students. The 20-min intervention successfully promoted six of the eight measured cognitions, namely (1) attitude towards using condoms with a new partner (2) attitude towards using condoms with a steady partner (3) normative beliefs in relation to preparatory actions (4) self-efficacy in relation to both preparatory actions and (5) condom use (6) intention to use condoms, as well as three measured preparatory actions, that is, purchasing condoms, carrying condoms and discussing condom use. The intervention did not increase condom use with steady or new partners but power to test intervention impact on condom use was curtailed.

Toward the optimal strategy for sustained weight loss in overweight cancer survivors: a systematic review of the literature.

Meeke Hoedjes, Maartje M van Stralen, Sheena Tjon A Joe, Matti Rookus, Flora van Leeuwen, Susan Michie, Jacob Seidell, Ellen Kampman

Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice (2017)

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To gain more insight into the optimal strategy to achieve weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese cancer survivors after completion of initial treatment, this systematic review aimed to provide an overview of the literature on intervention effects on weight, to describe intervention components used in effective interventions, to identify and synthesize behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and to assess the frequency with which these BCTs were used in effective interventions. Six databases were searched for original research articles describing weight changes in adult overweight cancer survivors after participation in a lifestyle intervention initiated after completion of initial treatment. Two researchers independently screened the retrieved papers and extracted BCTs using the BCT Taxonomy version 1. Thirty-two papers describing 27 interventions were included. Interventions that were evaluated with a robust study design (n = 8) generally showed <5% weight loss and did not evaluate effects at ≥12 months after intervention completion. Effective interventions promoted both diet and physical activity and used the BCTs 'goal setting (behaviour)', 'action planning', 'social support (unspecified)' and 'instruction on how to perform the behaviour'. The results of this first review on intervention components of effective interventions could be used to inform intervention development and showed a need for future publications to report long-term effects, a detailed intervention description and an extensive process evaluation. This study contributed to increasing knowledge on the optimal strategy to achieve weight loss, which is recommended for overweight cancer survivors to improve health outcomes.

Using aversive images to enhance healthy food choices and implicit attitudes: An experimental test of evaluative conditioning.

Gareth Hollands, Andrew Prestwich, Theresa Marteau

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association [30:195-203] (2011)

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To examine the effect of communicating images of energy-dense snack foods paired with aversive images of the potential health consequences of unhealthy eating, on implicit and explicit attitudes and food choice behavior. Participants were randomly allocated to either an evaluative conditioning (EC) procedure that paired images of snack foods with images of potential adverse health consequences or a control condition that featured images of snack foods alone. Implicit attitudes were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Explicit attitudes and food choice behavior were assessed post-intervention. The conditioning intervention made implicit attitudes toward energy-dense snacks more negative, with this effect greatest in those with relatively more favorable implicit attitudes toward these snacks at baseline. Participants in the conditioning intervention were more likely to choose fruit rather than snacks in a behavioral choice task, a relationship mediated by changes in implicit attitudes. Presenting aversive images of potential health consequences with those of specific foodstuffs can change implicit attitudes, which impacts on subsequent food choice behavior.

The effect of brief interventions on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers in a general hospital setting.

Aisha Holloway, Hazel Watson, Antony Arthur, George Starr, Angus McFadyen, Jean McIntosh

Addiction (Abingdon, England) [102:1762-70] (2007)

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(i) To evaluate the effect of receiving one of two brief interventions in reducing alcohol consumption among general hospital patients compared with usual care. (ii) To assess whether a brief intervention of self-efficacy enhancement was superior to a self-help booklet in reducing alcohol consumption. A three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. Seven general medical, six general surgical, one dermatology and two otolaryngology wards of a large teaching hospital covering a large urban and rural area. A total of 215 of 789 in-patients aged 18-75 years, who screened positive for alcohol consumption in excess of national recommended limits according to a 7-day retrospective drinking diary. Participants were allocated to receive one of three interventions: (i) face-to-face self-efficacy enhancement; (ii) a self-help booklet; or (iii) usual care. The primary outcome measure was change in reported alcohol consumption at 6-month follow-up as measured by a 7-day retrospective drinking diary. Secondary outcomes were change in: number of alcohol drinking days in last week; the maximum units of alcohol consumed on any one day in last week; and Drinking Refusal Self-efficacy Expectancy Questionnaire score. Compared to the usual care group the self-efficacy enhancement group (-10.1 units 95% CI -16.1 to -4.1) and the self-help booklet group (-10.0 units 95% CI -16.0 to -3.9) had greater reductions in self-reported weekly alcohol consumption. There was no evidence that self-efficacy enhancement was superior to the self-help booklet (P = 0.96). Brief interventions delivered in hospital offer simple means of helping heavy drinkers to reduce their alcohol consumption.

Social cognitive theory variables mediation of moderate exercise.

B Hortz, RL Petosa

American journal of health behavior [32:305-14] ()

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To identify the degree to which the social cognitive theory constructs targeted by the Planning to Be Active Program (PBA) were mediators of moderate-intensity exercise. High school students in treatment and comparison groups received activity-based physical education. The treatment group also received PBA, which develops self-regulation skills to promote leisure-time exercise. PBA increased self-regulation scores, social situation scores, and moderate-intensity exercise. Self-regulation and social situation mediated moderate-intensity exercise at posttest. As mediators, self-regulation and social situation help explain how PBA produces increases in moderate-intensity exercise.

How effective is community physical activity promotion in areas of deprivation for inactive adults with cardiovascular disease risk and/or mental health concerns? Study protocol for a pragmatic observational evaluation of the 'Active Herts' physical activity programme.

Neil Howlett, Andy Jones, Lucy Bain, Angel Chater

BMJ open [7:e017783] (2017)

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There is a high prevalence of inactive adults in the UK, and many suffer from conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) or poor mental health. These coexist more frequently in areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation. There is a need to test the effectiveness, acceptability and sustainability of physical activity programmes. Active Herts uses novel evidence-based behaviour change techniques to target physical inactivity. Active Herts is a community physical activity programme for inactive adults aged 16+ with one or more risk factors for CVD and/or a mild to moderate mental health condition. This evaluation will follow a mixed-methods longitudinal (baseline, and 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow-ups) design. Pragmatic considerations mean delivery of the programme differs by locality. In two areas programme users will receive a behaviour change technique booklet, regular consultations, a booster phone call, motivational text messages and signposting to 12 weeks of exercise classes. In another two areas programme users will also receive 12 weeks of free tailored exercise classes, with optional exercise 'buddies' available. An outcome evaluation will assess changes in physical activity as the primary outcome, and sporting participation, sitting, well-being, psychological capability and reflective motivation as secondary outcomes. A process evaluation will explore the views of stakeholders, delivery staff and programme leads. Economic evaluation will examine the programme costs against the benefits gained in terms of reduced risk of morbidity. This study was been approved by the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee at the University of East Anglia. Informed written consent will be obtained from programme users in the evaluation. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at conferences, and shared through the study website and local community outlets. ClinicalTrials.gov ID number: NCT03153098.

Developing the content of two behavioural interventions: using theory-based interventions to promote GP management of upper respiratory tract infection without prescribing antibiotics #1.

Susan Hrisos, Martin Eccles, Marie Johnston, Jill Francis, Eileen Kaner, Nick Steen, Jeremy Grimshaw

BMC health services research [8:11] (2008)

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Evidence shows that antibiotics have limited effectiveness in the management of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) yet GPs continue to prescribe antibiotics. Implementation research does not currently provide a strong evidence base to guide the choice of interventions to promote the uptake of such evidence-based practice by health professionals. While systematic reviews demonstrate that interventions to change clinical practice can be effective, heterogeneity between studies hinders generalisation to routine practice. Psychological models of behaviour change that have been used successfully to predict variation in behaviour in the general population can also predict the clinical behaviour of healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to design two theoretically-based interventions to promote the management of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) without prescribing antibiotics. Interventions were developed using a systematic, empirically informed approach in which we: selected theoretical frameworks; identified modifiable behavioural antecedents that predicted GPs intended and actual management of URTI; mapped these target antecedents on to evidence-based behaviour change techniques; and operationalised intervention components in a format suitable for delivery by postal questionnaire. We identified two psychological constructs that predicted GP management of URTI: "Self-efficacy," representing belief in one's capabilities, and "Anticipated consequences," representing beliefs about the consequences of one's actions. Behavioural techniques known to be effective in changing these beliefs were used in the design of two paper-based, interactive interventions. Intervention 1 targeted self-efficacy and required GPs to consider progressively more difficult situations in a "graded task" and to develop an "action plan" of what to do when next presented with one of these situations. Intervention 2 targeted anticipated consequences and required GPs to respond to a "persuasive communication" containing a series of pictures representing the consequences of managing URTI with and without antibiotics. It is feasible to systematically develop theoretically-based interventions to change professional practice. Two interventions were designed that differentially target generalisable constructs predictive of GP management of URTI. Our detailed and scientific rationale for the choice and design of our interventions will provide a basis for understanding any effects identified in their evaluation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00376142.

Long-term impact of Fit and Strong! on older adults with osteoarthritis.

Susan Hughes, Rachel Seymour, Richard Campbell, Gail Huber, Naomi Pollak, Leena Sharma, Pankaja Desai

The Gerontologist [46:801-14] (2006)

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We present final outcomes from the multiple-component Fit and Strong! intervention for older adults with lower extremity osteoarthritis. A randomized controlled trial compared the effects of this exercise and behavior-change program followed by home-based reinforcement (n=115) with a wait list control (n=100) at 2, 6, and 12 months. Fit and Strong! combined flexibility, aerobic walking, and resistance training with education and group problem solving to enhance self-efficacy for exercise and maintenance of physical activity. All participants developed individualized plans for long-term maintenance. Relative to controls, treatment participants experienced statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy for exercise (p=.001), minutes of exercise per week (p=.000), and lower extremity stiffness (p=.018) at 2 months. These benefits were maintained at 6 months and were accompanied by increased self-efficacy for adherence to exercise over time (p=.001), reduced pain (p=.040), and a marginally significant increase in self-efficacy for arthritis pain management (p=.052). Despite a substantially smaller sample size at 12 months, significant treatment-group effects were maintained on self-efficacy for exercise (p=.006) and minutes of exercise per week (p=.001), accompanied by marginally significant reductions in lower extremity stiffness (p=.056) and pain (p=.066). No adverse health effects were seen. Effect sizes for self-efficacy for exercise and for maintenance of physical activity were 0.798 and 0.713, and 0.905 and 0.669, respectively, in the treatment group at 6 and 12 months. This consistent pattern of benefits indicates that this low-cost intervention is efficacious for older adults with lower extremity osteoarthritis.

Using intervention mapping to develop a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain (SOLAS).

Deirdre Hurley, Laura Currie Murphy, David Hayes, Amanda Hall, Elaine Toomey, Suzanne McDonough, Chris Lonsdale, Nicola Walsh, Suzanne Guerin, James Matthews

Implementation science : IS [11:56] (2016)

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The Medical Research Council framework provides a useful general approach to designing and evaluating complex interventions, but does not provide detailed guidance on how to do this and there is little evidence of how this framework is applied in practice. This study describes the use of intervention mapping (IM) in the design of a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self-management (SM) of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) in Ireland's primary care health system. The six steps of the IM protocol were systematically applied to develop the self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain through activity and skills (SOLAS) intervention through adaptation of the Facilitating Activity and Self-management in Arthritis (FASA) intervention. A needs assessment including literature reviews, interviews with patients and physiotherapists and resource evaluation was completed to identify the programme goals, determinants of SM behaviour, consolidated definition of SM and required adaptations to FASA to meet health service and patient needs and the evidence. The resultant SOLAS intervention behavioural outcomes, performance and change objectives were specified and practical application methods selected, followed by organised programme, adoption, implementation and evaluation plans underpinned by behaviour change theory. The SOLAS intervention consists of six weekly sessions of 90-min education and exercise designed to increase participants' physical activity level and use of evidence-based SM strategies (i.e. pain self-management, pain coping, healthy eating for weight management and specific exercise) through targeting of individual determinants of SM behaviour (knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, fear, catastrophizing, motivation, behavioural regulation), delivered by a trained physiotherapist to groups of up to eight individuals using a needs supportive interpersonal style based on self-determination theory. Strategies to support SOLAS intervention adoption and implementation included a consensus building workshop with physiotherapy stakeholders, development of a physiotherapist training programme and a pilot trial with physiotherapist and patient feedback. The SOLAS intervention is currently being evaluated in a cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial. IM is a time-intensive collaborative process, but the range of methods and resultant high level of transparency is invaluable and allows replication by future complex intervention and trial developers.

The role of commitment strength in enhancing safe water consumption: mediation analysis of a cluster-randomized trial.

Jennifer Inauen, Robert Tobias, Hans-Joachim Mosler

British journal of health psychology [19:701-19] (2014)

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The objectives of this study were to investigate the importance of commitment strength in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and to test whether behaviour change techniques (BCTs) aimed at increasing commitment strength indeed promote switching to arsenic-safe wells by changing commitment strength. A cluster-randomized controlled trial with four arms was conducted to compare an information-only intervention to information plus one, two, or three commitment-enhancing BCTs. Randomly selected households (N = 340) of Monoharganj, Bangladesh, in seven geographically separate areas, whose members were drinking arsenic-contaminated water at baseline and had access to arsenic-safe wells, participated in this trial. The areas were randomly allocated to the four intervention arms. Water consumption behaviour, variables of the TPB, commitment strength, and socio-demographic characteristics were assessed at baseline and at 3-month follow-up by structured face-to-face interviews. Mediation analysis was used to investigate the mechanisms of behaviour change. Changes in commitment strength significantly increased the explanatory power of the TPB to predict well-switching. Commitment-enhancing BCTs - public self-commitment, implementation intentions, and reminders - increased the behaviour change effects of information by up to 50%. Mediation analyses confirmed that the BCTs indeed increased well-switching by increasing commitment strength. Unexpectedly, however, mediation via changes in behavioural intentions was the strongest mechanism of the intervention effects. Commitment is an important construct to consider in water- and health-related behaviour change and may be for other health behaviours as well. BCTs that alter behavioural intentions and commitment strength proved highly effective at enhancing the behaviour change effects of information alone. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Millions of people drink contaminated water even if they have access to safe water alternatives and despite increased awareness of the consequences to health. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and commitment strength are predictive of safe water consumption. The potentially commitment-enhancing behaviour change techniques (BCTs) - reminders, implementation intentions, and public self-commitment - can promote health behaviours, including safe water consumption. What does this study add? Changes in commitment strength significantly added to the prediction of switching to arsenic-safe wells by the TPB. Information-plus-BCTs aimed at increasing commitment strength led to >50% more well-switching than information alone. Behaviour change effects of the BCTs were mediated by changes in commitment strength and behavioural intentions.

Let's Talk About Sex: pilot study of an interactive CD-ROM to prevent HIV/STIS in female adolescents.

Kristin Ito, Sri Kalyanaraman, Carol Ford, Jane Brown, William Miller

AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education [20:78-89] (2008)

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The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot-test an interactive CD-ROM aimed at the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in female adolescents. The CD-ROM includes prevention information, models skills for negotiating abstinence and consistent condom use, teaches media literacy, and allows the user to choose a culturally appropriate host to guide them through the CD-ROM. Forty-seven female adolescents attending a health department clinic were randomized to receive the CD-ROM plus an educator-led didactic session versus the didactic session alone. The CD-ROM was highly acceptable and feasible for use among female adolescents in the clinic setting. Hispanic and African American adolescents were more likely to choose hosts of the same race/ethnicity to guide them through the CD-ROM. HIV/STI knowledge increased significantly and nearly all adolescents intended to use condoms at next intercourse after viewing the CD-ROM. However, there were no significant differences measured between CD-ROM and comparison groups.

Feedback GAP: pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial of goal setting and action plans to increase the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions in primary care.

Noah Ivers, Karen Tu, Jacqueline Young, Jill Francis, Jan Barnsley, Baiju Shah, Ross Upshur, Rahim Moineddin, Jeremy Grimshaw, Merrick Zwarenstein

Implementation science : IS [8:142] (2013)

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Audit and feedback to physicians is a commonly used quality improvement strategy, but its optimal design is unknown. This trial tested the effects of a theory-informed worksheet to facilitate goal setting and action planning, appended to feedback reports on chronic disease management, compared to feedback reports provided without these worksheets. A two-arm pragmatic cluster randomized trial was conducted, with allocation at the level of primary care clinics. Participants were family physicians who contributed data from their electronic medical records. The 'usual feedback' arm received feedback every six months for two years regarding the proportion of their patients meeting quality targets for diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease. The intervention arm received these same reports plus a worksheet designed to facilitate goal setting and action plan development in response to the feedback reports. Blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) values were compared after two years as the primary outcomes. Process outcomes measured the proportion of guideline-recommended actions (e.g., testing and prescribing) conducted within the appropriate timeframe. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Outcomes were similar across groups at baseline. Final analysis included 20 physicians from seven clinics and 1,832 patients in the intervention arm (15% loss to follow up) and 29 physicians from seven clinics and 2,223 patients in the usual feedback arm (10% loss to follow up). Ten of 20 physicians completed the worksheet at least once during the study. Mean BP was 128/72 in the feedback plus worksheet arm and 128/73 in the feedback alone arm, while LDL was 2.1 and 2.0, respectively. Thus, no significant differences were observed across groups in the primary outcomes, but mean haemoglobin A1c was lower in the feedback plus worksheet arm (7.2% versus 7.4%, p<0.001). Improvements in both arms were noted over time for one-half of the process outcomes. Appending a theory-informed goal setting and action planning worksheet to an externally produced audit and feedback intervention did not lead to improvements in patient outcomes. The results may be explained in part by passive dissemination of the worksheet leading to inadequate engagement with the intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00996645.

Testing feedback message framing and comparators to address prescribing of high-risk medications in nursing homes: protocol for a pragmatic, factorial, cluster-randomized trial.

Noah Ivers, Laura Desveaux, Justin Presseau, Catherine Reis, Holly Witteman, Monica Taljaard, Nicola McCleary, Kednapa Thavorn, Jeremy Grimshaw

Implementation science : IS [12:86] (2017)

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Audit and feedback (AF) interventions that leverage routine administrative data offer a scalable and relatively low-cost method to improve processes of care. AF interventions are usually designed to highlight discrepancies between desired and actual performance and to encourage recipients to act to address such discrepancies. Comparing to a regional average is a common approach, but more recipients would have a discrepancy if compared to a higher-than-average level of performance. In addition, how recipients perceive and respond to discrepancies may depend on how the feedback itself is framed. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of different comparators and framing in feedback on high-risk prescribing in nursing homes. This is a pragmatic, 2 × 2 factorial, cluster-randomized controlled trial testing variations in the comparator and framing on the effectiveness of quarterly AF in changing high-risk prescribing in nursing homes in Ontario, Canada. We grouped homes that share physicians into clusters and randomized these clusters into the four experimental conditions. Outcomes will be assessed after 6 months; all primary analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The primary outcome (monthly number of high-risk medications received by each patient) will be analysed using a general linear mixed effects regression model. We will present both four-arm and factorial analyses. With 160 clusters and an average of 350 beds per cluster, assuming no interaction and similar effects for each intervention, we anticipate 90% power to detect an absolute mean difference of 0.3 high-risk medications prescribed. A mixed-methods process evaluation will explore potential mechanisms underlying the observed effects, exploring targeted constructs including intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, descriptive norms, and goal prioritization. An economic analysis will examine cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the publicly funded health care system. This protocol describes the rationale and methodology of a trial testing manipulations of theory-informed components of an audit and feedback intervention to determine how to improve an existing intervention and provide generalizable insights for implementation science. NCT02979964.

Referral for Expert Physical Activity Counseling: A Pragmatic RCT.

Erica James, Ben Ewald, Natalie Johnson, Fiona Stacey, Wendy Brown, Elizabeth Holliday, Mark Jones, Fan Yang, Charlotte Hespe, Ronald Plotnikoff

American journal of preventive medicine (2017)

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Primary care physicians are well placed to offer physical activity counseling, but insufficient time is a barrier. Referral to an exercise specialist is an alternative. In Australia, exercise specialists are publicly funded to provide face-to-face counseling to patients who have an existing chronic illness. This trial aimed to (1) determine the efficacy of primary care physicians' referral of insufficiently active patients for counseling to increase physical activity, compared with usual care, and (2) compare the efficacy of face-to-face counseling with counseling predominantly via telephone. Three-arm pragmatic RCT. Two hundred three insufficiently active (<7,000 steps/day) primary care practice patients (mean age 57 years; 70% female) recruited in New South Wales, Australia, in 2011-2014. (1) Five face-to-face counseling sessions by an exercise specialist, (2) one face-to-face counseling session followed by four telephone calls by an exercise specialist, or (3) a generic mailed physical activity brochure (usual care). The counseling sessions operationalized social cognitive theory via a behavior change counseling framework. Change in average daily step counts between baseline and 12 months. Data were analyzed in 2016. Forty (20%) participants formally withdrew; completion rates at 3 and 6 months were 64% and 58%, respectively. Intervention attendance was high (75% received five sessions). The estimated mean difference between usual care and the combined intervention groups at 12 months was 1,002 steps/day (95% CI=244, 1,759, p=0.01). When comparing face-to-face with predominantly telephone counseling, the telephone group had a non-significant higher mean daily step count (by 619 steps) at 12 months. Provision of expert physical activity counseling to insufficiently active primary care patients resulted in a significant increase in physical activity (approximately 70 minutes of walking per week) at 12 months. Face-to-face only and counseling conducted predominantly via telephone were both effective. This trial provides evidence to expand public funding for expert physical activity counseling and for delivery via telephone in addition to face-to-face consultations. This trial is registered at www.anzctr.org.au/ ACTRN12611000884909.

HIV/STD risk reduction interventions for African American and Latino adolescent girls at an adolescent medicine clinic: a randomized controlled trial.

John Jemmott, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Paula Braverman, Geoffrey Fong

Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine [159:440-9] (2005)

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Adolescent girls in the United States and around the world are at a heightened risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To determine the efficacy of a skill-based HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention in reducing self-reported unprotected sexual intercourse among African American and Latino adolescent girls. Randomized controlled trial with 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Sexually experienced African American and Latino adolescent girls recruited from the adolescent medicine clinic of a children's hospital serving a low-income inner-city community (N = 682, mean age, 15.5 years); 88.6% were retained at the 12-month follow-up. Three 250-minute interventions based on cognitive-behavioral theories and elicitation research: an information-based HIV/STD intervention provided information necessary to practice safer sex; a skill-based HIV/STD intervention provided information and taught skills necessary to practice safer sex; or a health-promotion control intervention concerned with health issues unrelated to sexual behavior. Primary outcome measure was self-reported frequency of unprotected sexual intercourse; secondary outcomes included the frequency of sexual intercourse while intoxicated, the number of sexual partners, biologically confirmed STDs, and theoretical mediator variables, including the intention to use condoms, beliefs about using condoms, and condom-use knowledge. No differences between the information intervention and the health control intervention were statistically significant. Skills-intervention participants (mean [SE], 2.27 [0.81]) reported less unprotected sexual intercourse at the 12-month follow-up than did information-intervention participants (mean [SE], 4.04 [0.80]; P = .03), or health control-intervention participants (mean [SE], 5.05 [0.81]; P = .002). At the 12-month follow-up, skills-intervention participants (mean [SE], 0.91 [0.05]) reported fewer sexual partners (P = .04) compared with health control-intervention participants (mean [SE], 1.04 [0.05]) and were less likely to test positive for STD (mean [SE], 10.5% [2.9%]) than were health control-intervention participants (mean [SE], 18.2% [2.8%]; P = .05). No differences in the frequency of unprotected sexual intercourse, the number of partners, or the rate of STD were observed at the 3- or 6-month follow-up between skill-intervention participants and information-intervention or health control-intervention participants. Skill-based HIV/STD interventions can reduce sexual risk behaviors and STD rate among African American and Latino adolescent girls in clinic settings.

Mediation of effects of a theory-based behavioral intervention on self-reported physical activity in South African men.

John Jemmott, Alisa Stephens-Shields, Ann O'Leary, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Anne Teitelman, Zolani Ngwane, Xoliswa Mtose

Preventive medicine [72:1-7] (2015)

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Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007-2010. Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men.

Testing social-cognitive mediators for objective estimates of physical activity from the Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes in Primary Care Networks (HEALD-PCN) study.

Steven Johnson, David Lubans, Ana Mladenovic, Ronald Plotnikoff, Nandini Karunamuni, Jeffrey Johnson

Psychology, health & medicine [21:945-53] (2016)

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More evidence from prospective studies is needed to determine 'if' and 'how' social cognitive constructs mediate behaviour change. In a longitudinal study, we aimed to examine potential social cognitive mediators of objectively measured physical activity (PA) behaviour among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who participated in a six-month PA intervention. All participants from the proven effective Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes in Primary Care Networks trial were included for this secondary analysis. Change in pedometer-derived daily step counts (baseline to six months) was the outcome of interest. Primary constructs of interest were from Social Cognitive Theory, however constructs from and Theory of Planned Behaviour were also tested in a mediating variable framework using a product-of-coefficients test. The sample (N = 198) had a mean age of 59.5 (SD 8.3) years, haemoglobin A1c 6.8% (SD 1.1), 50% women, BMI 33.6 kg/m(2) (SD 6.5), systolic pressure 125.6 mmHg (SD 16.2) and average daily steps were 5879 (SD 3130). Daily pedometer-determined steps increased for the intervention group compared to usual care control at six-months (1481 [SD 2631] vs. 336 [SD 2712]; adjusted p = .002). There was a significant action theory test effect for 'planning' (A = .21, SE = .10, p = .037), and significant conceptual theory test results for 'subjective norms' (B = 657, SE = 312, p = .037) and 'cons' (B = -664, SE = 270, p = .015). None of the constructs satisfied the criteria for mediation. We were unable to account for the effect of a pedometer-based PA intervention for people with T2D through our examination of mediators. Our findings are inconsistent with some literature concerning PA interventions in diabetes; this may be due to variability in measures used or in study populations.

Protocol for a feasibility trial for improving breast feeding initiation and continuation: assets-based infant feeding help before and after birth (ABA).

Kate Jolly, Jenny Ingram, Joanne Clarke, Debbie Johnson, Heather Trickey, Gill Thomson, Stephan Dombrowski, Alice Sitch, Fiona Dykes, Max Feltham, Kirsty Darwent, Christine MacArthur, Tracy Roberts, Pat Hoddinott

BMJ open [8:e019142] (2018)

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Breast feeding improves the health of mothers and infants; the UK has low rates, with marked socioeconomic inequalities. While trials of peer support services have been effective in some settings, UK trials have not improved breast feeding rates. Qualitative research suggests that many women are alienated by the focus on breast feeding. We propose a change from breast feeding-focused interactions to respecting a woman's feeding choices, inclusion of behaviour change theory and an increased intensity of contacts in the 2 weeks after birth when many women cease to breast feed. This will take place alongside an assets-based approach that focuses on the positive capability of individuals, their social networks and communities.We propose a feasibility study for a multicentre randomised controlled trial of the Assets feeding help Before and After birth (ABA) infant feeding service versus usual care. A two-arm, non-blinded randomised feasibility study will be conducted in two UK localities. Women expecting their first baby will be eligible, regardless of feeding intention. The ABA infant feeding intervention will apply a proactive, assets-based, woman-centred, non-judgemental approach, delivered antenatally and postnatally tailored through face-to-face contacts, telephone and SMS texts. Outcomes will test the feasibility of delivering the intervention with recommended intensity and duration to disadvantaged women; acceptability to women, feeding helpers and professionals; and feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial (RCT), detailing recruitment rates, willingness to be randomised, follow-up rates at 3 days, 8 weeks and 6 months, and level of outcome completion. Outcomes of the proposed full trial will also be collected. Mixed methods will include qualitative interviews with women/partners, feeding helpers and health service staff; feeding helper logs; and review of audio-recorded helper-women interactions to assess intervention fidelity. Study results will inform the design of a larger multicentre RCT. The National Research Ethics Service Committee approved the study protocol. ISRCTN14760978; Pre-results.

A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions using the Common Sense Self-Regulatory Model to improve adherence behaviours.

Christina Jones, Helen Smith, Carrie Llewellyn

Journal of health psychology (2015)

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This systematic review assessed the effectiveness of the Common Sense Self-Regulatory Model in the design of interventions to improve adherence behaviours. Of nine eligible studies, six reported improvements in adherence behaviours and three showed moderate to large effects on return to work and lifestyle recommendations. Four studies stated how Common Sense Self-Regulatory Model constructs were addressed in the intervention and five measured illness perceptions as outcomes. Evidence was found for targeting cure/control perceptions in studies aimed at improving adherence behaviours. Future studies need to measure illness perceptions pre- and post-intervention to enable mediational analyses to assess the effect of Common Sense Self-Regulatory Model interventions on improving health outcomes.

Development and Validation of an Interactive Internet Platform for Older People: The Healthy Ageing Through Internet Counselling in the Elderly Study.

Susan Jongstra, Cathrien Beishuizen, Sandrine Andrieu, Mariagnese Barbera, Matthijs van Dorp, Bram van de Groep, Juliette Guillemont, Francesca Mangialasche, Tessa van Middelaar, Eric Moll van Charante, Hilkka Soininen, Miia Kivipelto, Edo Richard

Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association (2016)

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A myriad of Web-based applications on self-management have been developed, but few focus on older people. In the face of global aging, older people form an important target population for cardiovascular prevention. This article describes the full development of an interactive Internet platform for older people, which was designed for the Healthy Ageing Through Internet Counselling in the Elderly (HATICE) study. We provide recommendations to design senior-friendly Web-based applications for a new approach to multicomponent cardiovascular prevention. The development of the platform followed five phases: (1) conceptual framework; (2) platform concept and functional design; (3) platform building (software and content); (4) testing and pilot study; and (5) final product. We performed a meta-analysis, reviewed guidelines for cardiovascular diseases, and consulted end users, experts, and software developers to create the platform concept and content. The software was built in iterative cycles. In the pilot study, 41 people aged ≥65 years used the platform for 8 weeks. Participants used the interactive features of the platform and appreciated the coach support. During all phases adjustments were made to incorporate all improvements from the previous phases. The final platform is a personal, secured, and interactive platform supported by a coach. When carefully designed, an interactive Internet platform is acceptable and feasible for use by older people with basic computer skills. To improve acceptability by older people, we recommend involving the end users in the process of development, to personalize the platform and to combine the application with human support. The interactive HATICE platform will be tested for efficacy in a multinational randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN48151589).

Intensified pharmaceutical care is improving immunosuppressive medication adherence in kidney transplant recipients during the first post-transplant year: a quasi-experimental study.

Robert Joost, Frank Dörje, Judith Schwitulla, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Christian Hugo

Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association [29:1597-607] (2014)

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Medication adherence is critical for transplant patients because the consequences of non-adherence can result in allograft loss and may be life threatening. A prospective study with 74 renal transplant recipients using a sequential control group design was performed to investigate the impact of a pharmaceutical intensified care programme led by a clinical pharmacist on daily drug adherence during the first year after renal transplantation. Thirty-nine patients of the control group received the already established standardized drug and transplant training, while 35 patients of the intensified care group (ICG) received additional inpatient and outpatient pharmaceutical care and counselling by a dedicated clinical pharmacist. Applied interventions were clustered and classified using the behaviour change technique taxonomy according to Michie. Adherence to immunosuppressive drug therapy was monitored up to 1 year using a medication event monitoring system, pill count (PC), drug holiday (DH) occurrence, Morisky questionnaire and self-report. Sixty-seven patients (35 of the standard care and 32 of the ICG) were analysed. Implementation of DA was significantly (P = 0.014) improved in patients of the ICG (91%) compared with SCG (75%) during the first year after transplantion. Daily adherence measures were already improved within 30-40 days after start of intensified patient care and continued throughout the study period. Intensified care patients also showed significantly better results for taking adherence (P = 0.006), PC (P = 0.008) and DHs (P = 0.001). The additional, intensified pharmaceutical care improved patients' medication adherence remarkably, suggesting that the applied additional care programme has the potential to improve outcomes after organ transplantation.

Automated telecommunication interventions to promote adherence to cardio-metabolic medications: meta-analysis of effectiveness and meta-regression of behaviour change techniques.

A Kassavou, S Sutton

Health psychology review (2017)

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Automated telecommunication interventions, including short message service and interactive voice response, are increasingly being used to promote adherence to medications prescribed for cardio-metabolic conditions. This systematic review aimed to comprehensively assess the effectiveness of such interventions to support medication adherence, and to identify the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and other intervention characteristics that are positively associated with greater intervention effectiveness. Meta-analysis of 17 randomised controlled trials showed a small but statistically significant effect on medication adherence, OR = 1.89, 95% CI [1.51, 2.36], I(2) = 89%, N = 25,101. Multivariable meta-regression analysis including eight BCTs explained 88% of the observed variance in effect size (ES). The BCTs 'tailored' and 'information about health consequences' were positively and significantly associated with ES. Future studies could explore whether the inclusion of these and/or additional techniques (e.g., 'implementation intentions') would increase the effect of automated telecommunication interventions, using rigorous designs and objective outcome measures.

Characterizing Active Ingredients of eHealth Interventions Targeting Persons With Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy: Scoping Review.

Mihiretu Kebede, Tatjana Liedtke, Tobias Möllers, Claudia Pischke

Journal of medical Internet research [19:e348] (2017)

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The behavior change technique taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1; Michie and colleagues, 2013) is a comprehensive tool to characterize active ingredients of interventions and includes 93 labels that are hierarchically clustered into 16 hierarchical clusters. The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients in electronic health (eHealth) interventions targeting patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and relevant outcomes. We conducted a scoping review using the BCTTv1. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), studies with or pre-post-test designs, and quasi-experimental studies examining efficacy and effectiveness of eHealth interventions for disease management or the promotion of relevant health behaviors were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility using predetermined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted following a data extraction sheet. The BCTTv1 was used to characterize active ingredients of the interventions reported in the included studies. Of the 1404 unique records screened, 32 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and reported results on the efficacy and or or effectiveness of interventions. Of the included 32 studies, 18 (56%) were Web-based interventions delivered via personal digital assistant (PDA), tablet, computer, and/or mobile phones; 7 (22%) were telehealth interventions delivered via landline; 6 (19%) made use of text messaging (short service message, SMS); and 1 employed videoconferencing (3%). Of the 16 hierarchical clusters of the BCTTv1, 11 were identified in interventions included in this review. Of the 93 individual behavior change techniques (BCTs), 31 were identified as active ingredients of the interventions. The most common BCTs identified were instruction on how to perform behavior, adding objects to the environment, information about health consequences, self-monitoring of the outcomes and/or and prefers to be explicit to avoid ambiguity. Response: Checked and avoided of a certain behavior Author: Please note that the journal discourages the use of parenthesis to denote either and/or and prefers to be explicit to avoid ambiguity. Response: Checked and avoided "and/or" and prefers to be explicit to avoid ambiguity. Response: Checked and avoided, and feedback on outcomes of behavior. Our results suggest that the majority of BCTs employed in interventions targeting persons with T2DM revolve around the promotion of self-regulatory behavior to manage the disease or to assist patients in performing health behaviors necessary to prevent further complications of the disease. Detailed reporting of the BCTs included in interventions targeting this population may facilitate the replication and further investigation of such interventions.

Randomized controlled trial of a brief research-based intervention promoting fruit and vegetable consumption.

I Kellar, C Abraham

British journal of health psychology [10:543-58] (2005)

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The present study sought to test the efficacy of a brief research-based, leaflet-like intervention to promote eating the recommended daily intake of fruit and vegetables (RDIFV). A controlled, pre- post-test experimental study with random allocation and a 1 week self-report behavioural follow-up was conducted. The intervention employed persuasive communication targeting self-efficacy and intention, and invited participants to form implementation intentions in relation to acquiring and preparing fruit and vegetables for consumption. Intervention participants had stronger post-intervention intentions to consume the RDIFV, and higher anticipated regret in relation to failing to do so, compared with controls, controlling for pre-intervention scores. At follow-up, the intervention group was found to have eaten more fruit and vegetables and to have consumed the RDIFV more frequently. It is concluded that this study supports the previously reported power of implementation intentions to prompt enactment of intentions, and that a brief research-based leaflet-like intervention could result in immediate enhancement of intentions and anticipated regret, and promote greater fruit and vegetable consumption.

Which characteristics of planning matter? Individual and dyadic physical activity plans and their effects on plan enactment.

Jan Keller, Lena Fleig, Diana Hilda Hohl, Amelie Wiedemann, Silke Burkert, Aleksandra Luszczynska, Nina Knoll

Social science & medicine (1982) [189:53-62] (2017)

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Past research supports individual planning as an effective intervention strategy to increase physical activity in individuals. A similar strategy, dyadic planning, adds a planning partner who supports an individual's planning processes. Whether the two planning formats differ in terms of participants' entered plan content and whether and how different content characteristics are linked to plan enactment remains unknown. By investigating the content of generated plans, this study aimed at distinguishing plan characteristics of the two planning formats and examining their role as predictors of later plan enactment. Secondary analyses of a three-arm RCT with German couples (data collection between 2013 and 2015). Couples were assigned to an individual (IPC, n = 114) or dyadic planning condition (DPC, n = 111) and formulated up to 5 physical activity plans for a target person. Couples assigned to a control condition were not included as they did not generate plans. The following characteristics were distinguished and coded for each plan: number of planned opportunities, presence of a planned routine, planned cue- or activity-related specificity, activity-related intensity, and chronological plan rank. One week before (T0) and two weeks following (T2) the intervention (T1), increase vs. no increase of the planned activity was coded as a dichotomous plan enactment variable. Multilevel logistic regressions were fit. Plan enactment was higher in dyadic than in individual planners. Findings indicated that routines (e.g., after work) were positively related to plan enactment, whereas a high specificity of when-cues (e.g., Friday at 6.30 p.m.) showed a negative relationship. None of the examined plan characteristics could explain differences in enactment between IPC and DPC. Linking health behaviours to other behavioural routines seems beneficial for subsequent plan enactment. Dyadic planning was linked with higher enactment rates than individual planning. However, as mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear, they should be investigated further.

Augmenting fruit and vegetable consumption by an online intervention: Psychological mechanisms.

Jan Keller, Susannah Motter, Mirjam Motter, Ralf Schwarzer

Appetite [120:348-355] (2018)

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Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was examined among men and women who participated in an online intervention. The psychological constructs involved were outcome expectancies, behavioral intention, planning, and self-efficacy. One purpose of the analyses was the evaluation of a self-efficacy treatment component. The other purpose of the analyses regarded the role of psychological mechanisms that might be responsible for individual differences in the process of behavior change. A two-arm online intervention with a standard and an enhanced intervention group focusing on FV planning was conducted to improve FV intake, followed up at two and four weeks. The intervention groups differed by the additional inclusion of a self-efficacy ingredient in the enhanced intervention. Linear mixed models examined the intervention effects, and a longitudinal structural equation model explored which psychological constructs were associated with changes in FV intake. Participants were N = 275 adults of whom n = 148 completed the four-week follow-up. Their age range was 18-81 years (Mage = 32.50, SDage = 14.00). Analyses yielded an overall increase in self-reported FV intake. Moreover, a triple interaction between time, sex, and experimental groups on self-efficacy emerged, indicating that men, independent of treatment conditions, reported an increase in their confidence to improve FV intake, whereas women developed higher FV self-efficacy when being in the enhanced group instead of the standard group. Planning, self-efficacy, and intention mediated between outcome expectancies, and follow-up FV intake. Both intervention arms produced overall improvements in FV intake. The enhanced intervention resulted in a steeper increase in self-efficacy in women compared to men, and compared to the standard intervention. A psychological mechanism transpired that included a sequence leading from initial outcome expectancies via planning, self-efficacy, and intention towards FV intake.

RCT of a theory-based intervention promoting healthy eating and physical activity amongst out-patients older than 65 years.

K Kelley, C Abraham

Social science & medicine (1982) [59:787-97] (2004)

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A randomised controlled trial was used to evaluate a theory-based health promotion intervention. The intervention, a healthy living booklet, was designed to promote healthy eating and physical activity amongst people aged over 65 years attending hospital out-patient clinics. The booklet employed persuasive arguments targeting the most proximal cognitive antecedents of behaviour specified by the theory of planned behaviour, as well as goal setting prompts. Participants (N = 252, average age=82) were randomly allocated to a control (patient satisfaction questionnaire) or intervention (healthy living booklet) group. Cognitions and behaviour were measured pre-intervention and at a two week follow up. The intervention group made significantly higher gains in perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour for both target behaviours, suggesting that the intervention was successful. Sixty three of those invited to set goals to eat more healthily (e.g., "to eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day") did so, and 67% of those who set such goals reported 100% success in acting on them. By contrast, only 34% of intervention participants set an activity goal (e.g., "a five minute walk everyday"), and only 51% reported 100% success in enacting these goals. Results suggest that the observed behavioural effects of the healthy eating booklet could be attributed to goal setting as well as changes in perceived behavioural control and intention.

Pregnancy, exercise and nutrition research study with smart phone app support (Pears): Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

Maria Kennelly, Kate Ainscough, Karen Lindsay, Eileen Gibney, Mary McCarthy, Fionnuala McAuliffe

Contemporary clinical trials [46:92-9] (2016)

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Maternal adiposity confers an increased risk of GDM in pregnancy. A low glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention has been found to improve glucose homeostasis and reduce gestational weight gain. Mobile Health (mHealth) Technology-assisted interventions are becoming commonplace as an aid to treating many chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a 'healthy lifestyle package' with mHealth smart phone technology as support compared with usual care on the incidence of GDM in an overweight and obese pregnant population. We propose a randomized controlled trial of an mHealth assisted healthy lifestyle intervention package versus standard obstetric care in pregnant women with a BMI ≥25kg/m(2)-39.9kg/m(2). Patients are randomized to control or intervention group in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention arm healthy lifestyle package includes a motivational counseling session to encourage behavior change, involving targeted, low GI nutritional advice and daily physical activity prescription delivered before 18weeks gestation, as well as a smart phone app to provide ongoing healthy lifestyle advice and support throughout pregnancy. The primary outcome is the incidence of GDM at 29weeks' gestation and power analysis indicates that 253 women are required in each group to detect a difference. This will be the first clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a smart phone technology-assisted targeted healthy lifestyle intervention, which is grounded in behavior change theories and techniques, to support antenatal management of an overweight and obese pregnant population in preventing GDM.

A Technological Innovation to Reduce Prescribing Errors Based on Implementation Intentions: The Acceptability and Feasibility of MyPrescribe.

Chris Keyworth, Jo Hart, Hong Thoong, Jane Ferguson, Mary Tully

JMIR human factors [4:e17] (2017)

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Although prescribing of medication in hospitals is rarely an error-free process, prescribers receive little feedback on their mistakes and ways to change future practices. Audit and feedback interventions may be an effective approach to modifying the clinical practice of health professionals, but these may pose logistical challenges when used in hospitals. Moreover, such interventions are often labor intensive. Consequently, there is a need to develop effective and innovative interventions to overcome these challenges and to improve the delivery of feedback on prescribing. Implementation intentions, which have been shown to be effective in changing behavior, link critical situations with an appropriate response; however, these have rarely been used in the context of improving prescribing practices. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of providing feedback on prescribing errors via MyPrescribe, a mobile-compatible website informed by implementation intentions. Data relating to 200 prescribing errors made by 52 junior doctors were collected by 11 hospital pharmacists. These errors were populated into MyPrescribe, where prescribers were able to construct their own personalized action plans. Qualitative interviews with a subsample of 15 junior doctors were used to explore issues regarding feasibility and acceptability of MyPrescribe and their experiences of using implementation intentions to construct prescribing action plans. Framework analysis was used to identify prominent themes, with findings mapped to the behavioral components of the COM-B model (capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior) to inform the development of future interventions. MyPrescribe was perceived to be effective in providing opportunities for critical reflection on prescribing errors and to complement existing training (such as junior doctors' e-portfolio). The participants were able to provide examples of how they would use "If-Then" plans for patient management. Technology, as opposed to other methods of learning (eg, traditional "paper based" learning), was seen as a positive advancement for continued learning. MyPrescribe was perceived as an acceptable and feasible learning tool for changing prescribing practices, with participants suggesting that it would make an important addition to medical prescribers' training in reflective practice. MyPrescribe is a novel theory-based technological innovation that provides the platform for doctors to create personalized implementation intentions. Applying the COM-B model allows for a more detailed understanding of the perceived mechanisms behind prescribing practices and the ways in which interventions aimed at changing professional practice can be implemented.

A brief individualized computer-delivered sexual risk reduction intervention increases HIV/AIDS preventive behavior.

SM Kiene, WD Barta

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine [39:404-10] (2006)

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One objective of translational science is to identify elements of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk-reduction interventions that have been shown to be effective and find new ways of delivering these interventions to the community to ensure that they reach the widest possible audience of at-risk individuals. The current study reports the development and evaluation of a computer-delivered, theory-based, individually tailored HIV risk-reduction intervention. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a custom computerized HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention at increasing HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors in a randomized trial with 157 college students. The intervention content and delivery were based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model of Health Behavior Change and used Motivational Interviewing techniques. Participants completed a baseline assessment of HIV prevention information, motivation, behavioral skills and behavior, attended two brief computer-delivered intervention sessions, and completed a follow-up assessment. As compared to the control group (a nutrition education tutorial), participants who interacted with the computer-delivered HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention exhibited a significant increase in risk reduction behavior. Specifically, participants reported a greater frequency of keeping condoms available and displayed greater condom-related knowledge at a four-week follow-up session; among sexually active participants, there was a significant increase in self-reported condom use. Delivery of brief individually tailored HIV/AIDS risk reduction interventions via computer may be an effective HIV/AIDS prevention approach for adolescents. More research is needed to further support the effectiveness of this type of intervention and determine the generalizability of these findings to economically and educationally disadvantaged adolescents.

Promoting healthy weight with "stability skills first": a randomized trial.

Michaela Kiernan, Susan Brown, Danielle Schoffman, Katherine Lee, Abby King, C Barr Taylor, Nina Schleicher, Michael Perri

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology [81:336-46] (2013)

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Although behavioral weight-loss interventions produce short-term weight loss, long-term maintenance remains elusive. This randomized trial examined whether learning a novel set of "stability skills" before losing weight improved long-term weight management. Stability skills were designed to optimize individuals' current satisfaction with lifestyle and self-regulatory habits while requiring the minimum effort and attention necessary. Overweight/obese women (N = 267) were randomly assigned to one of two 6-month interventions and assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months. Maintenance First women participated first in an 8-week stability skills maintenance module and then in a standard 20-week behavioral weight-loss program. Weight Loss First women participated first in a standard 20-week behavioral weight-loss program and then in a standard 8-week problem-solving skills maintenance module. There was no intervention staff contact during the 12-month follow-up period (6-18 months). As designed, Maintenance First participants lost the same percentage of initial weight during the 6-month intervention period as Weight Loss First participants (M = -8.6%, SD = 5.7, vs. M = -9.1%, SD = 6.9; t = -0.6, p = .52). However, Maintenance First participants regained significantly less weight during the 12-month follow-up period (6-18 months) than Weight Loss First participants (M = 3.2 lb, SD = 10.4, vs. M = 7.3 lb, SD = 9.9 [M = 1.4 kg, SD = 4.7, vs. M = 3.3 kg, SD = 4.5]; t = 3.3, p = .001, d = 0.4). Learning stability skills before losing weight was successful in helping women to maintain weight loss without intervention staff contact during follow-up. These results can inform the study design of future innovative interventions.

Self-Monitoring Utilization Patterns Among Individuals in an Incentivized Program for Healthy Behaviors.

Ju Young Kim, Nathan Wineinger, Michael Taitel, Jennifer Radin, Osayi Akinbosoye, Jenny Jiang, Nima Nikzad, Gregory Orr, Eric Topol, Steve Steinhubl

Journal of medical Internet research [18:e292] (2016)

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The advent of digital technology has enabled individuals to track meaningful biometric data about themselves. This novel capability has spurred nontraditional health care organizations to develop systems that aid users in managing their health. One of the most prolific systems is Walgreens Balance Rewards for healthy choices (BRhc) program, an incentivized, Web-based self-monitoring program. This study was performed to evaluate health data self-tracking characteristics of individuals enrolled in the Walgreens' BRhc program, including the impact of manual versus automatic data entries through a supported device or apps. We obtained activity tracking data from a total of 455,341 BRhc users during 2014. Upon identifying users with sufficient follow-up data, we explored temporal trends in user participation. Thirty-four percent of users quit participating after a single entry of an activity. Among users who tracked at least two activities on different dates, the median length of participating was 8 weeks, with an average of 5.8 activities entered per week. Furthermore, users who participated for at least twenty weeks (28.3% of users; 33,078/116,621) consistently entered 8 to 9 activities per week. The majority of users (77%; 243,774/315,744) recorded activities through manual data entry alone. However, individuals who entered activities automatically through supported devices or apps participated roughly four times longer than their manual activity-entering counterparts (average 20 and 5 weeks, respectively; P<.001). This study provides insights into the utilization patterns of individuals participating in an incentivized, Web-based self-monitoring program. Our results suggest automated health tracking could significantly improve long-term health engagement.

Targeting motivation and self-regulation to increase physical activity among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised controlled trial.

Keegan Knittle, Veronique De Gucht, Emalie Hurkmans, Andre Peeters, Karel Ronday, Stan Maes, Thea Vliet Vlieland

Clinical rheumatology [34:231-8] (2015)

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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of targeting both the motivation and action phases of behaviour change in a 5-week intervention to increase physical activity (PA) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) not meeting current PA recommendations. In a randomised controlled trial, a control group—which received a group-based patient education session led by a physical therapist—was compared to a treatment group which received the education session plus a motivational interview from a physical therapist and two self-regulation coaching sessions from a rheumatology nurse. Outcomes included leisure-time PA, days per week with at least 30 min of moderate-intensity PA, self-efficacy and autonomous motivation (cognitions which predict PA initiation and maintenance), disease activity, functional status, depressive symptoms and fatigue. Effects were assessed using mixed models repeated measures. Of the 78 patients randomised, 76 and 67 completed the post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Significant treatment effects were found for leisure-time PA (p = 0.022), active days/week (p = 0.016), self-efficacy (p = 0.008) and autonomous motivation (p = 0.001). At post-treatment and 6-months follow-up, significantly more treated patients than controls met current PA recommendations. No significant effects were found for disease activity, functional status, depressive symptoms or fatigue. Combining motivation- and action-focused intervention approaches improved PA-related cognitions and led to improved uptake and maintenance of leisure-time PA. However, further research is necessary to identify ways of helping patients with RA transition to—and maintain—more intensive forms of PA which are more likely to improve disease activity and functional status.

Specifying content and mechanisms of change in interventions to change professionals' practice: an illustration from the Good Goals study in occupational therapy.

N Kolehmainen, JJ Francis

Implementation science : IS [7:100] (2012)

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It is widely agreed that interventions to change professionals' practice need to be clearly specified. This involves (1) selecting and defining the intervention techniques, (2) operationalising the techniques and deciding their delivery, and (3) formulating hypotheses about the mechanisms through which the techniques are thought to result in change. Descriptions of methods to achieve these objectives are limited. This paper reports methods and illustrates outputs from a study to meet these objectives, specifically from the Good Goals study to improve occupational therapists' caseload management practice. (1) Behaviour change techniques were identified and selected from an existing matrix that maps techniques to determinants. An existing coding manual was used to define the techniques. (2) A team of occupational therapists generated context-relevant, acceptable modes of delivery for the techniques; these data were compared and contrasted with previously collected data, literature on caseload management, and the aims of the intervention. (3) Hypotheses about the mechanisms of change were formulated by drawing on the matrix and on theories of behaviour change. (1) Eight behaviour change techniques were selected: goal specified; self-monitoring; contract; graded tasks; increasing skills (problem solving, decision making, goal setting); coping skills; rehearsal of relevant skills; social processes of encouragement, support, and pressure; demonstration by others; and feedback. (2) A range of modes of delivery were generated (e.g., graded tasks' consisting of series of clinical cases and situations that become increasingly difficult). Conditions for acceptable delivery were identified (e.g., 'self-monitoring' was acceptable only if delivered at team level). The modes of delivery were specified as face-to-face training, task sheets, group tasks, DVDs, and team-based weekly meetings. (3) The eight techniques were hypothesized to target caseload management practice through eleven mediating variables. Three domains were hypothesized to be most likely to change: beliefs about capabilities, motivation and goals, and behavioural regulation. The project provides an exemplar of a systematic and reportable development of a quality-improvement intervention, with its methods likely to be applicable to other projects. A subsequent study of the intervention has provided early indication that use of systematic methods to specify interventions may help to maximize acceptability and effectiveness.

Testing the Implementation of a Pain Self-management Support Intervention for Oncology Patients in Clinical Practice: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study (ANtiPain).

Antje Koller, Jan Gaertner, Sabina De Geest, Monika Hasemann, Gerhild Becker

Cancer nursing (2017)

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In oncology, pain control is a persistent problem. Significant barriers to cancer pain management are patient related. Pain self-management support interventions have shown to reduce pain intensity and patient-related barriers. Comparative effectiveness research is a suitable approach to test whether effects are sustained in clinical practice. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, the implementation of the ANtiPain intervention into clinical practice was tested to assess the effects on pain intensity, function-related outcomes, self-efficacy, and patient-related barriers to pain management to prepare a larger effectiveness trial. Within 14 months, 39 adult oncology patients with pain scores of 3 or higher on a 10-point numeric rating scale were recruited in an academic comprehensive cancer center in Southern Germany. Patients in the control group (n=19) received standard care. Patients in the intervention group (n=20) received ANtiPain, a cancer pain self-management support intervention based on 3 key strategies: provision of information, skill building, and nurse coaching. An intervention session was performed in-hospital. After discharge, follow-up was provided via telephone calls. Data were collected at baseline and 1 and 6 weeks after discharge. Effect sizes were calculated for all outcomes. Large effects were found for activity hindrance (Cohen d=0.90), barriers (d=0.91), and self-efficacy (d=0.90). Small to moderate effects were found for average and worst pain (Cohen d=0.17-0.45). Key findings of this study involved function-related outcomes and self-efficacy. Because these outcomes are particularly meaningful for patients, the integration of ANtiPain to routine clinical practice may be substantial. A larger study will be based on these findings.

A combined planning and self-efficacy intervention to promote physical activity: a multiple mediation analysis.

Milena Koring, Jana Richert, Linda Parschau, Anna Ernsting, Sonia Lippke, Ralf Schwarzer

Psychology, health & medicine [17:488-98] (2012)

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Many individuals are motivated to improve their physical activity levels, but often fail to act upon their intention. Interventions fostering volitional strategies, such as action planning, coping planning, and self-efficacy beliefs, can help to translate intentions into behavior. This study examines the effectiveness and the mechanisms of a combined planning and self-efficacy intervention to promote physical activity among motivated individuals. Participants (N = 883) were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a waiting-list control condition. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the intervention resulted in significantly more physical activity, higher levels of action planning, coping planning, and volitional self-efficacy beliefs (p < 0.01). In addition, multiple mediation analysis showed that action planning, coping planning, and volitional self-efficacy mediate between the intervention and physical activity. The study shows that the intervention successfully fostered physical activity and unfolds the underlying self-regulatory mechanisms of the intervention's effectiveness.

Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. Testing an intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour.

E Kothe, B Mullan, P Butow

Appetite [58:997-1004] (2012)

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This study evaluated the efficacy of a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. The extent to which fruit and vegetable consumption and change in intake could be explained by the TPB was also examined. Participants were randomly assigned to two levels of intervention frequency matched for intervention content (low frequency n=92, high frequency n=102). Participants received TPB-based email messages designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, messages targeted attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control (PBC). Baseline and post-intervention measures of TPB variables and behaviour were collected. Across the entire study cohort, fruit and vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings/day between baseline and follow-up. Intention, attitude, subjective norm and PBC also increased (p<.05). The TPB successfully modelled fruit and vegetable consumption at both time points but not behaviour change. The increase of fruit and vegetable consumption is a promising preliminary finding for those primarily interested in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. However, those interested in theory development may have concerns about the use of this model to explain behaviour change in this context. More high quality experimental tests of the theory are needed to confirm this result.

Can safer-sex promotion leaflets change cognitive antecedents of condom use? An experimental evaluation.

Barbara Krahé, Charles Abraham, Renate Scheinberger-Olwig

British journal of health psychology [10:203-20] (2005)

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An experimental evaluation of a safer sex promotion leaflet was undertaken to assess its capacity to change antecedent cognitions of condom use. The leaflet was identified in a previous study as addressing research-based cognitive antecedents of condom use. A pre-post-test experimental study including three conditions was conducted: (a) presentation of the leaflet; (b) presentation of the leaflet plus incentive for systematic processing; (c) no-leaflet control. The leaflet was evaluated in terms of its capacity to change eight cognitive correlates of condom use identified in a recent meta-analysis. The sample consisted of 230 tenth-grade students. Following baseline assessments, leaflet-induced change was measured immediately following the intervention and at a follow up 4 weeks post-intervention. The target leaflet alone did not result in significant changes in the cognitive antecedents of condom use compared with the control condition. However, in combination with an incentive for systematic processing, the target leaflet had a greater impact on cognitive antecedents than the no-leaflet control condition. The findings are discussed with regard to the development and evaluation of research-based health-promotion materials.

Design and Methods of a Synchronous Online Motivational Interviewing Intervention for Weight Management.

Rebecca Krukowski, Vicki DiLillo, Krista Ingle, Jean Ruth Harvey, Delia Smith West

JMIR research protocols [5:e69] (2016)

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While Internet-based weight management programs can facilitate access to and engagement in evidence-based lifestyle weight loss programs, the results have generally not been as effective as in-person programs. Furthermore, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promise as a technique for enhancing weight loss outcomes within face-to-face programs. This paper describes the design, intervention development, and analysis of a therapist-delivered online MI intervention for weight loss in the context of an online weight loss program. The MI intervention is delivered within the context of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an 18-month, group-based, online behavioral weight control program plus individually administered, synchronous online MI sessions relative to the group-based program alone. Six individual 30-minute MI sessions are conducted in private chat rooms over 18 months by doctoral-level psychologists. Sessions use a semistructured interview format for content and session flow and incorporate core MI components (eg, collaborative agenda setting, open-ended questions, reflective listening and summary statements, objective data, and a focus on evoking and amplifying change talk). The project was funded in 2010 and enrollment was completed in 2012. Data analysis is currently under way and the first results are expected in 2016. This is the first trial to test the efficacy of a synchronous online, one-on-one MI intervention designed to augment an online group behavioral weight loss program. If the addition of MI sessions proves to be successful, this intervention could be disseminated to enhance other distance-based weight loss interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01232699; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01232699.

Comparing motivational, self-regulatory and habitual processes in a computer-tailored physical activity intervention in hospital employees - protocol for the PATHS randomised controlled trial.

Dominika Kwasnicka, Corneel Vandelanotte, Amanda Rebar, Benjamin Gardner, Camille Short, Mitch Duncan, Dawn Crook, Martin Hagger

BMC public health [17:518] (2017)

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Most people do not engage in sufficient physical activity to confer health benefits and to reduce risk of chronic disease. Healthcare professionals frequently provide guidance on physical activity, but often do not meet guideline levels of physical activity themselves. The main objective of this study is to develop and test the efficacy of a tailored intervention to increase healthcare professionals' physical activity participation and quality of life, and to reduce work-related stress and absenteeism. This is the first study to compare the additive effects of three forms of a tailored intervention using different techniques from behavioural theory, which differ according to their focus on motivational, self-regulatory and/or habitual processes. Healthcare professionals (N = 192) will be recruited from four hospitals in Perth, Western Australia, via email lists, leaflets, and posters to participate in the four group randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to one of four conditions: (1) education only (non-tailored information only), (2) education plus intervention components to enhance motivation, (3) education plus components to enhance motivation and self-regulation, and (4) education plus components to enhance motivation, self-regulation and habit formation. All intervention groups will receive a computer-tailored intervention administered via a web-based platform and will receive supporting text-messages containing tailored information, prompts and feedback relevant to each condition. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome assessed in this study is physical activity measured using activity monitors. Secondary outcomes include: quality of life, stress, anxiety, sleep, and absenteeism. Website engagement, retention, preferences and intervention fidelity will also be evaluated as well as potential mediators and moderators of intervention effect. This is the first study to examine a tailored, technology-supported intervention aiming to increase physical activity in healthcare professionals. The study will evaluate whether including additional theory-based behaviour change techniques aimed at promoting motivation, self-regulation and habit will lead to increased physical activity participation relative to information alone. The online platform developed in this study has potential to deliver efficient, scalable and personally-relevant intervention that can be translated to other occupational settings. Australian New-Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12616000462482, submitted 29/03/2016, prospectively registered 8/04/2016.

RCT of web-based personalized normative feedback for college drinking prevention: are typical student norms good enough?

Joseph Labrie, Melissa Lewis, David Atkins, Clayton Neighbors, Cheng Zheng, Shannon Kenney, Lucy Napper, Theresa Walter, Jason Kilmer, Justin Hummer, Joel Grossbard, Tehniat Ghaidarov, Sruti Desai, Christine Lee, Mary Larimer

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology [81:1074-86] (2013)

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Personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions are generally effective at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing risky alcohol consumption among college students. However, research has yet to establish what level of reference group specificity is most efficacious in delivering PNF. This study compared the efficacy of a web-based PNF intervention using 8 increasingly specific reference groups against a Web-BASICS intervention and a repeated-assessment control in reducing risky drinking and associated consequences. Participants were 1,663 heavy-drinking Caucasian and Asian undergraduates at 2 universities. The referent for web-based PNF was either the typical same-campus student or a same-campus student at 1 (either gender, race, or Greek affiliation), or a combination of 2 (e.g., gender and race), or all 3 levels of specificity (i.e., gender, race, and Greek affiliation). Hypotheses were tested using quasi-Poisson generalized linear models fit by generalized estimating equations. The PNF intervention participants showed modest reductions in all 4 outcomes (average total drinks, peak drinking, drinking days, and drinking consequences) compared with control participants. No significant differences in drinking outcomes were found between the PNF group as a whole and the Web-BASICS group. Among the 8 PNF conditions, participants receiving typical student PNF demonstrated greater reductions in all 4 outcomes compared with those receiving PNF for more specific reference groups. Perceived drinking norms and discrepancies between individual behavior and actual norms mediated the efficacy of the intervention. Findings suggest a web-based PNF intervention using the typical student referent offers a parsimonious approach to reducing problematic alcohol use outcomes among college students.

Randomized trial of a smoking cessation intervention in hospitalized patients.

Yves Lacasse, Réjean Lamontagne, Sylvie Martin, Serge Simard, Marie Arsenault

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco [10:1215-21] (2008)

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A hospitalization is a time when perceived vulnerability to dangers from smoking and quitting motivation may be at their peak. Aim was to determine whether a smoking cessation intervention of moderate intensity would increase the smoking cessation rate in hospitalized smokers. Design was randomized trial, conducted in a university-affiliated cardio-pulmonary tertiary care center. Participants were hospitalized smokers aged < or =70 years. Intervention was a smoking cessation intervention consisting of education and psychological support, with or without pharmacological therapy, associated with follow-up phone calls. Patients assigned to the control group received usual care. Measurement was point prevalence cessation rate at 1-year follow-up. A total of 468 patients were screened; 196 were randomized. Although the smoking cessation rates at 12-month follow-up were higher than expected, we found no significant difference between the study groups (intervention: 30.3%; control: 27.8%). Similar results were obtained in patients whose smoking status was validated by urinary cotinine assay. Length of stay and dependence to nicotine were the only significant predictors of smoking cessation. A smoking cessation intervention of moderate intensity delivered in a tertiary cardio-pulmonary center did not increase the smoking cessation rate at 1-year follow-up. The results of this trial should not divert those who deliver care to inpatients from delivering a brief smoking cessation intervention.

Healthy habits: efficacy of simple advice on weight control based on a habit-formation model.

P Lally, A Chipperfield, J Wardle

International journal of obesity (2005) [32:700-7] (2008)

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To evaluate the efficacy of a simple weight loss intervention, based on principles of habit formation. An exploratory trial in which overweight and obese adults were randomized either to a habit-based intervention condition (with two subgroups given weekly vs monthly weighing; n=33, n=36) or to a waiting-list control condition (n=35) over 8 weeks. Intervention participants were followed up for 8 months. A total of 104 adults (35 men, 69 women) with an average BMI of 30.9 kg m(-2). Intervention participants were given a leaflet containing advice on habit formation and simple recommendations for eating and activity behaviours promoting negative energy balance, together with a self-monitoring checklist. Weight change over 8 weeks in the intervention condition compared with the control condition and weight loss maintenance over 32 weeks in the intervention condition. At 8 weeks, people in the intervention condition had lost significantly more weight (mean=2.0 kg) than those in the control condition (0.4 kg), with no difference between weekly and monthly weighing subgroups. At 32 weeks, those who remained in the study had lost an average of 3.8 kg, with 54% losing 5% or more of their body weight. An intention-to-treat analysis (based on last-observation-carried-forward) reduced this to 2.6 kg, with 26% achieving a 5% weight loss. This easily disseminable, low-cost, simple intervention produced clinically significant weight loss. In limited resource settings it has potential as a tool for obesity management.

Personalized mailed feedback for college drinking prevention: a randomized clinical trial.

Mary Larimer, Christine Lee, Jason Kilmer, Patricia Fabiano, Christopher Stark, Irene Geisner, Kimberly Mallett, Ty Lostutter, Jessica Cronce, Maggie Feeney, Clayton Neighbors

Journal of consulting and clinical psychology [75:285-93] (2007)

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The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a mailed feedback and tips intervention as a universal prevention strategy for college drinking. Participants (N = 1,488) were randomly assigned to feedback or assessment-only control conditions. Results indicated that the mailed feedback intervention had a preventive effect on drinking rates overall, with participants in the feedback condition consuming less alcohol at follow-up in comparison with controls. In addition, abstainers in the feedback condition were twice as likely to remain abstinent from alcohol at follow-up in comparison with control participants (odds ratio = 2.02), and feedback participants were significantly more likely to refrain from heavy episodic drinking (odds ratio = 1.43). Neither gender nor severity of baseline drinking moderated the efficacy of the intervention in these analyses, but more conservative analyses utilizing last-observation carryforward suggested women and abstainers benefited more from this prevention approach. Protective behaviors mediated intervention efficacy, with participants who received the intervention being more likely to use strategies such as setting limits and alternating alcohol with nonalcoholic beverages. Implications of these findings for universal prevention of college drinking are discussed.

Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

Louise Larkin, Stephen Gallagher, Fiona Cramp, Charles Brand, Alexander Fraser, Norelee Kennedy

Rheumatology international [35:1631-40] (2015)

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Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

Community-based intervention to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis (CIPPA-RA): a study protocol for a pilot randomised control trial.

Louise Larkin, Stephen Gallagher, Alexander Fraser, Norelee Kennedy

Rheumatology international [37:2095-2103] (2017)

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory condition which may cause pain, stiffness and fatigue. People who have RA have reduced levels of physical activity due to these symptoms. Interventions targeting physical activity behaviour in this population have had limited efficacy. This paper describes a protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a theory-based intervention delivered in a community setting designed to promote physical activity in people who have RA. The aim of the pilot study is to assess the impact of the intervention on moderate-intensity physical activity in people with RA. The objectives are to obtain reliable estimates regarding recruitment rates; participant retention, protocol adherence and generate potential effect size estimates to inform sample size calculations for a main trial on physical activity participation. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with a selected sample of participants to explore their experiences. Participants will be recruited from direct referrals from the rheumatology clinics in a public hospital. Participants meeting inclusion criteria will be randomised into a 6 week physical activity intervention (four sessions delivered over a 6-week period by a trained physiotherapist) or a control group (physical activity information leaflet). Results of the pilot study will provide data to determine if a larger RCT is feasible. Qualitative data will inform intervention design and delivery. The findings will be disseminated to health professionals, in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.

Nutrition self-efficacy is unidirectionally related to outcome expectations in children.

Andrew Larsen, John McArdle, Trina Robertson, Genevieve Dunton

Appetite [84:166-70] (2015)

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To clarify the underlying relationship between nutrition self-efficacy and outcome expectations because the direction of the relationship (unidirectional vs bidirectional) is debated in the literature. Secondary data analysis of a 10-week, 10-lesson school-based nutrition education intervention among 3rd grade students (N  =  952). Nutrition self-efficacy (7 items) and nutrition outcome expectations (9 items) were measured through student self-report at intervention pre- (time 1) and post- (time 2) assessments. A series of two time point, multi-group cross-lagged bivariate change score models were used to determine the direction of the relationship. A cross lag from nutrition self-efficacy at time 1 predicting changes in nutrition outcome expectations at time 2 significantly improved the fit of the model (Model 3), whereas a cross lag from nutrition outcome expectations at time 1 to changes in nutrition self-efficacy at time 2 only slightly improved the fit of the model (Model 2). Furthermore, adding both cross lags (Model 4) did not improve model fit compared to the model with only the self-efficacy cross lag (Model 3). Lastly, the nutrition outcome expectations cross lag did not significantly predict changes in nutrition self-efficacy in any of the models. Data suggest that there is a unidirectional relationship between nutrition self-efficacy and outcome expectations, in which self-efficacy predicts outcome expectations. Therefore, theory-based nutrition interventions may consider focusing more resources on changing self-efficacy because it may also lead to changes in outcome expectations as well.

The effects of care bundles on patient outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Jacqueline Lavallée, Trish Gray, Jo Dumville, Wanda Russell, Nicky Cullum

Implementation science : IS [12:142] (2017)

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Care bundles are a set of three to five evidence-informed practices performed collectively and reliably to improve the quality of care. Care bundles are used widely across healthcare settings with the aim of preventing and managing different health conditions. This is the first systematic review designed to determine the effects of care bundles on patient outcomes and the behaviour of healthcare workers in relation to fidelity with care bundles. This systematic review is reported in line with the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 5796 abstracts were retrieved through a systematic search for articles published between January 1, 2001, to February 4, 2017, in the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, PsychInfo, British Library, Conference Proceeding Citation Index, OpenGrey trials (including cluster-randomised trials) and non-randomised studies (comprising controlled before-after studies, interrupted time series, cohort studies) of care bundles for any health condition and any healthcare settings were considered. Following the removal of duplicated studies, two reviewers independently screen 3134 records. Three authors performed data extraction independently. We compared the care bundles with usual care to evaluate the effects of care bundles on the risk of negative patient outcomes. Random-effect models were used to further explore the effects of subgroups. In total, 37 studies (6 randomised trials, 31 controlled before-after studies) were eligible for inclusion. The effect of care bundles on patient outcomes is uncertain. For randomised trial data, the pooled relative risk of negative effects between care bundle and control groups was 0.97 [95% CI 0.71 to 1.34; 2049 participants]. The relative risk of negative patient outcomes from controlled before-after studies favoured the care bundle treated groups (0.66 [95% CI 0.59 to 0.75; 119,178 participants]). However, using GRADE, we assessed the certainty of all of the evidence to be very low (downgraded for risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness). Very low quality evidence from controlled before-after studies suggests that care bundles may reduce the risk of negative outcomes when compared with usual care. By contrast, the better quality evidence from six randomised trials is more uncertain. PROSPERO, CRD42016033175.

Increasing intention to cook from basic ingredients: A randomised controlled study.

Fiona Lavelle, Lynsey Hollywood, Martin Caraher, Laura McGowan, Michelle Spence, Dawn Surgenor, Amanda McCloat, Elaine Mooney, Monique Raats, Moira Dean

Appetite [116:502-510] (2017)

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The promotion of home cooking is a strategy used to improve diet quality and health. However, modern home cooking typically includes the use of processed food which can lead to negative outcomes including weight gain. In addition, interventions to improve cooking skills do not always explain how theory informed their design and implementation. The Behaviour Change Technique (BCT) taxonomy successfully employed in other areas has identified essential elements for interventions. This study investigated the effectiveness of different instructional modes for learning to cook a meal, designed using an accumulating number of BCTs, on participant's perceived difficulty, enjoyment, confidence and intention to cook from basic ingredients. 141 mothers aged between 20 and 39 years from the island of Ireland were randomised to one of four conditions based on BCTs (1) recipe card only [control condition]; (2) recipe card plus video modelling; (3) recipe card plus video prompting; (4) recipe card plus video elements. Participants rated their enjoyment, perceived difficulty, confidence and intention to cook again pre, mid and post experiment. Repeated one-way factorial ANOVAs, correlations and a hierarchical regression model were conducted. Despite no significant differences between the different conditions, there was a significant increase in enjoyment (P < 0.001), confidence (P < 0.001) and intention to cook from basics again (P < 0.001) and a decrease in perceived difficulty (P = 0.001) after the experiment in all conditions. Intention to cook from basics pre-experiment, and confidence and enjoyment (both pre and post experiment) significantly contributed to the final regression model explaining 42% of the variance in intention to cook from basics again. Cooking interventions should focus on practical cooking and increasing participants' enjoyment and confidence during cooking to increase intention to cook from basic ingredients at home.

Evaluating a community-based walking intervention for hypertensive older people in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

LL Lee, A Arthur, M Avis

Preventive medicine [44:160-6] (2007)

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To study the effect of a community-based walking intervention on blood pressure among older people. The study design was a randomized controlled trial conducted in a rural area of Taiwan between October 2002 and June 2003. A total of 202 participants aged 60 years and over with mild to moderate hypertension was recruited. Participants randomized to the intervention group (n=102) received a six-month community-based walking intervention based on self-efficacy theory. A public health nurse provided both face-to-face and telephone support designed to assist participants to increase their walking. Control group participants (n=100) received usual primary health care. Primary outcome was change in systolic blood pressure and secondary outcomes were exercise self-efficacy, self-reported walking and diastolic blood pressure. At six-month follow-up the mean change in systolic blood pressure was a decrease of 15.4 mmHg and 8.4 mmHg in the intervention and control group, respectively. The difference in mean change between the two groups was -7.0 mmHg (95% CI, -11.5 to -2.5 mmHg, p=0.002). Improvement in exercise self-efficacy scores was greater among intervention group participants (mean difference 1.23, 95% CI, 0.5 to 2.0, p=0.001). Intervention group participants were more likely to report walking more (p<0.0005) but no differences were observed in diastolic blood pressure (p=0.19). Among hypertensive older people, a six-month community-based walking intervention was effective in increasing their exercise self-efficacy and reducing systolic blood pressure.

Motivating blood donors to recruit new donors: experimental evaluation of an evidence-based behavior change intervention.

Karin PH Lemmens, Robert AC Ruiter, Charles Abraham, Ingrid Veldhuizen, Herman Schaalma

Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association [29:601-9] (2010)

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A sustainable, evidence-based intervention to motivate current blood donors to recruit new donors was evaluated using a quasi-experimental, in-service trial at three donation centers. Participating blood donors in three conditions (N = 734), received (1) an evidence-based leaflet designed to enhance recruitment motivation and five postcards facilitating recruitment and donor registration, (2) five postcards alone, or (3) no materials. Self-reported donor recruitment by donors was measured at 1-week and 6-week follow-up. At 1-week and at 6-week follow-up, donors in both intervention conditions reported talking to more people about donation and asking more people to donate than control participants. Intervention participants also reported persuading more people to register as a donor than control participants. Results indicated that postcards plus leaflet was somewhat more effective than the postcards alone. Donors' intentions to recruit at 1-week follow-up mediated the behavioral effects at 6-week follow-up. Motivating and facilitating recruitment of new blood donors through existing donors has the potential to continually replenish the donor population.

TTM-based motivational counselling does not increase physical activity of low back pain patients in a primary care setting--A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

Corinna Leonhardt, Stefan Keller, Jean-François Chenot, Judith Luckmann, Heinz-Dieter Basler, Karl Wegscheider, Erika Baum, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff, Michael Pfingsten, Jan Hildebrandt, Michael Kochen, Annette Becker

Patient education and counseling [70:50-60] (2008)

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To investigate the effectiveness of a TTM-based motivational counselling approach by trained practice nurses to promote physical activity of low back pain patients in a German primary care setting. Data were collected in a cluster-randomized controlled trial with three study arms via questionnaires and patient interviews at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. We analysed total physical activity and self-efficacy by using random effect models to allow for clustering. A total of 1378 low back pain patients, many with acute symptoms, were included in the study. Nearly 40% of all patients reported sufficient physical activity at baseline. While there were significant improvements in patients' physical activity behaviour in all study arms, there was no evidence for an intervention effect. The outcome may be explained by insufficient performance of the practice nurses, implementation barriers caused by the German health care system and the heterogenous sample. Given the objective to incorporate practice nurses into patient education, there is a need for a better basic training of the nurses and for a change towards an organizational structure that facilitates patient-nurse communication. Counselling for low back pain patients has to consider more specificated aims for different subgroups.

An oral care self-management support protocol (OrCaSS) to reduce oral mucositis in hospitalized patients with acute myeloid leukemia and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a randomized controlled pilot study.

Lynn Leppla, Sabina De Geest, Katharina Fierz, Barbara Deschler-Baier, Antje Koller

Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer [24:773-82] (2016)

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Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and debilitating side effect of chemoradiotherapy in patients awaiting allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). The aim of this pilot RCT was to compare an oral care self-management support protocol (OrCaSS) to usual pre-aHSCT care. Feasibility was tested, effect sizes calculated for OM (primary outcome), and patient adherence was measured (secondary outcome). Eighteen AML patients awaiting aHSCT and hospitalized between August 2012 and April 2013 were randomized 1:1 to usual care (UCG) and intervention (IG) groups. The OrCaSS protocol consisted of two sessions of educational and behavioral interventions, the first delivered 1 week pre-admission (T1), the second on admission day (T2). Via field notes, practicability and acceptability were evaluated to explore the feasibility of intervention and study procedures. OM data were collected at T1, T2, and daily for 28 days using the WHO scale. The effect size r was calculated (r less than -0.1 ≙ small and greater than or equal to -0.3 ≙ medium). Patients' adherence to the protocol was assessed at T1, T2, and 8-10 days post-HSCT (T3). Research and intervention procedures were feasible. OM incidence was 100 %. The IG's median highest OM grade was 2.0 (IQR = 2); the UCGs was 3.0 (IQR = 2; r = -0.1). Median OM durations were 12 days in the IG and 14 days in the UCG (r = -0.1). OM onset was 2 days later in the IG than in the UCG (r = -0.1). Over the course of the study, patient adherence decreased in both groups. OrCaSS is a promising intervention to delay and reduce OM. These results can serve to plan a larger RCT.

Effects of a self-determination theory-based mail-mediated intervention on adults' exercise behavior.

Susan Levy, Bradley Cardinal

American journal of health promotion : AJHP [18:345-9] ()

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To examine the effect of a mail-mediated intervention, based on self-determination theory, on adults'exercise behavior. The study was a randomized control trial conducted over a 2-month period. Of the initial 185 volunteer participants, 126 (68.1%) completed questionnaires at baseline, 1 month, and 2 months. Participants in intervention-only and intervention-plus-booster groups received a mail-delivered packet containing strategies designed to promote perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness regarding exercise. Those in a control group received an American Heart Association physical-activity facts packet. After 1 month, those in the intervention-plus-booster group received a booster postcard, reiterating the main points of the initial intervention packet. Exercise behavior was the primary outcome variable. Perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness were evaluated as mediating variables. Separate 3 (group) x 3 (time) repeated measures analyses of variance conducted for men and women revealed that for women, all three groups significantly increased exercise levels over the 2-month period. No significant interactions were found regarding the influence of the intervention on the mediating variables. A process evaluation indicated a lack of compliance regarding completing intervention-packet worksheets. Findings suggested that more intensive interventions and greater fidelity of treatment may be needed to evidence change in exercise behavior.

Optimizing personalized normative feedback: the use of gender-specific referents.

Melissa Lewis, Clayton Neighbors

Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs [68:228-37] (2007)

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Many brief interventions include personalized normative feedback (PNF) using gender-specific or gender-neutral referents. Several theories suggest that information pertaining to more socially proximal referents should have greater influence on one's behavior compared with more socially distal referents. The current research evaluated whether gender specificity of the normative referent employed in PNF related to intervention efficacy. Following baseline assessment, 185 college students (45.2% women) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: gender-specific feedback, gender-neutral feedback, or assessment-only control. Immediately after completing measures of perceived norms, alcohol consumption, and gender identity, participants in the gender-neutral and gender-specific intervention conditions were provided with computerized information detailing their own drinking behavior, their perceptions of student drinking, and actual student drinking. After a 1-month follow-up, the results indicated that normative feedback was effective in changing perceived norms and reducing alcohol consumption for both intervention groups for women and men. The results provide support, however, for changes in perceived gender-specific norms as a mediator of the effects of normative feedback on reduced drinking behavior for women only. Additionally, gender-specific feedback was found to be more effective for women higher in gender identity, relative to the gender-neutral feedback. A post-assessment follow-up telephone survey administered to assess potential demand characteristics corroborated the intervention effects. Results extend previous research documenting efficacy of computer delivered PNF. Gender specificity and gender identity appear to be important elements to consider for PNF intervention efficacy for women.

21st birthday celebratory drinking: evaluation of a personalized normative feedback card intervention.

Melissa Lewis, Clayton Neighbors, Christine Lee, Laura Oster-Aaland

Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors [22:176-85] (2008)

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This research was designed to evaluate a personalized normative feedback birthday card intervention aimed at reducing normative perceptions, alcohol consumption, and negative consequences associated with 21st birthday celebrations among college students (N=281; 59.15% women). Students were randomly assigned to receive or not receive a birthday card about 1 week prior to their 21st birthday. Approximately 1 week following their birthday, students were asked to complete a brief survey concerning their birthday celebration activities. Findings indicated that the birthday card intervention was not successful at reducing drinking or consequences; however, the card did reduce normative misperceptions. Additional findings indicated that many students experienced negative consequences, such as passing out or driving after consuming alcohol. Combined, these findings suggest that prevention is needed for drinking associated with turning 21. However, prevention efforts should consist of more than a birthday card.

Testing Activity Monitors' Effect on Health: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Among Older Primary Care Patients.

Zakkoyya Lewis, Kenneth Ottenbacher, Steve Fisher, Kristofer Jennings, Arleen Brown, Maria Swartz, Elizabeth Lyons

JMIR research protocols [5:e59] (2016)

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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Maintaining healthy levels of physical activity is critical to cardiovascular health, but many older adults are inactive. There is a growing body of evidence linking low motivation and inactivity. Standard behavioral counseling techniques used within the primary care setting strive to increase motivation, but often do not emphasize the key component of self-control. The addition of electronic activity monitors (EAMs) to counseling protocols may provide more effective behavior change and increase overall motivation for exercise through interactive self-monitoring, feedback, and social support from other users. The objective of the study is to conduct a three month intervention trial that will test the feasibility of adding an EAM system to brief counseling within a primary care setting. Participants (n=40) will be randomized to receive evidence-based brief counseling plus either an EAM or a pedometer. Throughout the intervention, we will test its feasibility and acceptability, the change in primary outcomes (cardiovascular risk and physical activity), and the change in secondary outcomes (adherence, weight and body composition, health status, motivation, physical function, psychological feelings, and self-regulation). Upon completion of the intervention, we will also conduct focus groups with the participants and with primary care stakeholders. The study started recruitment in October 2015 and is scheduled to be completed by October 2016. This project will lay the groundwork and establish the infrastructure for intervention refinement and ultimately translation within the primary care setting in order to prevent cardiovascular disease on a population level. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02554435; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02554435 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation/6fUlW5tdT).

A brief intervention increases fruit and vegetable intake. A comparison of two intervention sequences.

Pempa Lhakhang, Cristina Godinho, Nina Knoll, Ralf Schwarzer

Appetite [82:103-10] (2014)

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To evaluate the effectiveness of two subsequent intervention components (motivational and self-regulatory components), placed in different order, to promote fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. After baseline assessment, university students (N=205, aged 18-26 years) were allocated to two groups. One group received a motivational intervention (outcome expectancies, risk perception, and task self-efficacy) followed by a self-regulatory intervention (planning and dietary self-efficacy) after 17 days. The second group received the same intervention conditions in the opposite order. Follow-up assessments were done after another 17 days. Both intervention sequences yielded gains in terms of FV intake and self-efficacy. However, this gain was only due to the self-regulatory component whereas the motivational component did not contribute to the changes. Moreover, changes in intention and self-efficacy mediated between intervention sequence and follow-up behavior, suggesting that improving these proximal predictors of FV intake was responsible